Most famous quotes, including ‘To be or not to be’
Not closely based on historical events or mythology
Possibly about Prince Amleth of Denmark, but there was also a similar play written during the same time as Shakespeare’s
Denmark is preparing for a Norwegian invasion after Hamlet killed the old Norwegian king, Fortinbras. The new king is invading for revenge.
Marcellus has been at college in Wittengberg and has come back in the last few days.
The ghost of the old Danish king keeps running into the Night Watch, but doesn’t talk to them and simply leaves.
HW: Finish 1.2
Annotate the soliloquy (line 133- line 164) for literary elements and devices. Do a table (quote on one side, literary element on the other). Explain the literary element. Also if you don’t get something, put that in the table.
Do Now: List all of the elements of a strong opening scene.
Grabs the reader’s attention
Includes a description of the setting
Introduces major conflict
Introduces main characters
Sets the mood
AIM: How does Shakespeare introduce the setting, mood, conflict and characters in Hamlet? In this passage by the king:
Memory of king is still fresh in Denmark’s minds
“Logic must take precedence over nature” (we can’t let our grief affect us (there’s a war on))
Says he married the old king’s wife, who remains the queen
Contrasting joy and sorrow (a wedding and a funeral around the same time)
This king is the dead king’s brother
Nobody objected to this marriage or him becoming king
Fortinbras thinks that Denmark is in disarray because the old king died
Fortinbras keeps sending messages to get Claudius to give back the lands
Claudius has written a letter to Norway to reason with Norway, the king of Norway
Sends Cornelius and Voltemand as messengers, but doesn’t allow them to negotiate
Is also a college student
Is still in mourning
‘son/sun’ is a pun
New theme: appearance vs. reality
HW: read 1.3 for Wednesday
Do Now: Describe your state of mind at this moment.
Nervous about tests
Happy (won presidency)
Euphoric (YAY NO SLEEP!!!)
Relieved (easy quiz)
Excited for 4-day weekend
AIM: How do we evaluate Hamlet’s state of mind?
Go to page 27, line 90
What do we know about Hamlet already?
Is in mourning
Wants to go back to college (the king won’t let him)
Wants to melt into nothingness in his sadness
If it was allowed, he’d commit suicide (he’s a Christian, it’s forbidden)
He’s extremely depressed
‘Fie on it, oh fie!’ apparently a curse (strong exclamation of shock, reproach or spite)
Life has become an unweeded garden (he wants to let himself go and not do anything positive) metaphor
LOTS OF WEEDS
Really upset that his mother married Claudius
‘Like Hyperion to a satyr’ allusion to classical mythology
King Hamlet is shielding her face from even the wind
Thinks his mother needs sex and that’s why she married Claudius
Says that all women are weak
The same shoes that she wore at the funeral were used to go to Claudius (this is apparently ‘worse than a beast’)
Thinks that Claudius is about as much like Hamlet Sr. as he (Hamlet Jr.) is to Hercules
Thinks that it’s incest to sleep with her husband’s brother
Soliloquy: a character is talking directly to the audience so that they understand what he or she is thinking (the other characters don’t hear or don’t understand this)
Epizeuxis: When you repeat a word because you’re too emotional. It’s a literary or rhetorical device that expresses great emotion.
What advice would you give to Hamlet as his friend?
Find a girlfriend
Talk to his mom
Foreshadowing- Hamlet sees his father in his mind
HW: Read 1.4 and 1.5
How does Hamlet respond to the ghost? (1 paragraph) Also, you can read and annotate the soliloquy in 1.5 (optional) Do Now: What do you think other people say about you when you’re not around?
People conspire against you
People say petty things that you’d dispute
Indirect characterization: when you learn things about a character without that character being present (either through other people talking or his or her own actions)
AIM: How does Shakespeare indirectly characterize Hamlet in Act 1 Scene 3?
The moon=chastity artemis/Diana
HW: Finish Act 1. Annotate Hamlet’s soliloquy for literary elements/devices
Do Now: List the ways that directors/playwrights can raise tension in a movie or a play.
HW: Read 2.2 through line 405
List the evidence for and against Hamlet’s sanity.
Cite quotes to support your analysis
Do Now: Write about a situation that you inadvertently made more complicated. What did you do? What were you trying to accomplish? How did your action make the situation more complicated?
St. Patrick- guardian of purgatory, gets rid of snakes in Ireland (relates to Claudius being a snake)
Planning convoluted text message
Little amount of homework leads to procrastination
Comedies- one character tells the others about something but gets things worse
Protasis- intro of all major plotlines, characters and conflicts
Other Hamlet play- just an uninteresting generic revenge story
Epitasis- thickening/complication of the plot. Important part of the play
Aim: How does Shakespeare begin to complicate the plot in Act 2 Scene 1?
-Hamlet and Ophelia’s relationship
-War with Norway
Which plot does Shakespeare choose to complicate in Act 2 Scene 1 and how does he complicate the plot?
Hamlet’s sanity; Ophelia tells Polonius about what Hamlet did. (Lines 87-94)
Hamlet’s and Ophelia’s relationship; line 95 onwards, Polonius asks if Hamlet is mad for love. Ophelia listened to Polonius which upsets Hamlet.
Hamlet may be mad for another reason i.e. the ghost (Dramatic irony with Ophelia and everyone else)
Polonius has a big mouth and overly protective of his children sends someone to spy on Laertes and tries to protect Ophelia.
Ophelia’s POV love is the root of Hamlet’s insanity (Dramatic irony).
Revenge plot and detective plot left out build up tension and anticipation of audience.
HW: Finish the scene. Answer the following focus questions:
Why does Hamlet feel bad after talking to the players?
TWE does he seem sane when speaking with the players?
Do Now: What would you do if you thought you or one of your friends was going crazy?
Try to find the source of craziness
Good and bad crazy
Leave along if good crazy, Tell them to see doctor if bad crazy
Blast music on IPod (Meshuggah ftw)
Aim: TWE is Hamlet sane? How can we evaluate his sanity?
King and Queen get Rosencrantz and Guildenstern to spy on Hamlet.
Polonius uses letters to Ophelia to prove Hamlet is insane.
Players come in
Hamlet was reading a book.
He is pretending to be crazy.
Hamlet: If you see me going crazy don’t let anyone know.
He probably is pretending to be crazy or is already crazy from his encounter with the ghost
At some point Horatio swore.
Look at Hamlet + Ophelia (p. 79, 87-91)
Look at Hamlet + Polonius (P. 93-97)
Look at Hamlet + Rosencrantz + Guildenstern (P.97-107)
How does Hamlet behave to your character and how does your character react? TWE does he seem sane? TWE does he seem genuine?
P.79, Hamlet took Ophelia by the wrist.
Ophelia might not be reliable.
Lines 92-93 possible allusion to the ghost which could make him seem insane
Letters show he’s desperate for Ophelia.
Not good love letters
“beautified” is made pretty as opposed to beautiful.
King and Queen still feel his father’s death make him insane
A little crazy or rude (fishmonger pimp)
Polonius is suspicious of Hamlet.
Method to Hamlet’s madness
Hamlet’s aware that Polonius is being nosy
Doesn’t think highly of Polonius
Knows that Polonius is connected to the king.
Rosencrantz and Guildenstern
Comparing fortune to a woman
seems sane and gets them out for spying for Claudius
tells them what he wants to tell the king
North-North-west on and off craziness
If Hamlet is putting on an antic disposition (method to his madness)…
Being random when crazy
Antics would lower king’s guard or get closer to king
TWE is he doing a good job?
No. He told R and g that he’s not actually crazy
HW: Reread and annotate the soliloquy (p117-118) Read 3.1 for Wed.
Do Now: Write about the different types of language that you use when you’re talking with the following types of people:
Your friends: Say whatever you want, offensive stuff
Your parents: Don’t complain about school, OD-ing
Your siblings: Like friends, avoid certain types of jokes, no racist stuff, no offensive stuff
Your teachers: nothing personal… different type of relationship
AIM: How does Shakespeare’s use of language affect the turmoil in Denmark?
After players come in, the Hamlet says some speech about Troy (relates to the revenge plot, avenging his father’s death, contrasts with not crying enough for father’s death?)
Polonius at first criticized the play, then liked it,
Hamlet asks players to put on a play that tests the king’s conscious
Iambic Pentameter: type of poetry (called blank verse), 10 syllables in a line (5 stressed, 5 unstressed words in each line), higher class people
Blank verse: type of meter poetry that doesn’t rhyme
Shakespeare uses rhymes at end of scenes, and to indicates childish things
Prose: regular, everyday language, lower class people
Hamlet in this scene speaks in prose to his childhood friends and to the players (should be speaking formally in front of the players)
Polonius also speaks in prose
Players speak in Iambic Pentameter, even though not noble and lower class people
Maybe Hamlet is acting too? His soliloquy is written in Iambic Pentameter, as with his speech in Act 1, Scene 2
Why do you think Shakespeare chose to switch the language around?
Ironic in general – Hamlet is a prince, reflects backwards nature of Denmark and turmoil
HW: Read 3.1. Annotate the “To be or not to be” soliloquy,
Do Now: Write about the last time that you were really angry. Why were you angry? How did you behave?
- 42nd street Subway, don’t go there…
- brown guy overcharged me
- Mr. Rubin: doesn’t react, then explodes (needs anger management), don’t get him angry or else…
- “productive” anger- running, music, not hitting things…
- acts nicer
- revenge is sweet
- anger as a force of change or counter-productive
AIM: How is Hamlet affected by his anger, and how does he change as a result of it?
When does Hamlet change? (mark the point in the soliloquy)
- Line 610- “Why, what an ass am I,” becomes more focused, repeats his plan, seems his attitude and style of speech has changed, his turning point
How does he change? (List and differences in the way that Shakespeare characterizes Hamlet before and after this point)
- swounds (curse)
- when mentioning Claudius, his anger peaks
- questions the ghost’s intentions, uses the play to confirm his doubts
HW: How does Shakespeare develop Hamlet’s character in this scene (3.1)? Go see the play!
Do Now: Write about an aspect of your personality that is not apparent when someone first meets you.
intelligence (most people assume you’re of average intelligence)
quiet, open up as you go along
not as lazy as I appear to be
AIM: How does Shakespeare develop Claudius’s personality? Shakespeare develops other character’s personalities as well.
tries to appease everybody
Machiavellian character - better to be feared than to be loved
Murderer, backstabber, power hungry
Good judge of character
Man of action
Claudius is ok to not be kingly by spying on his subjects.
Aside – speaking directly to the audience (modern-day voice over)
Claudius admits his conscience is “eating at him,” he is guilty of something
Prostitution is apparently wrong, Robert agrees
Noble on the outside, guilty on the inside, like Macbeth
Not a bad king, but a terrible brother
Adds another layer of complexity to Claudius, like Macbeth, becomes more human and less of a “cartoon villain,” but he’s still an antagonist
Shakespeare makes Claudius complex to make him less boring, a tragic story, moves the action forward
How has your opinion of Claudius changed as a result of the scene?
“TO BE(,) OR NOT TO BE” Pg 127, line 64 To live or not to live, that’s the question (parallel structure highlighting opposites)
Sleep sounds good….
HW: Read and annotate 3.2 (explain what you don’t understand)
Do Now: Characterize the mugger in the following story:
A man mugged another man on the subway yesterday stealing all of his money.
-quick and easy-pro, hesitates-feeling guilty
-Trying to feed his family – dirty money, feel sorry for him
-He’s Robin Hood – still unjustified, it’s fine, he’s got style
-He’s deranged, but he robs Madoff – its ok
AIM: How does our characterization of Hamlet change based on our reading of his situation? Pg 129
“Thus conscience does make cowards of us all,” (line 91)
Respond to the quote on the handout. TWE do you agree or disagree with the statement.
-Maximize power to ensure survival
-can’t resist the lure that power has >Czar of Russia
Half and half
-type of ruler > essential quality
-abuse of power>ruler shouldn’t cheat and abuse his power
-representative of a state>gives a bad sense of a ruler
-self preservation is not the objective of a ruler
-corrupt government led to downfall of nations
Nikolai Machiavelli- should king rule in divine right, or in a similar to Machiavelli’s belief
AIM: In what ways does Shakespeare portray Claudius as a Machiavellian?
TWE does Shakespeare support or oppose Machiavellian rule? Claudius
-shows shock on the murder of Polonius by Hamlet’s hands
-states that Hamlet is a threat and must be dealt with
-faking his anguish, happy that Hamlet could now be dealt with
British crown would assassinate Hamlet in England-England was tributary state to Denmark
Hamlet’s plan is elaborate, but not organized
Claudius’ plan is simple, organized, and resourceful
Claudius responds faster to Hamlet’s actions faster than Hamlet’s reaction.
TWE is Shakespeare seems to support or oppose Claudius’s Machiavellian tactics?
HW: Due after break – Read and annotate through the end of act 4.
Due January 13: Write an essay in which you existentially psychoanalyze Hamlet.
Be sure to address the following issues: 1. Trace his decisions back to the beginning of the play—what was his original choice?
2. After each decision, TWE is he aware of his free will? TWE does he exhibit bad faith?
3. How do his choices limit his possibilities as the play progresses?
Do Now: Write about a friend or rival against whom you measure yourself or against whom others measure you.
-rival from the 3rd grade, Pokémon gold and silver FTW > Pokémon battle
-parents compared with a sibling or a superior
-Basketball team compete for playtime
AIM: How is Fortinbras a foil for Hamlet?
Hamlet’s at the face of his enemy, but his revenge couldn’t complete his revenge
Wants to use the intelligence bestowed upon them from god
If you think to much, you become a coward (if we think to much, we can’t act)
Gets excited to kill, but doesn’t actually kill
HW: Read and annotate through the end of act 4.
Hamlet essay due January 13.
50 word Vocabulary will be up on the website by the end of the day
Do now: Record your best impression of Mr. Rubin
-“What’s the Aim”
-“Who wants to type”
AIM: How does Shakespeare use language to create personality in his characters?
Find in the play where the character speaks
Record all of the common type phrases and rhetorical figures that he uses, how it relates to the character
-speak in short phrases > lack royalty > not well spoken
-A2S2 > ends every phrases with “lord”
-comic relief > Carl and Lenny
-speaks like a commoner
-repeats the same word over and over and over, only when he reflects upon himself
-A1S2 > uses apostrophe a lot, addressing an inanimate object > asks himself rhetorical questions that he later answers himself, schizophrenic
-dramatic speech > doomed/gothic tone > like he’s in hell > talks about blood and murder
-“I tell you” or “my lord” > henchmen speak
-Hendiadys - adjective and a noun, make them both nouns and put an “and” in between
-she acts differently in front of her father > doesn’t treat them like equals > helpless
-A1S3 > biblical illusion/references
-talking about the heart > passion
-refers himself as Denmark > speaks with the “royal we”
HW: Write a paragraph comparing the Peripeteia in Oedipus with the Peripeteia in Hamlet
Vocabulary quiz on words 1-25 one week from tomorrow
Hamlet essay due Jan 13.
Do Now: Write about something that you or someone you know did that led to unintended consequences.
Borrowed a book from teacher; kept it too long
Alarm clock woke up everyone except person it was supposed to wake up
Punched his friend, thinking he was the bully
Peripeteia: action that leads the opposite of intended consequences that causes a character’s downfall
AIM:How does peripeteia play out in Hamlet? Ophelia has gone mad because Hamlet killed her father
What was Hamlet’s action that led to all of the changes in this scene?
He killed Polonius
What are the consequences?
Ophelia is mad
Laertes and Claudius are now working together
Instead of Laertes killing the king, the king will indirectly kill Laertes
Instead of ending the revenge cycle, the cycle continues
HW: Read 5.1 (Friday)
Essay due January 13
Vocabulary quiz one week from today
Do Now: Describe someone who is the complete opposite of yourself.
AIM: How does Shakespeare portray the minor characters ars opposites of Hamlet and what does this reveal about Hamlet’s personality?
Personality traits of Hamlet
Deceptive (pretends to be crazy)
Angry/bitter (tries to get revenge)
Hesitant(indecisive about taking revenge)
Wild mood swings
In what ways is your character’s situation similar to Hamlet’s?
In what ways does your character display the opposite traits or actions from Hamlet?
Find a passage that displays these traits as the opposite of Hamlet’s. (write down the passage)
Both aware of what happened with Polonius
Gertrude feels guilty
Father was killed
Actually crazy; no evil plot behind it
HW: Read 5.1 for Friday
Hamlet Essay due one week from today
Vocabulary quiz on Tuesday
Do Now: Define the following terms in 2-3 sentences each:
Day: The period of time that it takes for the earth to rotate on its axis.
The time between someone’s waking up and going to sleep.
Tall: With above average height compared to the average for the subject
Vocab quiz one week from today Do Now: Vocabulary Quiz
Summarize the comments Hamlet makes about class in the beginning of 5.1
-higher classes have advantages
-class is irrelevant in the end of life/time/in the Garden of Eden
-artificial, created by humans
Lower class character is getting the better of the higher class character in the scene
-entertains the poor people
The gravedigger is more informed than the royalty/nobility.
Everyone ends up as dirt.
-lower class seems more informed/aware
HW: Read and annotate until 5.2.205
Do Now: Think about your favorite comedy, then write about why you find it funny. What specific types of jokes or comic techniques do you find funny?
-South Park- Kenny’s deaths, celebrity satire, Cartman
-Monty Python- sane to insane, randomness
-Chris Rock- racial
The Office, Tonight Show- awkwardness, makes fun of current events
-The Daily show- funny but not pointless
-Children shows – unintentially funny
-Everybody loves Raymond- relatable, down to earth
-King of Queens- Doug
-Seinfeld, Mel Brooks, hitchhiker’s guide to the galaxy, Airplane, Major League,
AIM: How does Shakespeare employ comic relief in Act 5, Scene 1? Lines: 1-60, 146-187
Identify and explain the comedic techniques
TWE are they applied today; do people still make these jokes?
In what way does the humor relate to/comment on the rest of the play?
-Puns – lines 33-35 “bear arms,” still used today, comments on the differences between upper/lower classes “lying/lie-ing”
-Singing – eases mood, comedic, singing in a graveyard is dark humor
the character realizing the results of the peripeteia (agnorisis)
complete destruction of the tragic hero (whether by death, forceful changing of personality, etc)
purging of emotions (catharsis)
The revenge cycle is now complete. Laertes took revenge on Hamlet, who is dead. Hamlet also took revenge on Claudius, who is dead. And Fortinbras takes revenge on Denmark by taking over it. Also, there is a total of 1 surviving character.
In what ways does Shakespeare affect your element of tragedy?
In what ways is it similar to or different to the same element in Oedipus?
Has a tragic flaw (overthinks things)
When Hamlet hesitated to kill Claudius (YEAH ERIC!) or when Hamlet I defeats Fortinbras I
both Oedipus and Hamlet experience hubris
Hamlet killing Polonius or Hamlet acting crazy
Just like in Oedipus, there is more than one peripeteia
Act 5 Scene 2 Line 4, or when Hamlet realizes the consequences of killing Polonius
Reversal of Fortune
Hamlet’s killing of Polonius
In Oedipus, the reversal was an act of curiosity. In Hamlet, it was an act of violence
After everybody dies
HW: Group project due tomorrow
Typed, cite examples from the text (quotes)
2 paragraphs + the answers to your questions
Arnold Canell Prize In English
Two pages, double spaced—A book that has influenced you in a significant way.
Do Now: Sit with your group
What are the advantages and disadvantages of looking at something through the following lenses:
A magnifying glass
Also obscures vision
Limit color vision
Other people can’t see your eyes
Limits close vision
Lack of detail
Backwards—things are small
Critical lens—looking at a text from a specific POV
HW: Study for the midyear
Do Now: Prepare for presentations
Aim: IWW can literary criticism inform our reading of Hamlet?
Literature=subconscious thoughts of author
Method is influenced by Freud
Hamlet represses hi thoughts of betrayal –Claudius, Gertrude
Repressed oedipal complex – Hamlet unconscious desire for Gertrude
Symbols daggers, bedchamber
Upset about what happened to Gertrude/how she changed
Hamlet’s change towards Ophelia
Ghost =symbol fear or unresolved conflicts after death
Yorick’s skull=death, equality in death
Shakespeare might manifest his own oedipal complex
Shakespeare writing about his own son
Shakespeare’s dealing with his own feelings about death
Try to fit Hamlet into stereotypical reading
Readers are denial
Play supports a patriarchal POV
Two women are isolated
Had they worked together they could improve their situation