1. In 1955, Lifshitz used them as the microscopic description of the Casimir effect’s bulk property for dielectric media. The Lennard-Jones potential allows a good approximation of their strengths as a function of distance. Including both Keesom and Debye forces, this class of intermolecular forces arises from the polarization of molecules into dipoles. They share their name with an equation that corrects the ideal gas law and are sometimes called London dispersion forces. FTP, name this set of intermolecular forces named after the Dutch scientist who received the 1910 Nobel Prize in physics.
ANSWER: van der Waals forces (prompt on London dispersion forces early)
2. Warren Austin resigned from his Vermont Senate seat to take this position. Arthur Goldberg resigned from the Supreme Court to take this position in hopes of settling an end to the Vietnam War. Edward Stettinius resigned as Secretary of State to serve as the first one. Daniel Patrick Moynihan prevented action being taken against Indonesia’s 1975 invasion of East Timor in his time in this office, which was held by Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. from 1953 to 1960. Currently occupied by Alejandro Wolff, and previously held by Andrew Young, Adlai Stevenson, and John Negroponte, FTP, name this diplomatic position recently held by John Bolton, an envoy to an international body located in New York City.
ANSWER: Ambassador to the United Nations (or the U.S. Permanent Representative to the United Nations)
3. He wrote about the evolution of early humans in The Human Legacy. He argued that individuals possess a drive to evaluate themselves against other people in his pioneering article “A Theory of Social Comparison Processes.” This man analyzed the results of disproven cataclysmic predictions in When Prophecy Fails. This psychologist also collaborated on an experiment in which subjects performed boring tasks; in that experiment, the greatest changes in attitude were exhibited by subjects who had to reconcile conflicting cognitions. FTP, name this psychologist, who along with Carlsmith developed the theory of cognitive dissonance.
ANSWER: Leon Festinger
4. Its second section ends with speculation that a young woman died because she tried to cross the lake at Lochan Neck, or because she lost her way “by turning left from Bridgeroad.” The third section opens by punning on Rabelais’s last words and describing death as the “grand potato” before discussing the I.P.H., or Institute or Preparation for the Hereafter, which hires the author to “speak on death.” It was written by the author of the essay collection The Universal Seahorse, who in its fourth and final canto discusses the difficulty of shaving and his certainty that he will wake on the morning of July 22, 1959. FTP, name this poem which is 999 lines long, a work of John Shade which is paired with a commentary by Charles Kinbote in a novel by Vladimir Nabokov.
ANSWER: Pale Fire
5. In a color glass condensate, this phenomenon would prevent the rapid movement of gluons. This phenomenon was first predicted for electrons by Joseph Larmor, and the Voigt transformation was the first general expression involving this value, though that value was too large. The red shift experiments of Pound and Rebka demonstrated the existence of its (*) gravitational variety. It has been confirmed in the Hafele-Keating experiment, where cesium decay was measured in a moving high-speed jet, and in Rossi and Hall’s measurements of the decay of muons ejected from the sun’s atmosphere. FTP, name this phenomenon that creates a relative slowing of time as one approaches the speed of light.
ANSWER: time dilation (accept gravitational time dilation or velocity time dilation before the asterisk)
6. One section of this work features a cloudlike white palace and consists of a landscape that partly hides a mountain range on the right. The first painting of this series is dominated by a cave representing “the mysterious Past,” while the fourth depicts a dove illuminated by golden rays of light. All paintings but the last contain an hourglass attached to the prow of a golden boat, which is steered by an angel due to the infancy of the central figure. Unlike its painter’s earlier historical series The Course of Empire, it centers on that solitary figure’s allegorical journey on a river before reaching the ocean and ascending to heaven. Consisting of “Childhood,” “Youth,” “Manhood,” and “Old Age,” FTP, identify this series of paintings by Thomas Cole.
ANSWER: The Voyage of Life
7. The first man by this name gained power after his brother was allegedly poisoned by priests permitted into his stronghold of Vilcabamba. He would be beheaded along with five of his generals after he was captured by Francisco de Toledo. The second man with this name saw success against Tiburcio Landa at the Sangarara, which came nine days after he and his followers executed Corregidor Antonio Arriaga on charges of excessive cruelty. That man was born Jose Gabriel Condorcanqui, but traced his origins back to the aforementioned predecessor. He was captured in Cuzco and executed in 1781. FTP, give this name shared by the leader of an indigenous uprising in Peru and the final Inca emperor.
ANSWER: Túpac Amaru
8. The Chowla-Selberg formula uses an infinite series of K-Bessel functions to express the zeta function of this name. A literary theorist with this surname wrote Cries in the New Wilderness and Russian Postmodernism, while a sculptor with this surname created the tomb of Oscar Wilde and The Rock Drill. A first baseman with this surname was nicknamed “Superjew,” and a still more famous person with this surname replaced Allan Williams before introducing a noted band to George Martin. Another person with this surname replaced Mike Port and hired sabermetricians like Voros McCracken and Bill James, while signing J. D. Drew and Daisuke Matsuzaka this offseason. FTP, give this surname shared by Beatles manager Brian and Red Sox GM Theo.
9. Sometimes invoked as the grandfather of Heimdall, his servants include Eldir and Fimafeng. His brothers include Kari and Logi, while his nine daughters, who are depicted with white veils and robes, are described as the Billow Maidens. Perhaps best known for hosting lavish dinners alongside his wife Ran at his gold-walled dining hall near the isle of Hler, it was Thor who brought him the magical cauldron which he uses to brew his ale. Slain by Loki at one of his own feasts, this deity was feared and praised by sailors. FTP, name this early Norse sea god.
10. An essay on this man “and the question of the subject” appears in Paul Ricoeur’s The Conflict of Interpretations. In an essay published in Philosophy and Social Hope, Richard Rorty imagined an alternate universe in which this man married a woman named Sarah Mandelbaum and moved to America. Rorty also discusses this man, Milan Kundera, and Charles Dickens in an essay which appears in his second collection of “philosophical papers.” Jacques Derrida wrote about this man’s avoidance of a certain concept in his book Of Spirit. In 1929 this man published Kant and the Problem of Metaphysics two years after his best-known work appeared. FTP, name this German philosopher who never finished his treatise Being and Time.
ANSWER: Martin Heidegger
11. Its central region consists of a chain of volcanic mountains, the most active of which is the Stromboli-like Mt. Arenal. At the foot of that volcano lies this country’s largest lake, which shares the same name. Nearly one-quarter of this nation’s land consists of protected national parks, such as the Monteverde Cloud Forest, and its counties include Limon, Heredia, and Cartago. Its national currency is the colon and in 1948, under President José Ferrer, it became the first country to constitutionally abolish its military force. The second most southern nation in Central America, FTP, identify this republic whose capital is San José.
ANSWER: Costa Rica
12. In the opening scene of this work, one character asks “Why should a man whose blood is warm within / Sit like his grandsire cut in alabaster?” after Salerio and Solanio fail to cheer up the title character. Another character reunites with his blind father after identifying Margery as his mother, while Gratiano falls in love with Nerissa on a trip to Belmont. In Act 2, the Prince of Morocco and the Prince of Aragon both lose their chance to marry a rich widow by opening the wrong caskets. In Act 4, one character impersonates a doctor named Balthasar, and delivers a speech beginning “The quality of mercy is not strained.” FTP, name this play featuring Portia, Antonio, and Shylock.
ANSWER: The Merchant of Venice
13. David Kendall wrote the official response to this document, whose tenth section, “Growing Frustration,” describes the Zedillo visit. A later section of its “Narrative” portion, “The Affidavit,” discusses the “Perelman call” and the “Francis Carter meeting.” Another section discusses the role of Betty Currie as an intermediary, while its last section includes the testimony of John Podesta and Harold Ickes. It begins by discussing a decision of Judge Susan Wright, and one person mentioned in it tried to use Vernon Jordan to get a job after being transferred to the Pentagon from the White House. It argues for charges of obstruction of justice and lying under oath, and drew criticism for its explicit description of sexual encounters. FTP, name this document released by the Office of the Independent Counsel which argued for the impeachment of Bill Clinton.
ANSWER: The Starr Report
14. His fourth symphony, which is known as “Adagio,” was written to commemorate the bicentennial of the French Revolution, while his seventh was written to commemorate the 3,000th year of a certain city. In addition to Seven Gates of Jerusalem, he has written a piano concerto known as Resurrection, but he is better known for vocal works such as Dimensions of Time and Silence and his 1967 St. Luke’s Passion. He also wrote a work scored for 52 string instruments which took third prize at Katowice’s Composer’s Competition in 1960. FTP, name this composer of Threnody for the Victims of Hiroshima and the Polish Requiem.
ANSWER: Krzysztof Penderecki
15. Proteins destined for this structure are tagged at their N-linked oligosaccharides by mannose-6-phosphate, which allow receptors to mediate vesicular transport of tagged proteins. Malfunction of this process is the cause of inclusion cell disease, while the lack of a critical enzyme inside this organelle leads to diseases such as Pompe’s disease and Hurler syndrome. The lack of hexos-aminidase A causing buildup of gangliosides in this organelle is the cause of Tay-Sachs disease. Proton pumps and ion channels in this organelle maintain the pH of 4.8 that is critical for enzymatic function. Discovered in 1949 by Christian de Duve, FTP, name these organelles that destroy cellular waste and aid in the breakdown of macromolecules.
16. This man wrote an essay on the trial of Gaston Dominici which described his conviction as “the triumph of literature,” while another of his essays contrasts the Nautilus in Verne’s novels with Rimbaud’s Drunken Boat. His first book opens with a discussion of Hébert’s technique of using obscenities in every issue of Le Père Duchene and ends with a chapter describing literature as “the utopia of language.” One of this man’s most famous essays criticizes the belief that texts have “a single ‘theological’ meaning,” and instead posits that meaning should be “disentangled” rather than “deciphered” as a result of replacing the title figure with “the scriptor.” That essay by this man opens by discussing Balzac’s story “Sarassine,” as did this author’s book S/Z. FTPE, name this French literary critic who wrote Writing Degree Zero and “The Death of the Author.”
ANSWER: Roland Barthes [BART]
17. In Thomas Morgan’s The Christian Philosopher, the figure of Philalethes is said to be one of these. The “case” of this movement was “fairly stated” in a text produced by Thomas Chubb, while Dr. Sherlock’s The Trial of the Witnesses was a reply to another text defending this movement, Thomas Woolston’s Moderator. The notes by Charles Blount to his edition of Philostratus’ “Life of Apollonius Tyaeneus” contain an exposition of this sect’s views about miracles, while Antony Collins, Matthew Tindal, and John Toland were among its chief thinkers. FTP, name this 18th-century religious movement whose other members included the Earl of Shaftesbury, which rejected revelation and argued that Christianity could be known through reason alone.
ANSWER: deism (accept deist or other word forms; accept Christian deist before the word “Chubb”)
18. Curry and Howard demonstrated its correspondence to intuitionistic logic and any simply-typed version of it can be interpreted in a Cartesian closed category. System F was a typed version of this system which added parametric polymorphism. Languages based on it may encounter both the upwards and downwards funarg problems. Its expressions are either variables, abstractions or applications. It can be implemented in Eiffel or Python, but it has the most similarity to functional programming languages such as Scheme and LISP. Equivalent to a Turing machine, FTP identify this system of formal computation developed by Kleene and Church, which is named for a Greek letter.
ANSWER: lambda calculus
19. His nonfiction was collected in The Rush for Second Place, while one of his novels opens with some boys batting a dead dove back and forth and goes on to tell the story of a con man who works for the Rev. Elton Ude, loves the adulterous Liz, and is contrasted with the geologist McCandless. In addition to Paul Grimes, this author created such characters as Recktall Brown, who corrupts the idealistic artist Wyatt Gwyon, as well as an eleven-year-old tycoon who causes the crash of the stock market. His final work, Agape Agape, was published posthumously in 2002, eight years after his National Book Award winning work about Oscar Crease, A Frolic of His Own. FTP, identify this experimental novelist who wrote Carpenter’s Gothic, JR, and The Recognitions.
ANSWER: William Gaddis
20. After a diplomatic visit to China and North Korea he announced a program that would eliminate his country’s ten scourges. This occurred after his project to exploit minerals known as Plan 80 fell through, and after the U.S. Import-Export Bank reneged on a deal to loan his government money for the proposed Inga Dam. A former reporter for the daily newspaper, “The Future,” he joined the MNC in 1958, nine years before he introduced the MPR or Popular Movement of the Revolution and announced that it would be his nation’s only political party. Towards the end of his life he appointed Kengo Wa Dondo as prime minister and was overthrown with support by the Tutsi governments of Rwanda and Uganda by Laurent Kabila. FTP, identify this man who named himself Lumumba’s spiritual successor in 1965, a long-time autocratic ruler who renamed his country Zaire.
ANSWER: Mobutu Sese Seko or Joseph Desire Mobutu
21. In Nikolai Ge’s version, the central figure wears brown and reclines on a bed. Dirk Bouts’ version is the center panel of the Altarpiece of the Holy Sacrament, and includes four servants in the background. The figures are barefoot in Jacopo Bassano’s version, while Andrea del Castagno’s version features an isolated figure sitting in the foreground on one side of a long white table. The central figure has a brilliant halo in Tintoretto’s version, which is set on a diagonal, while another version portrays Judas’ face in shadow. FTP, name this scene from the New Testament most famously painted by Leonardo da Vinci, which depicts the final meal eaten before the betrayal of Jesus.
ANSWER: The Last Supper
22. This man is credited with writing a satyr-play called the Sisyphus, whose surviving fragments include a rationalistic account of how humans came to believe in gods. He himself was accused in a major case of blasphemous vandalism but cleared with the help of Andocides [ann-DAH-sid-eez]. He was exiled to Thessaly but returned to Athens with his ally Theramenes [thuh-RAM-uh-neez], whose execution he later brought about. He was executed after a force from Phyle [FYE-lee] led by Thrasybulus [thras-IBB-uh-luss] restored the democracy in 403, overthrowing this man and the Thirty Tyrants. FTP, identify this namesake of a Platonic dialogue which includes an account of Atlantis.
23. This thinker invented a constructed language called the Lingua Ignota, and wrote a morality play about the victory of the Virtues over Satan, Ordo Virtutum. This opponent of the Cathar Heresy described a man superimposed on the world who turns on the points of the compass in the six-part Liber Vitae Meritorum, and depicted the Catholic Church as “Ecclesia,” a powerful woman, in Scivias, a book of divine visions. Taught by Jutta and Volmar, she was one of the first people to undergo the canonization process, but was not officially recognized as a saint until the 16th century, almost five hundred years after her death in 1179. FTP, name this German composer and mystic.
ANSWER: Hildegard von Bingen
Packet by Maryland Bonus Questions
1. Name these Muslim victories in the crusades, FTPE.
 This only landlocked Crusader state was founded by Baldwin of Boulogne after splitting from his brother Godfrey on the way to Antioch on the First Crusade. Its fall led to the Second Crusade.
ANSWER: County of Edessa
 A thirsty and surrounded crusading army led by Guy of Lusignan and Reginald of Chatillon fell to Saladin in this battle outside Jerusalem in 1187.
ANSWER: Battle of the Horns of Hattin
 This last crusader stronghold was overtaken by the Saracens in 1291. A century earlier, this coastal city, now on the Bay of Haifa, had been successfully captured from Saladin when Richard the Lionhearted first landed in Israel.
ANSWER: Acre (accept Akko)
2. Answer the following about viruses FTPE:
 This method of viral reproduction involves the rapid creation of viral parts, causing the host cell to burst when the parts are synthesized into many new viruses.
ANSWER: lytic cycle
 The structure of most viruses includes genetic material surrounded by this protective protein coating, which often is covered in receptors that allow binding to and penetration of the host cell.
 This virulent bacteriophage is only capable of the lytic stage of reproduction and has its capsid topped by an icosahedral head. It was used as a model organism to study the nature of phages and mainly preys on E. Coli.
ANSWER: Enterobacteria phage T4 3. Name these novels which discuss colonialism, FTPE:
 This novel by Multatuli, which contrasts the idealistic title character with the coffee dealer Droogstoppel, attacks Dutch colonialism in Java.
ANSWER: Max Havelaar
 This 1995 work by V. S. Naipaul depicts several people who tried to exploit Trinidad, including Sir Walter Raleigh and Francisco de Miranda. It controversially portrays critic C. L. R. James as “Lebrun.”
ANSWER: A Way in the World
 Chinua Achebe’s essay “An Image of Africa” is perhaps the most famous postcolonialist critique of this work of fiction, which centers on an ivory trader whose dying words are “The horror! The horror!”
ANSWER: Heart of Darkness
4. Name these social theorists who have written about race FTPE.
 This author of The Declining Significance of Race and The Truly Disadvantaged argued that urban poverty is mainly caused by a lack of jobs in When Work Disappears.
ANSWER: William Julius Wilson
 This author of The Shape of the Signifier has recently argued that class inequalities are ignored because of America’s undue focus on race in The Trouble With Diversity.
ANSWER: Walter Benn Michaels
 This cowinner of the 1974 Nobel Prize in Economics influenced the decision in Brown v. Board of Education with his book An American Dilemma.
ANSWER: Gunnar Myrdal
5. He became Chief Justice of the New York Court of Appeals in 1897, but resigned from the court in 1904 to run for office. FTPE:
 Name this jurist and Democratic politician, who only received 140 electoral votes when he ran for president.
ANSWER: Alton Parker
 After losing the 1904 election, Parker represented the AFL in a Congressional hearing concerning the Supreme Court’s decision in this 1908 case. It involved a secondary boycott called to help unionize a certain group of employees.
ANSWER: Loewe v. Lawlor or the Danbury Hatters case
 While on the court of appeals, Parker wrote the majority opinion in a ruling which found against this man and claimed that the state of New York had “beyond question” an interest in clean bakeries; that ruling was reversed by the Supreme Court in 1905.
ANSWER: Joseph Lochner (accept Lochner v. New York)
6. Answer the following about an artist FTPE:
 After being influenced by Alain Locke, this Harlem Renaissance artist painted notable series of works about Harriet Tubman and Frederick Douglass.
ANSWER: Jacob Lawrence
 Lawrence is best known today for this sixty-panel series. Its first half depicts segregation and rural poverty in the South, while its second half depicts the arrival of southern blacks to the urban North.
ANSWER: The Migration of the Negro
 Lawrence first gained critical recognition for his 41-painting series of this black revolutionary. It includes depictions of St. Marc as well as a flotilla of French ships.
ANSWER: ToussaintL’Overture (accept either)
7. Answer the following about a function, FTPE:
 This function in quantum mechanics describes the possible states of any physical system by using the squares of complex numbers to obtain the values of the probability amplitude of the system. It is symbolized by the Greek letter psi.
ANSWER: wave Function
 The state of the wave function at a given time is often expressed in this notation, also known as Dirac notation.
ANSWER: bra-ket or bracket notation
 The existence of the collapse of the wave function is heavily debated. One popular theory is that the collapse is an illusion caused by this physical process, where the superposition of two quantum states collapses into one single definite state.
8. Name these Romans involved in the Punic Wars FTPE:
 This Roman general invaded Africa during the First Punic War but was eventually captured. In one story, he let the Carthaginians kill him rather than beg the Senate to negotiate a prisoner exchange.
ANSWER: Marcus Atilius Regulus
 During the Second Punic War this Roman general captured Syracuse, and in the course of sacking the town, his troops killed Archimedes. A namesake of his was Augustus' nephew and possible successor before dying young.
ANSWER: Marcus Claudius Marcellus
 The Third Punic War was largely won by this adopted grandson of Hannibal's conqueror; he also won a major war in Spain.
ANSWER: Publius Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus or Scipio Africanus the Younger
(prompt on "Scipio" or "Scipio Africanus" or, I guess, "Aemilianus" or "Africanus")
9. It ends with the speaker remarking “And yet God has not said a word!” FTPE:
 Name this poem in which the speaker strangles the title woman with her own hair.
ANSWER: “Porphyria’s Lover”
 In the penultimate stanza, the title character is imagined to ask “What of soul was left, I wonder, when the kissing had to stop?” This poem ends with a musician announcing “I feel chilly and grown old.”
ANSWER: “A Toccata of Galuppi’s”
 This English poet wrote “Porphyria’s Lover” and “A Toccata of Galuppi’s” as well as more famous dramatic monologues like “Fra Lippo Lippi.”
ANSWER: Robert Browning 10. The 5th-century thinker Buddhaghosa wrote a commentary on this text which contains over 300 stories fleshing out its verses. FTPE:
 Name this anthology of Buddhist teachings, the second text in the Khuddaka Nikaya.
ANSWER: the Dhammapada (or The Way of Truth or Words of Doctrine or Path of the Dharma)
 The Dhammapada is part of the second, or Sutta, section of this canon of Buddhist texts, whose name comes from the Sanskrit for “triple basket.”
 This school of Buddhism believes that the Tripitaka consists of words which were actually spoken by the Buddha. Their name comes from a Pali word for “elder,” because they trace their heritage to a group of elders who followed the first sangha.
11. Answer the following about an element of the Periodic Table FTPE:
 Deficiency of this element in the human body can result in Keshan disease, which leads to the weakening of the heart. Along with iodine, lack of this element is also responsible for Kashin-Beck disease.
ANSWER: seleniumor Se
 Selenium is often incorporated into this amino acid in place of the usual sulfur atom, which results in a compound that aids in the elucidation of protein structures via X-ray crystallography.
 Given that selenium has an atomic number of 34, determine the number of electrons in its outermost orbital. You have 15 seconds.
ANSWER: 6 (the configuration of the outermost orbital is 4s2 4p4 in case anyone is interested)
12. Answer the following about the film career of Sean Connery FTPE.
 As the title character of this movie, Connery helped launch an Internet sensation by saying “you’re the man now, dog!” to a young black writer.
ANSWER: Finding Forrester
 Connery played Dr. Paul Bradley in this horrible 1979 disaster film in which the United States and the USSR team up to destroy the title object.
 This 1973 John Boorman film features Connery as Zed, the pinnacle of human evolution. He travels to Vortex Four and kicks ass after learning that the title enormous flying stone head he worships is fake.
ANSWER: Zardoz 13. It ends with Arthur Davies’ admission of guilt because he was “glad he didn’t have a gun.” FTPE:
 Name this novel, in which the absence of Sheriff Risley leads a mob to hang three innocent men after hearing of the death of Kinkaid.
ANSWER: The Ox-Bow Incident
 This author of The Track of the Cat wrote The Ox-Bow Incident.
ANSWER: Walter Van Tilburg Clark
 This former Confederate officer leads the mob, and kills himself after his effeminate son Gerald refuses to assist in the hangings.
ANSWER: Major Tetley
14. His first two operas, Almira and Nero, premiered in 1705. FTPE:
 Name this composer whose oratorios include Joseph and his Brethren, The Triumph of Time and Truth, and The Choice of Hercules.
ANSWER: Georg (or George) Friderich Handel
 While residing at Cannons, Handel wrote this piece for harpsichord. It is the fifth movement of his Suite no. 5 in E major, and consists of six variations on a theme allegedly based on the pounding of an anvil.
ANSWER: Air and Variations: The Harmonious Blacksmith
 After composing Saul and Israel in Egypt, Handel wrote about the Jews again in this oratorio whose choruses include “For Zion lamentation make” and “See, the conquering hero comes.”
ANSWER: Judas Maccabaeus
15. Name these creatures from the wonderful world of Japanese folklore FTPE:
 These mountain spirits are often depicted as anthropomorphic birds and are sometimes seen as harbingers of war. They are known for their comically long noses.
 This water imp can only be defeated by forcing it to bow or bend over, causing the magical liquid in its open head to spill out, thus denying it of its supernatural strength and speed.
 Based on a real animal, the raccoon dog, this mischievous creature is known for shape-shifting into such objects as statues or tea-kettles and its enormously large testicles.
ANSWER: Tanuki 16. When it premiered on December 10, 1896, this play caused a riot after Fermin Grémier spoke its first word, “Merdre.” FTPE:
 Name this play which describes Boggerlas’ defeat of the title character, who becomes the king of Poland.
ANSWER: Ubu Roi or Ubu Rex or King Ubu
 This French author who invented the imaginary science of “pataphysics” wrote Ubu Roi.
ANSWER: Ubu Enchained or Ubu Enchaîné 17. Answer the following about Ottoman infantry, FTPE.
 This standing infantry made up the sultan’s bodyguard, and were composed of conscripted young Christian boys who were trained and converted. Mahmud II destroyed them in the Auspicious Incident.
ANSWER: Janissaries  Meaning “collecting,” this term describes the taking of young boys from conquered or client Christian states for conscription into the Janissaries.
ANSWER: devshirmeh or devsirme  This third Ottoman sultan and grandson of Osman I was responsible for instituting the devshirmeh and founding the Janissaries.
ANSWER: Murad I or Amurath I 18. FTPE, name these people who wrote histories of philosophy.
 This historian probably lived during the 3rd-century AD, and divided Greek philosophers into the Ionian and the Italian schools in his Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers.
ANSWER: Diogenes Laertius
 This German author of General Psychopathology elaborated his own views about “transcendence” and “Existenz” and incidentally provided a history of Western thought in the aptly-titled 1932 work Philosophy.
ANSWER: Karl Jaspers
 This man’s essays in the history of ideas include “The Counter-Enlightenment” and “The Apotheosis of the Romantic Will,” though he may be better known for the “negative” and “positive” freedom he elucidated in “Two Concepts of Liberty.”
ANSWER: Isaiah Berlin
19. It culminates with the command “Now, let us crucify the thieves!” and led to the author’s imprisonment, during which time he wrote a “Hymn to the Pillory.” FTPE:
 Name this anonymous satirical pamphlet which argues that the title group should be hanged for subverting the Church of England.
ANSWER: The Shortest-Way With the Dissenters
 This author of The Shortest-Way With the Dissenters also wrote Moll Flanders and Robinson Crusoe.
ANSWER: Daniel Defoe
 The title character of this Defoe novel is married to a London brewer, but leaves him to become the mistress of a number of men before marrying a Dutch merchant.
20. Identify the following involving the evolution of a star FTPE.
 This final stage in the evolution of a low to medium mass star occurs after the star sheds its outer layers of hydrogen and helium in its red giant stage, leaving a bright oxygen- and carbon-rich core.
ANSWER: white dwarf
 This force, which is caused by the Pauli exclusion principle, supports white dwarfs against their own gravity and prevents them from collapsing into a neutron star.
ANSWER: electron degeneracy pressure (accept fermion degeneracy pressure)
 This recently discovered supernova is the first known instance in which a white dwarf above the Chandrasekhar limit did not become a neutron star. Its unusually rapid rotation may have played a role in this aberration.
ANSWER: the champagne supernova (yes this is really the answer) or SN 2003fg or SNLS-03D3bb 21. Answer the following about geographical features of China FTPE:
 This seventh-longest river in the world is also the most sediment-laden river in the world, which earns it its nickname, “The Muddy Flow.”
ANSWER: Yellow River
 This mountain range forms the southwestern boundary of China where it meets the Himalayas on the Tibetan Plateau. These mountains represent the northernmost region affected by the tectonic collision of India and Asia.
ANSWER: Altai or Altay Mountains
 This desert in Northern China extends to the North into much of Mongolia and to the South where it borders the Tibetan Plateau.