BtN: Episode 14 Transcript 31/05/16 Hello my name is Nathan Bazley. Welcome to BtN!

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BtN: Episode 14 Transcript 31/05/16

Hello my name is Nathan Bazley. Welcome to BtN!
Coming up today:

  • For World Environment Day we travel to South Africa to find out how rhino are being protected from poachers.

  • Zoe joins the BtN reporting team to let us know what it's like to have cystic fibrosis.

  • And Kind Classrooms wraps up with a look at how you guys helped make the world a better place.

You can see all those amazing stories soon. But first, the biggest headlines from this week. Let's do it.

This Week in News
Malcolm Turnbull and Bill Shorten have faced off in the first major leaders' debate of the federal election. The Prime Minister focused on jobs and growth, while the Opposition Leader emphasised fairness and trust. But many have labelled the debate predictable and even a bit boring.

A school in Redfern has helped to prepare a pretty impressive art installation for Reconciliation Week this week. The students from Jarjum College planted the Sea of Hands near Sydney Harbour to support a more inclusive Australia. The Sea of Hands has a long history in the country, the first one was installed outside of Parliament House in 1997 by people who supported land rights for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.

And if you hate spiders maybe these little guys will change your mind! Brightly coloured dancing Peacock spiders have been getting a bit of attention lately. After an Aussie scientist discovered seven new species of them!
JURGEN OTTO, BIOLOGIST: Normally people think of spiders as something ugly, scary and dangerous but they're learning through my photographs and videos they're cute and colourful and adorable.

And why the funky moves? Well, it's all about attracting a mate.

DAVID KNOWLES, SPIDER SPECIALIST: The males that have the best routines and best colour combination they will get to spread their genes into the next generations.

Levels of Government

Reporter: Carl Smith
INTRO: Now, as you saw there, federal pollies are still running around the country and doing debates trying to convince people to vote for them. But while this time it's the federal guys up for election at other times it's state or local governments campaigning for a go. So how do these three different levels of government work together to keep Australia on track? Take a look.
In a land called Australia, three super heroes fight for the people. Federal woman, State man and Local boy.
KID CITIZEN: Help help! No one's collected my rubbish for weeks!
LOCAL BOY: Never fear, Local boy will keep your bins clear!
KID CITIZEN: My school's closing down - can you help!?
STATE MAN: Don't worry citizen. State man has just finished building a school even closer to your home!
KID CITIZEN: I don't have enough money - taxes are too high!
FEDERAL WOMAN: Federal woman can fix that.
These three super heroes each have their own unique powers. Just like the three levels of Australian government they're named after. The biggest is Australia's federal government and it takes care of the country as a whole. It has the responsibility of defending the nation, and deals with trade and other countries. It also keeps a close eye on managing Australian money, taxes, communications and the environment.
State and Territory governments control each of Australia's six states and two territories. And they have different responsibilities like health, education, mining and agriculture. They also watch over most of the police force and the courts, roads, trains and public transport.

At the bottom of the list is local government. And while its powers may not sound as impressive, there are more than 500 local governments around the country. They maintain local roads, deal with garbage and pets. And they're in charge of local buildings and permits.

But the country hasn't always had three levels of government, or three super heroes looking over it, either. Back in the old days of Australia, the states were their own separate colonies and just governed themselves! But then in 1901 the Federation of Australia united the colonies into the Commonwealth of Australia. And with that the states passed many of their powers to the new federal government.
STATE MAN: Federal woman! On this day I give to you some of my powers to help me govern the nation.
But as the population grew, state governments found it hard to manage all of the responsibilities they still had. So in the 1970s local governments became popular, they were given more money and some powers of their own.
LOCAL BOY: I humbly accept these powers.
That's how things still are today, and the system usually works pretty well. But every now and then there is an overlap in responsibilities, or they disagree.
STATE MAN: I think that we should this small road into a highway!
FEDERAL WOMAN: I don't think that's a good idea.
That's why they have rules about who runs what, and if they disagree then federal overrules state and state overrules local.
STATE MAN: Fine. We'll do it your way.
And that's how these three super heroes work together to keep our country running smoothly.
World Environment Day

Reporter: Ayshah - Newsround

INTRO: Okay next up, we're looking at World Environment Day coming up on June the 5th. The aim of this year's event is to bring attention to the horrors of the wildlife trade. UK's kids news show Newsround sent their reporter, Ayshah, to South Africa to meet some of the people helping to protect rhinos from just that.

REPORTER: My journey is starting in the Kruger National Park region. This wildlife reserve covers a large area. I can't quite believe that I'm so close to all of these wild animals.

Just behind me there's a herd of zebras. Over there there's some buffalo and off in the distances there's some rhino just chilling out. It might look like there's loads of animals around, but actually keeping these animals safe is quite a tough job.
The problem is being caused by poaching which is the illegal hunting on animals.

Across Africa since 2008 nearly 6000 rhino have been lost. Poachers hunt animals like rhino and elephants to sell their body parts. Although lots of leaders around the world have made an agreement to stop illegal animal parts from coming in to their countries, it's still happening and it hasn't stopped the poachers.

I've been invited by head Ranger Chris to join him on one of his patrols. Day in, day out, the rangers here must check on all the animals and make sure none of them have been a victim of poaching overnight.
REPORTER: What's going on with his horn? Why is his horn like that?
CHRIS: You see the horn there is rather square. All that's happened is we de-horned him.
REPORTER: Is that quite sad because it’s part of their identity isn’t it?
CHRIS: I wanted to cry when we cut them off, but to save the rhinos we have no option but to do it.
REPORTER: How long until there aren't many rhinos left?
CHRIS: Well, they’re disappearing at an alarming rate now and I reckon in 15 years they’ll be finished there won't be any rhino left in the wild. You'll only see them in pictures and in a zoo.
REPORTER: My journey's now taking me to the Eastern Cape of South Africa and one of the most high tech wildlife reserves in the world.
I've seen the problems that poaching has caused and now I've come to meet the people who say they may have a solution.
'LB' leads a team of rangers who are using technology in the fight against poaching.

LB: We test different types of technologies and try to prove the application how they can be successful in the field anything from boots all the way up to advanced sensors that have never been used before.

The animals are most at risk at night, because the dark makes it harder for the poachers to be seen.
Whilst out in the field, we use specialist night vision cameras to help us try to spot any poachers or anything out of the ordinary.
Why do you think poachers risk their lives to do something like this?
LB: A lot of times they have nothing else because there's so much poverty here, they don’t have another way to make money and they can make more money so fast here that they’re willing to do it.
LB and his team never give up and they work through the night to keep the animals safe.

In the last 10 years, half of the world’s rhino have been killed. If poaching continues at this rate, the species will be wiped from the face of the planet for good. Humans have caused this problem and the demand for ivory and horn needs to stop. But people like Chris, LB and you can be the solution.

Did You Know
Did you know rhino horns are made out of the same substance as our hair and nails?
It's called keratin.

Cystic Fibrosis

Rookie Reporter: Zoe
INTRO: Now, last Friday was 65 roses day. It's called 65 roses because the young boy who inspired it couldn't pronounce his own illness cystic fibrosis so he called it 65 roses instead. It's a condition that affects lots of kids, including this week's rookie reporter, Zoe. We asked her to tell us more about it.
ZOE: Hi, my name's Zoe. I'm 13 years old. Although I'm probably just like you in a lot of ways, there's something that makes me different. I was born with cystic fibrosis.

Cystic fibrosis or CF is a genetic disorder. That means I was born with it and I'll always have it. I didn't catch it from someone else. CF mainly affects my lungs and another bit of me called my pancreas. That's the part of my body that helps break down the fat in my food. Because of CF my lungs clog up with thick mucosey stuff. That makes it hard for me to breathe properly. It traps bacteria too, which means I'm more likely to get a bad infection. On top of that, my pancreas doesn't do what it's supposed to so I have to take medication to fix that each time I eat.

Growing up I was in hospital a lot. Sometimes I had to stay in hospital for weeks at a time. While I'm in there I can't go to school so I miss out on a lot and usually I have heaps of homework to catch up on. That can get pretty full on.
When I'm at home I still have to go in for regular checks and if the doctors find something like an infection, even if I don't have any symptoms like a runny nose, I have to stay in hospital and take lots of medicine to get rid of it. That's because something like a little cold for you could actually turn out really serious for me. Because of the mucus in my body, infections can damage my lungs and cause serious problems. So I have to make sure I protect myself every day. I clean my hands a lot, wear a mask whenever I have to go into the hospital, sometimes I have to miss out on things, like school camps and excursions and I take heaps of medication. Like, heaps!
These are all my tablets I have to take in a day and they all do different things. For 20 minutes a day I have to breathe into this. This is called a nebuliser. My medicine goes in through here and then I have to take some deep breaths in so the medicine can travel straight to my lungs.
More than three thousand people in Australia have cystic fibrosis like me and right now, there's no cure. By spreading awareness and helping people learn more about CF, one day I hope we will find a cure.
Quiz 1
Quiz Opener
What is the name of the pipe that goes from your mouth to your lungs?
Is it -

  • The Throat Pipe

  • The Oesophagus

  • Or the Trachea

Answer: Trachea

River Kids

Rookie Reporter: Tyrone

INTRO: The Murray River is an incredibly important water system in Australia. It spans three states and its catchment area is the third largest on earth. But it's also facing some challenges. On Monday, June the 6th BtN will premiere 'River Kids' a documentary that tells the story of the Murray River through the eyes of the kids that live alongside it. But today we have a sneak peek just for you guys. Here's Rookie Reporter Tyrone to tell you what the river means to his people - the Ngarrindjeri.

TYRONE: This is a dance for the river. It calls on our ancestors to put the spirit back into the land and into the water and heal it. My name's Tyrone and I'm Ngarrindjeri. For tens of thousands of years my people have lived at the Coorong, where the river meets the sea. We call it Murrundi and you know it as the Murray. The story starts where the Murray and the Darling meet and Ngurunderi's looking for his two wives and as he's looking for them he's gone underwater and he sees Ponde, the giant river cod so he chases him and then he gets his brother in law Nepele to help him so Nepele ends up spearing the fish and as they get the fish Ngurunderi cuts up the fish into tiny pieces and each piece represents a new fish so he gave life, many lives out of one life.
TYRONE: Aboriginal people fished the river from canoes they made from the bark of the Red Gum trees. If you travel along the river you can still see canoe trees, some of them are hundreds of years old.
TYRONE: But Ngarrindjeri people like my Grandfather have seen the river change.
MAJOR SUMNER, NGARRINDJERI ELDER: We'd go out on a boat and you'd be able to see the fish swimming into the nets. The Coorong was like looking through clear water. You can't see them now. The water was changing a different colour. You know, everything was getting bad. The fish were dying, the birds, the river, the lakes, the Coorong. It was dying.
TYRONE: European settlers changed the river so they can use it as transport and for farming. They built irrigation pipes and channels to take the water to towns and to farms like this one.

LATARA: 40 percent of the food grown in Australia comes from the Murray-Darling Basin and that's why irrigation is so important because if we didn't have irrigation then the Murray-Darling Basin wouldn't be irrigated and we didn't have that much water to water the plants to grow food to go to Australia.

TYRONE: People are starting to realise that they can't just take what they want from the river, so part of that's understanding more about how it works and that's what these guys are doing.
REGAN: I think it's very important for everyone to learn about the science of the river because it's our environment and we're gonna have to look after it 'cause everything we do affects the environment and the river.
MAJOR: If you live in this country now, you have to change your way of how you live, of how you treat the waters, how you treat the land because this earth is not going to last that long if we don't change.
TYRONE: For Australia, the river's like the blood in our veins. It brings us together and it brings us life and that's why we need to share it in the good times and in the bad.
Quiz 2
And as I said earlier you can see the full River Kids doco. Monday 6th of June at 10am right here on ABC 3.
Or you can just head to iView! Now for a quiz.
How long is the Murray River?

  • 8km

  • 508km

  • 2,508km

The answer is: 2508km

Kind Classrooms
Now to our month long quest for kindness! More than 100 classes signed up to our Kind Classrooms campaign. And the ways you thought of making a difference were absolutely awesome. So a big thank you for getting into the spirit of it!
We're going to put all of the videos we receive up on our website in full. But in the meantime here's a quick look at some of our favourites.


Australia has won the World 7s Rugby Championship, while they finished runner-up to Canada in the latest tournament in France. It was more than enough for the Aussies to earn the overall title after winning 3 of 5 tournaments in the series.

Aussie F1 racer, Daniel Ricciardo was left feeling pretty unhappy about his second place at the Monaco Grand Prix. The Aussie was in front 33 laps in. But his racing team, Red Bull made a mistake in the pits.

COMMENTATOR: They're late, they're late, can you believe it.
Ricciardo lost the lead to Lewis Hamilton and didn't manage to get it back.
RICCIARDO: I don't even want to even comment on the race to be honest.

And Aussie walker Jared Tallent has finally got his hands on Olympic gold 4 years after finishing his race. Back at the London Olympics in 2012 Jared came 2nd in the 50 kay walk. But recently it was revealed that the gold medallist used performance enhancing drugs.

So now Jared has been sent his rightful gold and he awarded it to himself in a special ceremony right in his own backyard.

Surfing Titles

Reporter: Nic Maher
INTRO: Finally today some of Australia's best Indigenous surfers hit Bells Beach recently for the Australian Indigenous Surfing titles. Among the pros were two talented kids, 12-year old Taj and 14-year old Summer who'd been training for the big event all year. Here's what happened.

Summer and Taj are two young groms hoping to make a big splash in the surfing scene. They come from a family that lives and breathes surfing and one of their favourite events is the Aussie Indigenous Surfing Titles.

SUMMER: It's great, like, how the Indigenous community, like, comes and we all come together and we surf together and it's all good experience and, like, it encourages, like, younger surfers, like, to come out and surf with us.
But even though surfing's in their blood, it's no walk in the park for Taj and Summer.

There aren't any junior events at the titles, so Taj and Summer have to step up to the big leagues and compete with adults.

But, that didn't seem to faze Summer last year, when she won the Open Women's comp!

SUMMER SIMON: I was only 13 when I first won Bells and I was, like, so stoked to win it at that that stage and, yeah, it was really good. I'm just hoping there's more girls, so then, like - maybe, like, a bit more competition and I'll surf better and it will be more fun.
Once the comp started, Summer once again stole the show.
After some impressive runs, she came out on top in the final, making it back to back championships.
SUMMER: Well, I feel like super stoked, happy to be out there. It's Bells Beach, you don't get to surf out there often.
But despite the big win, Summer says she's still got room to improve.
SUMMER: I've grown up surfing all my life. I was never really good. I used to not be able to stand up. But as soon as I learned to duck dive and stand up properly, I started getting better and better and I've still got more room for improvement. But never give up on anything otherwise you won't make it. You've got to work hard and achieve your goals.

Great work Summer! And that brings us to an end for today. Thanks to all of the schools that got involved in Kind Classrooms this month and I can't wait to show you what we have in store for June! See you then!

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