29. The notification dated 18/8/1994 made six amendments were made after the receipt of the report of a committee, headed by Mr. B.B.Vohra, which had been set up by the Central Government. The validity of the amended notification was also challenged in IA No. 19 of 1995 which was filed by three environment protection groups, namely, the Goa Foundation, Nirmal Vishwa and Indian Heritage Society (Goa Chapter). In the said application, the applicants gave a table containing the main points of the main Notification, the recommendations made by the Vohra Committee and the amendments made by amended notification of 1994. The said particulars are as follows:
Main CRZ notification
dated 19/2/1991 issues for relaxation
Vohra Committee recommendation
Amending notification dated 18/8/1994
200 metres from HTL is no development zone
Relaxation allowed rocky and hilly areas; no limit specified
Blanket relaxation for all areas up to HTL if Central Government so desires
No-development zone for rivers, creeks and backwaters 100 metres
Clarification demanded about limits; on relaxation suggested
No-development zone relaxed to 50 meters
No levelling or digging of sand dunes or sand
Allows destruction of sand dunes
No destruction of sand dunes allowed. However, goalposts, net posts, lampposts allowed
No-development zone area cannot be used for FSI calculations
Recommendations no-development zone are be permitted for FSI calculations
Relevant section not amended but explanation added as an afterthought in notification permitting no-development zone area to be included for FSI calculations
No basements allowed are not to be included in FSI
No fencing permitted within 200 metres-zone from HTL
Only green fencing permitted, no barbed wire fencing allowed
Allows green and barbed wire fencing”
Contending that the 1994 Notification will adversely affect the environment and would lead to unscientific and unsustainable development and ecological destruction, an application was field by the petitioner being IA No. 16 of 1995, inter alia, praying for the quashing of the said notification.
30. A reply was field by the Union of India justifying the amendments and given/reasons for the issuance of the 1994 Notification.
31. While examining the validity of the 1994 Notification, it has to be borne in mind that normally, such notifications are issued after a detailed study and examination of all relevant issues. In matters relating to environment, it may not always be possible to lay down rigid or uniform standards for the entire country. While issuing the notifications like the present, the government has to balance various interest including economic, ecological, social and cultural. While economic development should not be allowed to take place at the cost of ecology or by causing widespread environment destruction and violation; at the same time the necessity to preserve ecology and environment should not hamper economic and other development. Both development and environment must go hand in hand, in other words, there should not be development at the cost of environment and vice versa, but there should be development while taking due care and ensuring the protection of environment. This is sought to be achieved by issuing notifications like the present, relating to developmental activities being carried out in such a way so that unnecessary environmental degradation does not take place. In other words, in order to prevent ecological imbalance and degradation that developmental activity is sought to be regulated.
32. The main Notification was issued under Sections 3(1) and 3(2)(v) of the Environment Protection Act, presumably after a lot of study had been undertaken by the Government. That such a study had taken place is evident from the bare perusal of notification itself which shows how coastal areas have been classified into different zones and the activities which are prohibited or permitted to be carried out in certain areas with a view to preserve and maintain the ecological balance.
33. According to the Union of India, while implementing the main Notification, certain practical difficulties were faced by the authorities concerned. There was a need for having sustainable development of tourism in coastal areas and that amendments were effected after giving due considerations to all relevant issues pertaining to environment protection and balancing of the same with the requirement of development. It has been specifically averred that a committee headed by Mr. B. B. Vohra, was set up by the Government in response to the need for examining the issues relating to development of tourism and hotel industry in coastal areas and to regulate the same keeping in view the requirements of sustainable development and the fragile coastal ecology. According to the union of India, the Committee also included three environmentalist members who had expressed their views and that the Government had accepted the recommendations of the Vohra Committee with slight modifications. According to it, there has been no blanket relaxation in any area as alleged and adequate environmental safeguards have been provided in the 1994 Notification.
34. In this background, we now deal with each of these six amendments separately:
(i) According to the main Notification, distance of 200 metres from the HTL was a no-development zone (hereinafter referred to as ‘NDZ’). The representation of the Hotel and Tourism Industry was that the existing 200n metres’ depth of NDZ constituted a serious handicap to the said industry competing with the beach hotels of other countries where there were no such restriction. It was represented that a reduction of the NDZ would not be ecologically harmful and there was no convincing scientific reason for fixing 200 metres as the appropriate width for the NDZ. It was also stated before the Committee that according to its projection, the Hotel Industry in India would at the most require only about 20-30 kms of coastline for the construction of seaside resort over the next 15 years or so. If this requirement was viewed in the context of the fact that the total coastline of the country was over 6000 kms in length, the industry represented that relaxation with regard to this limited area would not pose any big threat to the country’s ecology.
35. The Vohra Committee in its recommendations observed that certain members of the Committee had felt that a blanket provision of 200 metres in the case of sandy beaches would lead to difficulties and there should be provision for relaxation to be made in suitable cases, but the consensus that emerged was that the present regulations should not be disturbed. The Committee, however, recommended that relaxations in 200 metres’ rule may be made in a case-to-case basis with regard to such stretches of the coastline which were rocky or hilly, but the relaxations should be made after carrying out necessary impact assessment studies. Furthermore, this relaxation should be made by the Ministry of Environment and Forests and not by the State Governments concerned.
36. In the 1994 Notification, there is a clear departure from the recommendations of the Vohra Committee. The notification now provides that for reasons to be recorded, the Central Government may permit any construction within the said 200 metres NDZ subject to such conditions and restrictions as it may deem fit.
37. In the written submission field by the Union of India in this Court on 29/9/1995, this amendment has been sought to be justified and explained by it in the following words:
“As regards the developmental activities up to the High Tie Line, the Central Government may for reason recorded in writing permit construction in any particular case taking into account the geographical features and other relevant aspects.
This is necessary as providing of 200 metres of no-development zone all along was not possible in the coastal line in a uniform way on account of wide variations in geographical features, existing human settlements and developmental activities requiring foreshore facilities etc”.
The relaxation with regard to NDZ was sought by the Hotel and Tourism Industry and they desired concession only with regard to 20-30 kms of coastline. By the amended notification, power had been given to the Central Government to make such relaxation with regard to any part of the 6000 kms long coastline of India. The Central Government has, thus, retained the absolute power of relaxation of the entire 6000 kms long coastline and this, in effect, may lead to the causing of serious ecological damage as the said provision gives unbridled power and does not contain any guidelines as to how or when the power is to be exercised. The said provision is capable of abuse. The Central Government also did not confine the relaxation to the extent as specified by the Vohra Committee. No satisfactory reason has been given by the Union of India as to why it departed from the opinion of the Expert Committee and that too in such a manner that the concession which has now been given is far in excess of what was demanded by the Hotel and Tourism Industry.
38. We, accordingly, hold that the newly added provision in Annexure II paragraph 7 in sub-in paragraph (1) (Item I) which gives the Central Government arbitrary, uncanalized and unguided power, the exercise of which may result in serious ecological degradation and may make the NDZ ineffective ultra vires and it hereby quashed. No suitable reason has been given which can persuade us to hold that the enactment of such a proviso was necessary, in the larger public interest, and the exercise of power under the said proviso will not result in large-scale ecological degradation and violation of Article 21 of the citizen living in those areas.
(ii) The NDZ for rivers, creeks and backwaters which was 100 metres from HTL has, by the amended notification, been relaxed to 50 metres. As already seen the main Notification does not apply to all the rivers. It applies only to tidal rivers which are part of the coastal environment. It was contended that the reduction from 100 metres to 50 metres was arbitrary and was not made on any basis. It was also contended that the Vohra Committee had made no proposal for relaxation along the rivers but it merely asked for a clarification of the limits to which the control would apply since in some areas, tidal ingress could go up to 50 kms from the coastline.
39. Justifying this amendment, it was contended by the Union of India that in case of creek, rivers or backwaters, it is not possible to have a uniform basis for demarcating NDZ. The zone shall be regulated based upon each individual case. It is no doubt true that there can be no uniform basis for demarcating NDZ and it will depend upon the requirements by each State authority concerned in their own Management Plans but no reason has been given why in relation to tidal rivers, there has been a reduction of the ban on construction from 100 metres to 50 metres. Even the Vohra committee which had been set up to look into the demands of Hotel and Tourism Industry had not made such a proposal and, therefore, it appears to us that such a reduction does not appear to have been made for any valid reason and is arbitrary. This is more so when it has been alleged that in some areas like Goa, there are mangrove forests that need protection and which stretch to more than 100 metres from the river bank and this contention had not been denied. In the absence of any justification for this reduction being given the only conclusion which can be arrived at is that the relaxation to 50 metres has been done for some extraneous reason. It was submitted, at the time of arguments by the Additional Solicitor General that construction has already taken place along such rivers, creeks etc. at a distance of 50 metres and more, but no such explanation has been given in the reply affidavit. Even if this be so such reduction will permit new construction to take place and this reduction cannot be regarded as a protection only to the existing structures. In the absence of a categorical statement being made in an affidavit that such reduction will not be harmful or result in serious ecological imbalance, we are unable to conclude that the said amendment has been made in the larger public interest and is valid. This amendment is, therefore, contrary to the object of the Environment Act and has not been made for any valid reason and is, therefore, contrary to the object of the Environment Act and has not been made for any valid reason and is, therefore, held to be illegal.
(iii) The man Notification had provided that there would be no levelling of sand- dunes or sand extraction. The Vohra Committee, however, allowed extraction of sand. This recommendation has not been accepted but the amended notification allowed the installation of goalposts or lampposts. Justifying this amendment, it was contended by the Union of India that installing such goalposts or lampposts will not result in flattening of sand-dunes and will also not have any other undesirable effect with regard to the said sand dunes. No permanent structure for sport facilities is permitted. We do not see any illegality lampposts to be erected. In fact the erection of these would facilitate or lead to more enjoyment of the beaches. Therefore, the challenge to this amendment fails.
(iv) By the amended notification, the NDZ is now to be included for FSI calculations. Justifying this amendment, it was submitted by the Union of India that an explanation had been added to the effect that although no construction is allowed in NDZ, for the purpose of calculation of FSI the area of the entire plot including portions which fall within NDZ shall be taken into account. This modification has been brought in because the area in NDZ will in any case be left vacant and although this land may belong to a private owner, he has to keep it vacant. To compensate for this, he is allowed to construct a building of such FSI as permissible after taking into account the area which falls in NDZ. This, it was submitted, is based upon fair and equitable conditions and as such this would have no effect on the ecological balance in the coastal area.
40. In view of the aforesaid reasons given by the Union of India and also keeping in view the fact that a similar recommendation had also been made by the Vohra Committee, we agree with the principle that some compensation is to be allowed to the private owner whose land falls in the NDZ, but at the same time haphazard and congested construction a pollutant in itself-cannot be permitted in any area of the city. We, therefore, modify the amendment and direct that a private owner of land in NDZ shall be entitled to take into account half of such land for the purpose of permissible FSI in respect of the construction undertaken by him outside the NDZ.
(v) With regard to the amendment which allows construction of the basements, it was contended that the deep foundations and structure could interfere in the coastal areas where there is an intermixture of salt and sweet aquifers. According to the Union of India, this amendment has been made on the recommendation of the Vohra Committee. It was, however, stated that the basements shall be allowed subject to the condition that the other authorities such as State Ground Water Boards will permit such construction and will issue no-objection certificate after confirming that the basement will not hamper free flow of groundwater in that area. It is, therefore, obvious that there will not be any adverse constructed subject to the satisfaction of the authorities concerned that same will not hamper free flow of groundwater.
(vi) The main Notification had not permitted fencing within 200 metres zone from HTL. By the amended notification, green and barbed wire fencing within the said zone has been permitted. Challenging this amendment, it was contended that the effect of such fencing would be to prevent the public from using the beaches. Justifying this amendment, the Union of India had stated that the Vohra Committee had permitted green fencing. By the amended notification barbed fencing, in addition to green fencing, has also been allowed. The reason for this is that green and barbed fencing has been allowed so that private owners are in a position to stop encroachment on their properties. Furthermore, in the interest of security also, a private owner would like to have some kind of boundary so that his property is safe. The implication, therefore, clearly is that it is not as if public beaches will be encroached upon or fenced. The fencing is being allowed only of the privately-owned property in order to protect the same. We, however, direct that fencing should not be raised in such a manner so as to prevent access of the public to public beaches. In other words, the right of way enjoyed by the general public to those areas which they are fee to enjoy, should in no way be closed, hampered or curtailed. The amendment or curtailed. The amendment as made, does not, in our opinion, call for any interference.
41. With rapid industrialisation taking place, there is an increasing threat to the maintenance of the ecological balance. The general public is becoming aware of the need to protect environment. Even though, laws have been passed for the protection of environment, the enforcement of the same has been tardy, to say the least. With the governmental authorities not showing any concern with the enforcement of the said Acts, and with the development taking place for personal gains at the expense of environment and with disregard of the mandatory provisions of law, some public spirited persons have been initiating public interest litigations. The legal position relating to the exercise of jurisdiction by the courts for preventing environmental degradation and thereby, seeking to protect the fundamental rights of the citizens, is now well settled by various decisions of this Court. The primary effort of the court, while dealing with the environmental-related issues, is to see that the enforcement agencies, whether it be the State or any other authority, take effective steps for the enforcement of the laws. The courts, in a way, act as the guardian of the people’s fundamental rights but in regard to may not be fully equipped. Perforce, it has to rely on outside agencies for reports and recommendations whereupon orders have been passed from time to time. Even though, it is not function of the court to see the day-to day enforcement of the law, that being the function of the Executive, but because of the non-functioning of the enforcement agencies, the courts as of necessity have had to pass orders directing the enforcement agencies to implement the law.
42. As far as this Court is concerned, being conscious of its constitutional obligation to protect the fundamental rights of the people, it has issued directions in various types of cases relating to the protection of environment and preventing pollution. For effective orders to be passed, so as to ensure that there can be protection of environment along with development, it becomes necessary for the court dealing with such issues to know about the local conditions. Such conditions in different pats of the country are supposed to be better known to the High Courts. The High Courts would be in a better position to ascertain facts and to ensure and examine the implementation of the anti-pollution laws where the allegations relate to the spreading of pollution or non-compliance of other legal provisions leading to the infringement of the anti-pollution laws. For a more effective control and monitoring of such laws, the High Courts have to shoulder greater responsibilities in tackling such issues which arise or pertain to the geographical areas within their respective States. Even in cases which have ramifications all over India, where general directions are issued by this Court, more effective implementation of the same can, in a number of cases, be effected, if the High Courts Concerned assume the responsibility of seeing to the enforcement of the laws and examine the complaints, mostly made by the local inhabitants, about the infringement of the laws and spreading of pollution or degradation of ecology.
43. There is a likelihood that there will be instances of infringement of the main Notification and also of the Management Plans, as and when framed, taking place in different parts of the country. In our opinion, instead of agitating these questions before this Courts, now that the general principles have been laid down and are well-established, it will be more appropriate that action with regard to such infringement even if they relate to the violation of fundamental rights, should first be raised before the High Court having territorial jurisdiction over the area in question. We are sure and we expect that each High Court will deal with such issues urgently. Environmental law has now become a specialized field. In the decision which was taken at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development held at Rio de Janeiro in June 1992 in which India had also participated, the States had been called upon to develop national laws regarding liability and compensation for the victims of pollution and other environmental damages.
44. There is 6000 kms long coastline of India. It is the responsibility of the coastal States and union Territories in which these stretches exist to see that both the notifications are complied with and enforced. Management Plans have to be prepared by the States and approved by the Central Government, if the said plans have been approved, the development can take place only in accordance therewith. Till the preparation and approval of the said plans by virtue of the provisions of the main Notification, no development in the coastal areas within the NDZ can take place. Therefore, it is in the interest of all concerned that the Management plans are submitted and approved at the earliest.
45. There has been a complete laxity in the implementation of the Act and other related statutes. Under the said Act, the Central Government has essentially been entrusted with the responsibility to enforce and implement the Act. Section 23 of the Act, however, enables the Central Government, by notification in the Official Gazette, to delegate such of its powers and functions to the State Governments or authorities. Thus, the implementation of the provisions of the Act has now essentially become the function of the State Governments. In an effort to control pollution, State Pollution Boards have also been established but the extent of its effectiveness is yet to be demonstrated. The Environment (Protection) Act, as framed, and Section 5 of the Act in particular, gives the Government extensive powers to issue directions to any person, officer or authority which they are bound to comply. The directions as issued have necessarily to be in accordance with the provisions of law and to give protection to environment.