A I bukdan the outside edge of a piece of folded paper


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ORIMA the name of a sea fish that resembles the can nimaha

ORIMBI to walk in one's sleep

ORIN twenty

ORINCI twentieth

ORINTA twenty each

ORITA see orinta

OROBUHANGGE various foods made from curdled milk

OROBUMBI caus. of orombi

OROLOKŪ substitute, one who fills in

OROLOMBI to fill in, to put a substitute in, to fill a vacancy, to fill in for, to substitute for

OROLOME SIMNEMBI to sit in for someone else at an examination

OROMBI (-ko) to form a layer on the

surface (gruel or other liquids)


OROMU cream

ORON 1. vacant post, vacancy 2. a section of the sky without stars 3. the physical or earthly soul, vitality, animation 4. a negative intensifier, (not) at all, altogether (not) 5. domesticated reindeer

ORON AKŪ 1. altogether lacking, completely without 2. without a vacancy

ORON BUHŪ a tame reindeer

ORON DE at a post, in a position

ORON EJELESI incumbent who puts his position up for sale

ORON I KUNGGERI office concerned with vacant posts--part of the Board of Civil Appointments

ORON I ŠUSI the name of an official of the Imperial Board of Astronomy

ORON SOORIN point of the compass, bearing

ORONCO I NIYALMA a reindeer herder

ORONDE see oron de

ORONGGO Przewalski's gazelle

OROS Russia, Russian, foreign

OROS BITHEI KUREN the name of an institution for the study of Russian

OROS KUREN hostel for Russian emissaries and merchants in Peking

OROS NIRU a company of the Peking banner troops made up of captured Russians

OROS TACIKŪ the Russian school in Peking

ORSON NIMEMBI to have pains in the abdomen after child delivery

OSE Japanese

OSHODOMBI to be cruel, to be brutal, to mistreat

OSHON 1. cruel, brutal, tyrannical 2. see osohon

OSO the imperative of ombi

OSO NAKŪ not yet, still hasn't

OSOHOKON rather small

OSOHON small, little

OŠO a leather glove with three fingers used for holding falcons

OŠOHO claw, talon

OŠOHOLOMBI to catch in the claws

OŠOHONGGO having claws

OŠONGGO ILHA an exotic flower whose petals resemble falcon's claws

OTALA see odoli

OTGO a drake's tail that flares front-ward

OTHO the same as otgo

OTOLO until (terminal converb of ombi)

OTON a wooden tub without handles or feet

OTORI a small scale battue in spring-time

OTORILAMBI to hunt (on a battue) in springtime

OYO 1. roof (of a house, tent, or sedan chair), top of a grave 2. crown of a hat 3. sandfly, gnat

OYO GAIMBI to perform a Manchu sacrifice that involves throwing pieces of meat onto the roof

OYO JAFARA ALIKŪ a vessel used for making offerings to deities

OYO OYO (onom.) sound used for calling small dogs

OYOBUMBI caus. of oyombi

OYOKI hasty, hurried

OYOLOMBI see oyombi

OYOMBI (1) (-ho) to bend, to curve, to arch, to roll up, to coil up, to rock

OYOME SAHAMBI 1. to build an enceinte before a city gate 2. to build a bridge arch

OYOMBI (2) (-ko/ho) 1. to go more than halfway (on a trip) 2. to be more than half finished, to be almost done 3. to be very exhausted

OYOMBUNBI to hurry, to hasten, to do more than half

OYOMBURAKŪ not urgent, unimportant

OYOMBURE BAITA WAKA it is not an urgent matter

OYON peak

OYONDE ISINAHA to have arrived at the peak (of destitution)

OYONGGO important, urgent, essential

OYONGGO BAITA urgent or important matter

OYONGGO JECEN an important border area

OYONGGON important matter, important point

OYOTONGGO MAHATUN a hat of Ch'in and Han times with an arched top

OYOYO an expression of derision

PAGE a small stone used in the gacuha game

PAI 1. playing card, card 2. inscribed tablet

PAI BIYAN an inscription tablet

PAI EFIMBI to play dominoes, to play cards, to play mah-jongg

PAI FANG ILIBUMBI to erect a pailou

PAI PAI LU see pailu

PAI SIYOO a musical instrument consisting of twelve joined pipes

PAILU a temporary arch or other structure over a street bearing slogans or holiday greetings, a pailou

PAILURI a small pailu

PAK (onom.) 1. the sound of exploding firecrackers 2. the sound made by a hard object falling to the floor

PAK PIK (onom.) the sound of many small firecrackers going off

PAK SEME dry and hard, tough (of food)

PALTA WEHE diamond

PALTARI diamond, a small piece of diamond used for drilling in porcelain

PAMPU a thick padded coat

PAN a metal disc hung in temples that is struck by the devout to attract the attention of the gods

PANCALAMBI to use as travel expenses, to give to for travel expenses

PANCAN money for a journey, travel expenses

PANDZ chessboard

PANG a sail, the same as kotoli

PANGDUWAN Kiangsu silk

PANGHAI crab, the same as katuri

PANGSE JAHŪDAI a type of war junk

PANGTANAMBI to get fat

PANLO riotously, uproariously

PANSE chessboard, measure for games of chess

PAO see poo

PARPANAMBI to become corpulent

PARSU one ten-trillionth

PASE a rake; cf. hedereku

PATA PITI (onom.) 1. the sound of fruit falling from a tree 2. reeling under a heavy load

PATAK (onom.) the sound of a hard object falling to the ground

PATAR PITIR (onom.) the sound made by struggling fish and birds

PEI (onom.) the sound of spitting

PEI PAI (onom.) the sound of repeated spitting

PEKTE PAKTA perplexed, dismayed, dumfounded

PELEHE see pelehen

PELEHEN one name for the crane

PELEMBI to cover the ceiling with a mat awning

PELERJEMBI to toss the head when the reins are pulled (horses)

PEN 1. a thatched shed; cf. elben i boo 2. a sail

PER PAR (onom.) the sound of birds or insects beating their wings

PER PIR (onom.) the sound of a grass-hopper taking off

PES (onom.) the sound of something soft being torn or broken

PES PAS (onom.) 1. the sound of something soft ripping 2. the sound of galloping

PES PIS (onom.) the sound of a horse galloping

PES SEME (onom.) with a ripping sound (of soft objects)

PETUR SEME sobbing

PI BA G'O loquat

PI SIYOO tanner


PICIK PACAK (onom.) the sound of walking in mud

PICIR PACAR SEME (onom.) in profusion (of small objects)

PICAR SEME see picir pacar seme

PIJAN 1. a leather case, a leather box 2. a leatherworker

PILA see pulu pile seme

PILEMBI to act on (a document), to criticize, to write critical comments or judgments on a document

PILEHE BITHE a document with instructions written on it

PILGICAN NIYEHE one name for the little grebe; cf. cunggur niyehe, niojan niyehe

PILU FUCIHI Vairochana Buddha

PILUTU a hat worn by lamas during services--it has pictures of Vairochana around the edge

PIMPINAMBI to have a pudgy face

PIN an imperial concubine of the fourth rank

PING DI JEO smooth crepe

PING G'O apple; cf. pinggu

PING ORHO duckweed

PING SEMBI to be bloated, to be swollen

PINGDZ see pingse

PINGGARI Marsilia quadrifolia--a plant that grows in shallow water

PINGGIYEN BOSO a type of smooth linen

PINGGO see pinggu

PINGGU apple

PINGGURI see pinggu.

PINGSE 1. scale, balance 2. vase, bottle

PINGSELEBUMBI caus. of pingselembi

PINGSELEMBI to weigh on a balance

PIO SEME floating, wafting, light (in weight)

PIPA loquat

PIPAG'O see pipe

PIPURI ILHa the flower of the loquat tree

PIYAK (onom.) the sound of slapping

PIYAN chessboard

PIYANG SEME chirping (of crickets)

PIYAS PIS SEME 1. tactless, unrefined, clumsy 2. spitting (to show contempt)

PIYAS SEME agile, nimble

PIYATA GAIMBI to hit the wrist with two fingers (a game)

PIYATANG SEME the same as piyatar same

PIYATAR SEME talking on and on, prattling

PIYOO credential, pass, ticket, certification

PIYOO BITHE the same as piyoo

PO GIN MAHALA a soft, limp hat

POCOK (onom.) the sound of things hitting the water

POCONG the same as pocok

PODAO dagger

PODZ an old lady

POJAN firecracker

POK (onom.) the sound of hitting something

POK SEME (onom.) the sound of striking something

POKCOHON short and fat, uncomely (appearance)

POKITA a bone arrowhead without holes

POKSOHON plump, fat (of a child), plump person

POKSOHORI plural of poksohon

POLORI a large basket tray

POLURI see polori

PONGCUN paunchy, short and paunchy

PONGTONOMBI to get fat and clumsy

POO cannon

POO I COOHA artillery troops

POO I KARAN artillery emplacement

POO I NIYALMA gunner, artillerist

POO I UNGGALA magazine or powder chamber

POO SINDAMBI to fire a cannon

POO ŠEO gunner

POOJAN see pojan

POPORNOMBI see porponombi

PORONG SEME crude, coarse, boorish

PORPA liberal, generous

PORPON PARPAN with the nose and eyes both running (of weeping)

PORPONOMBI to become fat and clumsy


POS SEME (onom.) 1. the sound of (an arrow) piercing an object 2. blurting out

POTOR PATAR (onom.) the sound of a group of birds flying

PU (onom.) the sound of blowing with the mouth

PU I COOHA relief troops

PUDANAI the fruit of Scaphium scaphigerum

PUHŪ shopkeeper

PUK PAK SEME rough, coarse

PULU see guru

PULU PALA disorderly, careless

PULU PILA SEME see pulu pata

PUN 1. sail of a ship 2. an awning, covering for a wagon

PUN BARGIYAMBI to take in a sail

PUN TATAMBI to hoist a sail

PUPAI a temple servant

PUR SEME (onom.) the sound of birds taking flight

PURU a coarse Tibetan wool from which lamas' winter hats are made; cf. cengme

PUS POS the sound of silk or leather tearing

PUS SEME 1. (onom.) the sound of piercing something 2. unintentionally (of laughing)

PUS SEME INJEMBI to burst out laughing

PUSA bodhisattva

PUSE insignia of rank on the official and court clothing of officials and nobles

PUSE KURUME a court garment with the insignia of rank on it

PUSE NOHO CECE silken gauze with insignias of rank on it

PUSE NOHO NIKTONGGA SURI Nanking silk bearing insignia of rank

PUSE NOHO SUJE silk with a design of dragons in golden circles

PUSELI store, shop

PUSELI EJEN proprietor, store owner

PUSELI SINDAMBI to open up a store

PUTU PATA (onom.) 1. the sound of many small things falling in succession 2. hurried, pressed, in haste

PUTUR (onom.) the sound of a large bird taking off

PUTUR SEME drop by drop, bit by bit, gradually, unevenly

RAKCA see rakša

RAKŠA 1. a man-eating demon, ogre 2. Russian

RIDI magic, supernatural power

SA 1. shaft or thill of an oxcart 2. feather grass from which the outside surface of summer hats are made 3. plural suffix (sometimes written separately)

SABARAMBI 1. to drip, to trickle 2. to scatter, to disperse

SABCIRAMBI to rear (of horses)

SABDABUMBI caus. of sabdambi

SABDAMBI to leak, to drip, to trickle, to fall in drops


SABDAN 1. drop 2. leaking

SABDAN I ALIGAN rain drain under the projection of a roof

SABDAN SABDAN drop by drop

SABDANGGA VASE roof tile that permits water to drip down

SABE the plural suffix -sa plus the accusative particle -be

SABI 1. omen, sign, portent 2. propitious

SABI FERGUWECUN the omen is wondrous, wonderful

SABIBUMBI to give a sign

SABINGGA propitious, pertaining to a good omen

SABINGGA CECIKE a dark gray bird with a strong wide red beak--the male and female are always found together

SABINGGA DARUDAI one name for the phoenix

SABINGGA HOOŠAN good-luck paper money hung on doors and gates at New Year's

SABINGGA MOO the name of a mythical tree in which the Chinese characters for 'universal peace' are supposed to appear

SABINGGA ORHO the fungus Fomes japonicus before it forms its cap

SABINGGA SENCE the fungus Fomes japonicus


SABINGGA SENCE I ŠUŠUNGGE SARACAN a purple parasol of the imperial escort embroidered with a figure of the auspicious fungus Fames japonicus

SABINTU a female unicorn


SABIRGAN CECIKE a small black bird with a white forehead

SABIRGAN ORHO a perennial plant with violet flowers that open when happy events occur--Reineckia carnea

SABIRGI an insignia of rank worn on the official and ceremonial clothing of officials and nobles; cf. puse

SABIRGI KURUME the same as puse kurume

SABIRGI NOHO CECE the same as puss noho cece

SABIRGI NOHO NIKTONGGA SURI the same as puse noho niktongga surf

SABIRGI NOHO SUJE the same as puse noho suje

SABIRI ILHA Daphne odora

SABITUN the (male) unicorn

SABKA chopstick

SABKA SELE 1. linchpin 2. iron pin used on a loom

SABKALAMBI to pick up with the chopsticks, to eat with chopsticks

SABSIBUMBI caus. of sabsimbi

SABSIKŪ garment, religious habit

SABSIMBI 1. to sew tightly (boots and saddle pads) 2. to brand characters on the face and arms of criminals 3. to trim a horse's mane

SABTA 1. a stick used for spreading glue 2. a small bone or piece of

cartilage in the knee, elbow, or shoulder joint

SABTARAMBI to mark with an ax, to incise slightly

SABTARI WASIKA the area above the hoof has swollen (causing the horse to be lame)

SABU shoe

SABUBUMBI caus./pass. of sabumbi

SABUGAN experience, perception

SABUGAN AKŪ inexperienced, easily impressed by trifling matters

SABUGAN BE SABUHAKŪ hasn't seen much of the world

SABUHŪ see ebuhu sabuhū

SABULA pubic hair

SABUMBI to see, to perceive

SABUN 1. sight, vision 2. visage, appearance

SABUNAMBI to go to see


SABUNJIMBI to come to see

SACA helmet

SACA I TEMGETŪ an insignia of the color of the wearer's banner that was attached to the back of the helmet and on which the name and rank of the banner chief was written

SACALABUMBI caus. of sacalambi

SACALAMBI to wear a helmet

SACALANDUMBI/SACALANUMBI to wear helmets (of a group)

SACIBUMBI caus./pass. of sacimbi

SACIKU hoe, mattock, chisel

SACIKŪ SIRDAN a flat-headed arrow

SACIKŪ UMIYAHA a type of beetle

SACIMA a small pastry made of noodles, sugar, and sesame seeds and cooked in sesame oil

SACIMBI 1. to chop, to hack, to chop off 2. to hoe 3. to chisel 4. to clip (a horse's hooves)

SACIME WAMBI to behead

SACIMRI LOHO a large sword used for chopping the legs of horses during battle

SACINDUMBI/SACINUMBI to chop together, to hoe together

SACIRAMBI to hack, to chop at, to chop into pieces

SACU grains of buckwheat

SACU FUNGSE I UFA strained buckwheat flour

SACU UFA buckwheat flour

SACURAMBI 1. to grind buckwheat 2. to fall in grainlike flakes (of snow)

SADA pine needle, any needlelike leaf from a plant

SADE the plural suffix plus -de

SADULAMBI to form an in-law relationship, to betroth

SADUN related by marriage, a relative by marriage

SADUN HALA relative by marriage

SADUN JAFAMBI to form an in-law relationship, to betroth

SADUSA plural of sadun

SAGAMBI see sahambi

SAGIN an exotic sour-sweet fruit about the size of the fruit of the lacquer tree

SAHA hunting, a small-scale battue

SAHABUMBI caus. of sahambi

SAHADABUMBI caus. of sahadambi

SAHADAMBI 1. to hold a small-scale battue 2. to hunt in autumn

SAHAHŪKAN the color of (Chinese) ink

SAHAHŪN 1. blackish, rather black 2. the tenth of the heaven's stems

SAHAHŪN MUKE TASHARI a type of crane

SAHAHŪRI jet black

SAHALCA pelt of a black sable

SAHALDAI a black gibbon

SAHALDAI MONIO the same as sahaldai

SAHALIYAKAN rather black, blackish

SAHALIYAN 1. black 2. the ninth of the heaven's stems

SAHALIYAN BONIO a black monkey

SAHALIYAN DOBIHI a black fox pelt

SAHALIYAN FAHA black pupil, black eye

SAHALIYAN FATHA a type of quail with black feet

SAHALIYAN GIRANGGI COKO a type of chicken with fuzzy white feathers and black bones and skin

SAHALIYAN GU a type of black gem


SAHALIYAN KEKUHE a black pigeon or dove



SAHALIYAN NILGIYAN HOOŠAN paper made from bamboo fiber and coated with gold

SAHALIYAN TURI small black beans

SAHALIYAN TUYEKU YONGGAN a black sand used in casting bronze

SAHALIYAN UJUNGGA 'the black-headed ones'--the common people

SAHALIYAN YARHA black panther

SAHALJA a black coot

SAHALTU having a black face

SAHALTU CECIKE the name of a black-headed bird somewhat larger than a sparrow with a white neck, back, and dark yellow wings with white spots

SAHAMBI 1. to pile up, to stack 2. to build a wall or other structure by laying bricks

SAHAME WEILEMBI to build up, to


SAHAMHA sea perch (Labrax luyu)

SARAN pile, stack, a stack of gacuha piled up by a winner

SAHARABUMBI caus. of saharambi

SAHARAMBI (-ka) to turn black

SAHARI into a heap

SAHARI TUHEMBI to be thrown in wrestling

SAHIBA obsequious, fawning, groveling

SAIBIGAN birthmark

SAIBIHAN spoonbill pelican; cf. halbahan

SAIBUMBI caus./pass. of saimbi

SAIBURU canter (of a horse)

SAICUNGGA FENGŠEN the Chia-ch'ing reign period, 1796--1820

SAIFA MEIHE the molars, the back teeth

SAIFATU a four-year-old horse

SAIFI a spoon; cf. kuini

SAIFILAMBI to scoop out with a spoon

SAIHA 1. anklebone 2. see alin i saiha

SAIHA I DOKO the inside of the anklebone

SAIHA I TUKU the outside of the anklebone

SAIHADA shinbone, tibia

SAIHŪWA a bramble plant with round leaves and a red blossom used for weaving baskets and as an implement for beating criminals

SAIHŪWADA the light rod, a bamboo rod used for flogging; cf. cy

SAIHŪWADALABUMBI caus./pass. of saihūwadalambi

SAIHŪWADALAMBI to flog with the light bamboo rod

SAIKA see saikan

SAIKAN 1. pretty, good-looking, beautiful 2. rather well, nicely, properly

SAIKAN ARBUNGGA ILHA Rosa semperflorens


SARA a silver parasol of the escort embroidered with yellow, red, and black rosae semperflorentes

SAIKAN EJE keep well in mind

SAIKŪ snacks to go with liquor

SAIKŪNGGE pertaining to snacks

SAIMBE the same as sain be

SAIMBI to bite, to chew

SAIMENGGE worth tasting, good to eat

SAIN 1. good, well 2. auspicious, favorable

SAIN ACABUN good omen

SAIN BE FONJIMBI to ask after someone's health

SAIN BE IBEBURE TEMGETUN a banner of the escort bearing the inscription sain be ibebure

SAIN DE AISILAKŪ a court title just below that of giyan be jorikū


SAIN I TABU have a good trip!

SAIN INENGGI an auspicious day, a clear day

SAIN IRGEN common people

SAIN SABI a good or auspicious omen

SAINAMBI to go to bite

SAINTU good, excellent

SAISA a man proficient in letters and good in his speech and conduct, scholar, gentleman

SAISA BE BAIRE KUNGGERI Office for the recruiting of candidates for official service

SAISAHA basket with a wide handle

SAISE small cake, cracker, biscuit

SAISHA CECIKE one name for the sparrow

SAISHAN a basket with a handle that can be carried in the hand at one's side

SAIŠABUKŪ praise, flattery

SAIŠABUMBI caus./pass. of saišambi

SAIŠACUKA praiseworthy, worthy of commendation

SAIŠAKŪŠAMBI to look for praise, to seek praise

SAIŠAMBI to praise, to commend

SAIŠANDUMBI/SAIŠANUMBI to praise or commend together

SAIŠANGGA famous, renowned

SAITU minister, man of high rank

SAIYŪN interrogative form of sain: si saiyūn? 'How are you?'

SAJA a million

SAJINGGA DEO younger (in respect to speaker) student of the same teacher

SAKA 1. fish or meat cut up finely, mixed with seasonings and eaten raw 2. clause particle used after the imperfect converb: just, as soon as--the same as jaka 3. an adjectival suffix: as if, like, somewhat, rather: necikesaka 'rather level'; hocikon saka 'rather nice'

SAKDA 1. old (of people) 2. old man 3. a four-year-old wild sow

SAKDABUMBI caus. of sakdambi

SAKDAKI having the aspect of old age-- said of children who are quiet and composed

SAKDAMBI (-ka, -pi) to get old, to age

SAKDANDALA until old age, until old

SAKDANDAMBI to near old age

SAKDANTALA until old, till old age

SAKDANUMBI to revere as old

SAKDASA plural of sakda

SAKDATALA see sakdantala

SAKIDUN one name for the partridge; cf. jukidun

SAKSAHA magpie (Pica pica)

SAKSAHA DAMIN a one to two-year-old eagle

SAKSAHŪN support, prop, rack for piling wood and like things

SAKSALABUMBI to get stuck (of an arrow in a tree)

SAKSALIBUMBI caus./pass. of saksalimbi

SAKSALIKŪ a frame for setting off fireworks

SAKSALIMBI to prop up, to make (branches, brush, etc.) into a rack or frame

SAKSAN 1. a pole with a hook or branch on the end used for hanging things up 2. a cake used in sacrifices

SAKSAN GOLBON a clothing rack

SAKSAN JUNE a number of ice floes frozen together

SAKSARI onto one's back (of falling)

SAKSARI KEKUHE the name of a bird that resembles the Asiatic blue magpie but is smaller

SAKSIME see ekšeme saksime

SAKSIN Chinese juniper--Juniperus chinens is

SAKSU 1. a basket made from brambles for holding grain 2. a small bamboo basket for holding tea, paper, etc.

SAKSULABUMBI caus. of saksulambi

SAKSULAMBI to place in a basket

SAKŪRA a three-legged wooden support for hanging a pot over a fire

SALA MOO a large Indian tree--Shorea robusta

SALABA pineapple

SALABUMBI caus. of salambi

SALAMBI to distribute, to pass out

SALAMBUMBI see salabumbi

SALANAMBI to go to distribute

SALANDUMBI/SALANUMBI to distribute together

SALANJIMBI to come to distribute

SALGABUHANGGE that which was ordained by heaven, that which was preordained

SALGABUMBI to be fixed by fate, to be preordained, to be ordained by heaven

SALGABUHA ABKAI BANIN nature, inborn quality

SALGABUHA BABI it is fixed by fate

SALGABUN fate, decree of heaven, providence


SALGATU HOOHAN one of the names of the heron; cf. hoohan

SALHŪ 1. a piece of iron fastened to the end of the plow, the plowshare 2. the wooden frame of a comb on a loom

SALHŪMA pheasant of the north

SALIBUMBI 1. caus. of salimbi 2. to set the price, to estimate a price 3. to discount 4. to reduce the number of strokes in flogging, to commute


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