Youngstown City Schools 2012 Enhanced Ohio’s Learning Standards: k – 12 Social Studies Grade Four h-8 geo-6 gov-7 eco-3 Red = New Voc. Since 2002 Yellow = Original 2002 Voc. Blue = Verb Level



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Youngstown City Schools 2012 Enhanced Ohio’s Learning Standards: K – 12 Social Studies
Grade Four H-8 GEO-6 GOV-7 ECO-3 Red = New Voc. Since 2002 Yellow = Original 2002 Voc. Blue = Verb Level


Theme: Ohio in the United States

The fourth-grade year focuses on the early development of Ohio and the United States. Students learn about the history, geography, government and economy of their state and nation. Foundations of U.S. history are laid as students study prehistoric Ohio cultures, early American life, the U.S. Constitution, and the development and growth of Ohio and the United States. Students begin to understand how ideas and events from the past have shaped Ohio and the United States today.


The YCSD has added clarifications to the ODE Model Curriculum and a new Pacing Guide to support teachers and students.


Color Coding:

  • Red: These are new terms or phrases that were not specifically stated in the ODE 2002 course of study. This will help to raise awareness of new content and concepts that have been added to the ODE Model Curriculum. However, you may have personally taught these terms in your units, but now they are required.
  • Yellow: These are terms and phrases that were stated in the ODE 2002 course of study. Note: the terms and phrases may have been in the ODE 2002 version, however, now they are to be taught with a new or modified focus.


  • Blue: This will indicate the level of Bloom’s performance expected by students. This awareness will support your decisions for planning classroom instruction required by the level of expectations for the summative assessments.

    • Frequently, you will find key words or phrases in the Expectations for Learning that have been bolded and underlined. For each of these, there will be a clarification of what processing skill(s) are needed by students to complete their assessment responses.

Format:

  • When you read the statement: [format] pc – this will indicate that words or phrases were bulleted or numbered to raise awareness of how many terms/concepts are involved in the statement.


Enduring Understandings:

  • At this point ODE has not included Enduring Understandings based on the work of Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe. You will find that YCSD has added samples, but they are not limited to the ones listed. These will always be placed within a set of [ ] pc to designate that they are YCSD suggestions and not ODE requirements.


Essential Questions:

  • ODE has added some Wiggins and McTighe Essential and/or Topical Questions to various Content Statements. These are labeled with ODE at the end of each one. The YCSD has placed additional sample Essential Questions that would support the YCSD’s Enduring Understanding, and they are placed with a set of [ ] pc for each one.



Additional Clarifications

  • Some definitions, notes and summary information has been provided by the YCSD and are placed within a set of [ ] pc.


Theme


Ohio in the United States [ relationships = a significant connection in thought or meaning] pc

Strand

History

Topic

Historical Thinking and Skills

Historical thinking begins with a clear sense of time – past, present and future – and becomes more precise as students progress. Historical thinking includes skills such as locating, researching, analyzing and interpreting primary and secondary sources so that students can begin to understand the relationships among events and draw conclusions.



Content Statement

1. The order of significant events in Ohio and the United States can be shown on a timeline.

Content Elaborations

Chronological thinking helps students develop a clear sense of historical time in order to recognize the temporal sequence of events in history. Students were first introduced to timelines in grade two. Grade-three students practiced chronological order by placing local events on a timeline. By grade four, students are able to construct timelines with 1 appropriate titles, 2 evenly spaced intervals for years, decades and centuries, and events in 3 chronological order. [format] pc

As students place events on timelines, they begin to understand cause-and-effect relationships among events and gain early experience with the conventions of BC/BCE and AD/CE. (Note: Students begin using these conventions in grade six).

In grade five, students will examine relationships between events on multiple-tier timelines.

[a significant connection or similarity between two or more things] pc


Expectations for Learning

Construct a timeline of significant events in Ohio and the United States to demonstrate an understanding of units of time and chronological order.
Note: Eligible for a Performance Based Assessment

in March.
Note: Timelines can be both horizontal and vertical. 12-29-13


Instructional Strategies

Teacher posts a timeline that can remain in the classroom all year long. As people and events are studied, students add information, such as images, primary sources, annotations and other resources to the timeline.

Students can practice by constructing timelines ordering significant events in Ohio and United States history. The timelines could be based on themes like transportation, industrialization, etc.

Diverse Learners

Strategies for meeting the needs of all learners including gifted students, English Language Learners (ELL) and students with disabilities can be found at this site. Resources based on the Universal Design for Learning principles are available at www.cast.org.

Use partially completed timelines to practice chronological order with students.

Instructional Resources

Teaching History

http://teachinghistory.org

Access a seven-minute video entitled What is Historical Thinking?

[Create a Timeline in Excel. This simple step by step process is clearly explained for both students and teachers to use. http://www.ehow.com/video_4984384_create-simple-timeline-excel.html ] pc

[temporal: of or pertaining to time as opposed to space] pc




HIST. C.S. 1
[Cognitive Thinking for Constructing a Timeline

  • Close observation of events on a timeline

  • Sequence & counting practice

  • Listing steps] pc

[Technique:



  • Use color circles to indicate dates – moveable pieces to determine evenly spaced intervals

  • Math Investigation term for intervals = landmarks or skip counting ] pc



Connections

Connect to History Content Statement 8 by creating a classroom chart or graphic organizer and posting it as a re-teaching or enrichment tool to show innovations in communications, technology and transportation. For example:






17th

18th

19th

20th

Communication













Industrialization













Transportation

horseback

flatboats

railroads


airplanes



[Enduring Understanding: A timeline is a sequential representation of events.] pc

Essential Questions: What is the purpose of a timeline? How do you create a timeline?] pc


CS 1: The order of significant events in Ohio and the United States can be shown on a timeline.

Vocabulary

  • timeline

  • chronological order

  • title

  • evenly spaced intervals

  • years – decades - centuries

  • cause/effect relationships (introduced)

I Can Statements – Learning Targets: In many cases these scaffold from the basic level to the required level in the Expectation for Learning.

  • I can define chronological order and intervals.

  • I can place a series of events in chronological order.

  • I can decide the proper intervals of time for a series of events. [years, decades or centuries]

  • I can sequence a series of events in evenly spaced intervals on a timeline.

  • I can discuss multiple benefits of timelines.

  • I can construct a timeline with a title, sequential dates and evenly spaced intervals of time.




Lessons and other Potential Resources




Theme


Ohio in the United States

Strand

History

Topic

Historical Thinking and Skills

Historical thinking begins with a clear sense of time – past, present and future – and becomes more precise as students progress. Historical thinking includes skills such as locating, researching, analyzing and interpreting primary and secondary sources so that students can begin to understand the relationships among events and draw conclusions.



Content Statement

2. Primary and secondary sources can be used to create historical narratives.

Content Elaborations

Historical narratives recount human events. Students locate, evaluate and organize a variety of sources to reconstruct an historical event.

Primary sources are records of events as they are first described, usually by witnesses or by people who were involved in the event. Many primary sources were created at the time of the event. Other primary sources may include memoirs, oral interviews or accounts that were recorded later. Visual materials (e.g., photos, official documents, original artwork, posters, films) also are important primary sources.

Secondary sources offer an analysis or a restatement of primary sources. They are written after the events have taken place by people who were not present at the events. They often attempt to describe or explain primary sources. Examples of secondary sources include encyclopedias, textbooks, books and articles that interpret or review research works.

By having students examine various primary and secondary sources related to an event or topic, they begin to understand historical perspective, a concept further developed in grade seven. Students also gain early experience identifying supporting details, distinguishing fact from opinion, and speculating about cause and effect relationships.

{Use PROP on the next page.] pc


Instructional Strategies

An engaging way to introduce students to the narrative process is to have them write their own personal history. Students research, organize and evaluate personal photos, documents and other primary and secondary sources to tell their story. Students can use various media to share their stories (e.g., graphic software, poster display, word processor, presentation tools). This same process can be applied to reconstruct historical narratives of events in Ohio and U.S. History.

Have students create a National History Day exhibit or performance, analyzing primary and secondary sources to construct a historical narrative. For more information, visit http://www.ohiohistoryday.org.

Diverse Learners

Strategies for meeting the needs of all learners including gifted students, English Language Learners (ELL) and students with disabilities can be found at this site. Resources based on the Universal Design for Learning principles are available at www.cast.org.



National History Educational Clearinghouse

http://teachinghistory.org

Search adapting primary documents for strategies with adapting and modifying challenging historical texts.

[e.g. = such as] pc


HIST. C.S. 2

Historical narratives are constructed based upon primary and secondary sources. These sources are used to provide background information and support for the accounts of historical events and the perspectives of the writer.

Expectations for Learning

Research, organize and evaluate information from primary and secondary sources to create an historical narrative.


Note: Eligible for a Performance Based Assessment

in March.
[Frontload Technique to Differentiate Primary and Secondary Sources.

Write what happened to you at Halloween. – Primary source

Switch and someone retells your story. Secondary source

Includes: Who – What – When – How – Why – Conclusion.] pc


[Natural History Museum: Prehistoric American Indians

  • Write a one paragraph narrative using primary/secondary sources with the 4 qualifiers:

clothing – shelter – weapons – food] pc
[French & Indian Wars

  • Half the students write from French/Indian perspective or from the British/colonist perspective.

  • Then students must debate the opposite perspective.] pc


Instructional Resources

The Library of Congress

http://www.loc.gov/teachers/usingprimarysources/guides.html

Search Teacher’s Guides and Analysis Tool to review the Teacher’s Guide to Analyzing Primary Resources. A related site is the American Memory Collection where you can browse sources by topic.


History Works

http://www.historyworksohio.org/HWII/index.cfm

This site features resources, including real and virtual field trips and a catalog of classroom activities.


The Ohio Historical Society

http://www.ohiohistory.org/

The Ohio Historical Society website includes various programs on primary and secondary sources at the Columbus location and through outreach. For educational outreach, visit: http://www.ohiohistory.org/portal/oht-p.html.



Charting the Future of Teaching the Past

http://sheg.stanford.edu/

Select Reading Like A Historian for a curriculum that engages students in historical inquiry. Each lesson revolves around a central historical question and features sets of primary documents modified for groups of students with diverse reading skills and abilities.


Connections

History Content Statements 3-8 provide a variety of opportunities for students to create historical narratives within the history strand content.

Connections can be made to Technology Academic Content Standards, Technology for Productivity Applications Standard, Benchmark B, regarding generating a document that includes graphics from more than one source and finding images that match assignment needs for insertion into a document.

Connect to Geography Content Statement 5 regarding the relationship between climate and latitude and Geography Content Statement 7 regarding the influence of physical environments on human activities.



HIST. C.S. 2
[Enduring Understanding: History is a record of the past based on reliable information.]

Essential Question: How do we know what really happened in the past? ODE

[What are the different points of view for a given event?] pc




CS 2: Primary and secondary sources can be used to create historical narratives.

Vocabulary

  • primary source

  • secondary source

  • historical narrative

  • memories

  • historical perspective

  • supporting details

  • fact/ opinion

  • cause and effect relationship

I Can Statements – Learning Targets: In many cases these scaffold from the basic level to the required level in the Expectation for Learning.
  • I can define a primary source and give examples.


  • I can define a secondary source and give examples.

  • I can explain the difference between a primary and secondary source.

  • I can identify supportive details from a source.

  • I can tell the difference between a fact and an opinion.

  • I can identify a cause and an effect in a given situation.

  • I can define an historical narrative.

  • I can research and evaluate information in primary and secondary sources.

  • I can organize my final information and write an historical narrative.

Note: To evaluate, students need to be able to set criteria and apply them to the situation.




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