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Mouth of McKay Creek to the mouth of Meacham Creek (RM 50.5-79) and mid-basin streams



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Mouth of McKay Creek to the mouth of Meacham Creek (RM 50.5-79) and mid-basin streams

Life History Stage

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

Jun.

Jul.

Aug.

Sep.

Adult Migration

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x













Prespawning Holding











x


x

x

x













Spawning
















x

x

x













Incubation
















x

x

x

x










Rearing

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x


Juvenile Migration

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x











Mouth of Meacham Creek to the forks (RM 79-89 and headwater streams)

Life History Stage

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

Jun.

Jul.

Aug.

Sep.

Adult Migration

x

x

x

x

x

x

x


x













Prespawning Holding













x

x

x

x













Spawning
















x

x

x













Incubation
















x

x

x

x









Rearing


x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

Juvenile Migration

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x









Table 16. Umatilla River summer steelhead broodstock mortality




Run

Marked

Unmarked

Total

Year

Males

Females

Total

Males


Females

Total

Males

Females

Total

82-83

83-84


84-85

85-86


86-87

87-88


88-89

89-90


90-91

91-92


92-93

93-94


94-95

95-96


96-97

97-98


98-99

0

0

0



0

0

0



0

0

4



1

0

7



10

3

10



2

6


0

0

0



0

0

0



0

0

2



3

0

2



7

4

0



2

0


0

0

0



0

0

0



0

0

6



4

0

9



17

7

10



4

6


unknown

1

1



9

unknown


18

15

11



13

11

8


10

12

8


4

10

14



unknown

3

9



8

unknown


34

15

25



2

6

3



4

17

9



4

3

9



83

4

10



17

35

52



30

36

15



17

11

14



29

17

8



13

23


unknown

1

1



9

unknown


18

15

11



17

12

8



17

22

11



14

12

20



unknown

3

9



8

unknown


34

15

25



4

9

3



6

24

13



4

5

9



83

4

10



17

35

52



30

36

21



21

11

23



46

24

18



17

29

Table 17. Mean length, weight, and condition factor at release for summer steelhead reared in first, second, and third pass Michigan raceways at Umatilla Hatchery, 1991-1997 broods (standard error in parentheses).
Brood Length Weight Condition
Year Pass (mm) (g) factor

1991 A 194.3(1.4) 91.0(3.2) 1.13(0.01)


B 200.0(1.1) 90.2(2.4) 1.09(0.01)
C 186.9(1.0) 76.7(2.1) 1.12(0.01)

1992 A 199.6(1.1) 74.8(2.1) 0.93(0.01)

B 198.2(1.2) 80.9(2.7) 1.01(0.01)

C 220.1(1.0) 102.4(2.5 0.93(0.01)

1993 A 205.9(1.2) 86.7(2.5) 0.97(0.01)


B 198.3(1.2) 88.7(2.4) 1.05(0.01)
C 214.2(1.1) 93.3(2.3) 0.94(0.01)

1994 A 206.3(1.1) 82.6(2.2) 0.90(0.01)


B 209.7(1.0) 96.2(2.7) 1.00(0.01)
C 205.9(0.8) 81.4(1.8) 0.90(0.01)

1995 A 207.9(1.1) 87.3(2.4) 0.99(0.01)


B 206.8(1.3) 89.9(2.9) 0.98(0.01)
Ca

1996 A 208.3(1.0) 93.3(2.3) 1.00(0.01)


B 208.1(0.9) 99.5(1.5) 1.08(0.00)
C 203.5(1.1) 84.8(1.7) 0.95(0.00)

1997 A 187.0(1.7) 71.9(2.9) 1.04(0.01)


B 209.3(1.7) 95.5(3.1) 1.01(0.01)
C 202.3(1.3) 77.0(1.7) 0.94(0.00)

1998 A 194.7(1.1) 76.4(2.6) 0.98(0.01)


B 207.3(1.1) 91.9(2.9) 1.04(0.01)
C 207.7(1.1) 83.1(2.5) 0.96(0.01)

a The 1995 brood steelhead from pond M8C escaped from the acclimation pond prior to sampling

Table 18. Total catch, escapement and survival of steelhead that were coded-wire-tagged and released in the Umatilla River, 1991-95 broods. Recoveries are complete for 1991-94 broods years. Estimates of number of adults recovered are based on total production in each raceway.


Umatilla Total

Total Return survival number

exploitation rate (% of rate (% of of adults
Brood year Raceway Na rate (%) release) release) recovered
1991

M5A 3 0.0 0.01 0.01 7


M5B 6 67.0 0.00 0.02 9
M5C 63 31.5 0.16 0.20 135
Total/Average 72 33.3 0.05 0.08 151

1992
M5A 28 0.0 0.08 0.08 50


M5B 171 6.0 0.60 0.59 281
M5C 185 15.6 0.52 0.63 282
Total/Average 384 7.2 0.40 0.43 613

1993
M5A 6 6.7 0.02 0.04 18


M5B 98 30.4 0.31 0.50 246
M5C 129 16.9 0.43 0.64 329
Total/Average 233 19.1 0.26 0.39 593

1994
M5A 49 0.0 0.26 0.25 120


M5B 255 20.6 0.53 1.36 680
M5C 217 13.4 1.04 1.12 544
Total/Average 520 12.6 0.61 0.91 1,344
1995
M5A 5 0.0 0.03 0.03 15
M5B 70 4.9 0.39 0.35 166
M5C 34 14.6 0.16 0.18 79
Total/Average 108 6.5 0.14 0.19 270


a Expanded CWT recovery

Table 19. Release data for summer steelhead reared at Umatilla Hatchery and released in the Umatilla River (RM= river mile; acclimation facilities: BS - Bonifer Springs acclimation facility; MC - Meacham Creek; MI - Minthorn Springs acclimation facility, RM=63.8; TH - Thornhollow acclimation facility, RM=73.5)

Number

Brood with brand/ Fish
year, Release Race- Number Number paint mark/ per Release
CWT code date way releaseda CWT PIT-tags pound location

1991
075840 050192 M5A 22,288 10,105 5.5 MC

075838 050192 M5A 22,469 10,562 5.5 MC


075839 050192 M5A 22,662 10,275 5.5 MC
075841 043092 M5B 22,262 10,108 5.0 MC
075842 043092 M5B 21,365 9,498 5.0 MC
075843 043092 M5B 20,923 9,747 5.0 MC
074127 032992 M5C 22,059 10,203 5.8 BS & MI
073862 032992 M5C 22,902 10,594 5.8 BS & MI
073759 032992 M5C 22,474 10,394 5.8 BS & MI
199,404 91,486 5.4
1992
076052 051393 M5A 65,465 13,117 9,055 6.1 BS
076053 051393 M5A 11,410 6.1 BS
076054 051393 M5A 9,907 6.1 BS
076055 041693 M5B 47,979 10,031 9,641 5.6 MI
076056 041693 M5B 9,418 5.6 MI
076057 041693 M5B 9,643 5.6 MI
076058 041893 M5C 44,824 10,194 8,863 4.5 BS
076059 041893 M5C 9,792 4.5 BS
076060 041893 M5C 9,440 4.5 BS

158,268 92,952 27,559 5.5

1993
070139 051294 M5A 26,411 8,595 7,700 5.2 BS
070140 051294 M5A 25,686 8,400 5.2 BS
070141 041494 M5B 24,692 9,952 7,827 5.1 MI
070142 041494 M5B 24,906 9,965 5.1 MI
070143 041194 M5C 26,481 10,470 7,718 4.9 BS
070144 041194 M5C 24,922 9,651 4.9 BS
153,098 57,033 23,346 5.1


1994
070655 051295 M8A 47,941 19,782 8,908 5.5 BS
070656 041395 M8B 49,983 18,812 8,134 4.7 MI
070657 041195 M8C 48,539 19,290 7,771 5.6 BS
146,463 57,884 24,813 5.3
1995
071034 050996 M8A 49,783 20,633 8,896 5.1 TH
071035 041296 M8B 47,543 19,742 8,615 5.1 MI
071036 042496 M8C 49,377 21,205 8,827 5.3 BS
146,703 61,580 26,338 5.1

Table 19 (Continued)



Number

Brood with brand/ Fish
year, Release Race- Number Number paint mark/ per Release
CWT code date way releaseda CWT PIT-tags pound location

1996
091837b 051597 M8A 48,944 20,065 8,655 4.9 BS
091836 041197 M8B 46,788 19,103 4.6 MI

091835c 041097 M8C 41,555 19,531 5.4 BS

137,287 58,699 8,655 4.9

1997
d
092339 050498 M8A 47,313 19,468 242 5.5 BS
092340 041798 M8B 49,084 20,646 244 4.7 MI
092341 041698 M8C 41,088 20,800 250 5.9 BS
137,485 60,914 736 5.4

1998d
092527 050499 M8A 35,564 19,088 288 5.9 BS
092526 041499 M8B 41,843 20,787 211 4.9 MI
092525 041399 M8C 44,226 20,450 198 5.5 BS
121,633 60,325 697 5.4
aAll fish were adipose clipped and all CWT fish were also left ventral fin clipped

bFish were paint marked with orange (1,511), mustard yellow (5,003), and red (2,141) on the anal fin.

cApproximatlely 5,000 fish were released on 051597.

dFish marked with PIT tags.

Table 20. Location of adult coded-wire tag recoveries from juveniles reared at Umatilla Hatchery and released in the Umatilla River, 1993-99.







Recovery year

Recovery location

1993

1994


1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

Total

Umatilla River

11

160

209

310

249

178

43

1,160

Columbia River fisheries

6

28

70

42

43

18

0

207

Strays

0

10

29

6

3

0

0

48

Total

17

198

308


358

295

196

43

1,415


Figure 1. Map of Umatilla River Basin and related features


Figure 2. Map of Umatilla River Basin and natural steelhead spawning areas.



Figure 3. Life history schematic for steelhead in the Umatilla River. Ovals represent risk to redds from high sediment and/or scour. Shaded rectangles represent risk due to high water temperatures and low flows.

APPENDIX C: Umatilla Summer Steelhead Program Uncertainties

Uncertainty #1. The comparison of Oregon and Michigan rearing methods was identified as a high priority for study in the Hatchery Master Plan. Effects of rearing steelhead in Michigan raceways on survival, behavior, and life history are unknown. Water shortages have prevented the proposed side-by-side evaluation of Oregon versus Michigan rearing methods. However, reorganization of future production at the Irrigon-Umatilla Hatchery complex may allow this study to be conducted in the near future. A proposal to initiate this evaluation as soon as water supplies allow is being reviewed by managers. Funding is requested from BPA on an annual basis. Staff and logistical support are presently available to conduct this evaluation.

Uncertainty #2. Smolt-to-adult survival from the first four broods of Umatilla steelhead indicate survival of the late-released group from Bonifer was only 16% of the survival achieved by the early released groups. It is unclear if the costs of this program return a net benefit. Hatchery steelhead smolts that residualize and become resident fish are much larger than wild juvenile steelhead of the same age, and compete with wild juvenile redband trout and steelhead, other resident and anadromous salmonids, and non-game fish for limited summer rearing habitat. Managers are implementing an earlier release time at Minthorn next spring (FY 2000) for the late release group to improve survival and reduce residualism. Preliminary information gathering will be initiated with PIT-tag studies. Funding is requested from BPA on an annual basis. Staff and logistical support are presently available to conduct this evaluation.

Uncertainty #3. Natures rearing techniques are currently being explored at several hatcheries in the Pacific Northwest. If the results of current studies show significant increases in smolt to adult survival rates, “natures” rearing may be examined in detail in the Umatilla program.

Uncertainty #4. It is assumed that hatchery reared endemic steelhead released upstream to spawn naturally provide a substantial contribution to natural production. This assumption has never been tested. Proposals to examine this question in detail have not been developed sufficiently to obtain support by managers or funding by BPA.

Uncertainty #5. It is assumed that the hatchery supplementation program will not adversely change the natural progression of genetic variation and maintenance of genetic characteristics of the Umatilla Basin steelhead population. This assumption has never been examined. Proposals to examine this question in detail have not been developed sufficiently to obtain support by managers or funding by BPA.

Uncertainty #6. It remains uncertain if the negative impacts of human development in the Columbia River Basin will be addressed by society to the extent that natural salmonids will persist. Currently, political and corporate influences often prevent public agencies from properly addressing clear and blatant factors jeopardizing Columbia Basin salmonid




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