This chapter consists of background of study, identification of the problem, research problems, limitation of the problems, objectives of the study and significances of the study
1.1Background of Study
English is very important in the world because it is the international language, so people cannot communicate one to another in this world without using English. Therefore, people in the world should be able to speak English if they want to communicate with the other people in the world.
In Indonesia, English is considered as a Foreign Language. English is taught to students or people who live in non-English speaking country, like Indonesia. Being a development country, Indonesia needs to develop its human resources. Indonesian students should master English if they want to get involved in government program, such as tourism ambassador that can promote Indonesia in the worldwide. They should be able to communicate in English, such as; listening, speking, reading, and writing form.
All students in Indonesia must learn English because it is an International language. They use English as one tool of communication in their life. As the result it will be easier for them to run the business with other people in the world. They also can get a lot of friends when they are able to speak English fluency. The most important thing is, it will be easier for them to look for job or occupation in their country or abroad.
Indonesian students use English as their subject study. According to the 1984, 1994, 2004, and the 2006 curriculums or KTSP (School Based Curriculum) students should study English because English is the important subject to be learned in school. English is very required by students because when they have graduated from their school, it is easy for them to look for job.
Students should study the elements of language, such as English sounds (phonemes), vocabulary (morpheme) or word, grammar, structure, and meaning (lexicon). They also should study the four language skills, those are listening, speaking, reading, and writing. However, most students get a difficulty in listening. It is hard for them to communicate with foreigners because they have a lack of listening ability in listening, pronunciation is very important. They cannot what their hear if they lack of pronunciation or they have not accustomed in English pronunciation.
Based on the students’ problem have been faced, the writer would help students to improve their listening ability through short short story. The technique of teaching listening in using short short story is expected to make students feel comfortable and to make them have the spirit to study better in the future. Moreover, the writer writes this paper which is entitled: The Use of Short Short Story for Improving Students Listening Ability.
1.2 Identification of the Problem
Students in junior high school are not accustomed to listen English conversation. When they study about listening ability in their school, they get some difficulties in the subject because they do not listen it every day. In other words, they have a lack of listening ability and they have to practice lots.
Based on the writer’s experience when doing the teaching practicum, most students do not understand what the teacher says, or what the teacher reads. This evidence can prove that most students lack listening ability. Because of that, students in SMP Pasundan 12 will be trained to improve their listening ability through short short story.
1.3 Research Problem
In this study, the problems are formulated in two questions below
Is short short story effective for teaching listening ability?
How effective is short short story used for improving students listening ability?
1.4 Limitation of the Problem
The problem is limited to the students’ capability in listening ability. Most of them still have a lack of understanding a text or understanding English conversation because their listening ability is very limited
1.5 Objectives of the Study
This study finds the answer to the questions above as follow:
• To find out whether or not the short short story can help students to improve their listening ability
• To find out whether or not the short short story effective used for improving students listening ability
1.6 Significances of the Study
The study is hoped to give many benefits to the writer and to other people, they are as follows:
• The writer wants to give contributions by this research paper to the English Department, Pasundan University where the writer studies.
• The writer hopes that it is useful to make learning and teaching process to become interesting. It also can help students to get easier material and to facilitate teachers convey in their learning and teaching process by using short short story.
This chapter consists of listening as one of the four language skills, the process of listening, bottom-up and top down strategies, what makes listening difficult? communicative approach or CLT (Communicative Language Teaching), CLT in Indonesian context, teaching listening, short short story in teaching listening, characteristic of short short story, teaching technique of English using short short story, and test, evaluation and assessment of short short story in teaching listening
2.1 Listening as One of the Four Language Skills
One of the important skills in English is listening. According to Laderman (2002 in Hermawan 2012): “Adult spends their time about 42% in doing listening activities while children 58%.” In Addition Vito (2001 in Hermawan 2012) explained that, “45% of adult activities are dominated by listening while 30% in speaking, 16% in reading and 9% in writing. “ In the meantime, students spend their time 53% in listening, 16% in speaking, 17% in reading and 14% in writing. It means more than 50% students activities are dominated by listening. It is normal when students often listen than speak up in the classroom.
In general, listening and speaking are intertwined and they cannot be separated. Brown (2001) explained, “Listening and speaking skills are closely intertwined. For example, when we hear a conversation, we try to hear attentively to the speaker, in order that we can give response.” So there is the process of interaction between the listener and the speaker. It means listening and speaking are intertwined and it cannot be separated.
Vito (2001 in Herry Hermawan 2012) explained, “Listening activities have functions such as understanding people, empathizing, influencing people, comforting ourselves, criticizing people and helping people.” The following lines are summarized what Vito says (2001 in Hermawan 2012):
The capability of accepting and understanding people’s conversation is the key of the success. Understanding people means, we learn a reaction and requirement of people. When we can accept and understand all information that we get, it can help us knowing and learning everything that we need. In other words, understanding people is to get information or to learn something.
Listener who can accept and remember the information will be favored by speaker. Good listener should be able to give the feed back to the speaker.
Speaker will be respected to the listener when the speaker feels comfortable to the listener because the speaker considers that the listener can listen and understand what the speaker says. At the end the speaker would follow what the listener wants.
When listener hears funny stories or anecdotes that are given by someone else, we can be entertained as feel at case.
Listener that is critical can help each individual or society to understand them and to evaluate their idea.
As a listener, we must realize that when your friend tells about the problem of his life to us then we can give good analysis or good advice of his problem. It can help to increase his moral and confidence.
2.1.1 The Process of Listening
According to Keltner (1970 in Hermawam 2012), listening is a process of transferring rapidly. It means, we must focus on one stimulus during a few seconds and look for some information rapidly through sense of hearing then we get information that we need. Brown (2001: 249) explained, “Listening is not one-way street. It is not merely the process of an unidirectional receiving of audible symbol and we have just received sound waves through our ears and transmitting to the brain and enough but listening is an interactive process.” As a good listener, Brown has given some process in listening. They are as follows;
The hearer must imagine some aspects in short term memory such as phrases, clauses, cohesive markers, intonation and stress patterns of a stream of speaker’s speeches.
The hearer determines the type of speech event being processed and the hearer tries to interpret the received message.
The hearer must infer the objectives of the speaker about what the speaker wishes in a conversation, whether the speaker wishes to persuade, to request, to give information or others. So the hearer can prepare a good response to the speaker.
The hearer recalls background information relevant to the particular context and subject matter. A lifetime of experience and knowledge are used to perform cognitive associations in order to bring plausible interpretation to the message
The hearer assigns a literal meaning to the utterance. The process involves a set of semantic interpretations that has been received.
The hearer assigns intended meaning to the utterance. The hearer begins to interpret what the speaker want to convey in brain.
Finally, the hearer deletes the message form that was the originally received then the hearer begins to response with all information that has been received.
Tarigan (2008:62) has also written in his book about listening process. There are stages in listening process. Those are hearing, understanding, interpreting, evaluating and responding.
Hearing: in this stage, we have just heard sound waves from speaker.
Understanding: after that, there is curiosity from the hearer to know or to understand well what the speaker wants to say.
Interpreting: the good hearers will not be satisfied if they just hear, they also want to hear the speaker’s interpretation.
Evaluating: after hearers have understood, they can interpret the conversation, and then begin to evaluate opinion and idea.
Responding: the last stage, the hearer begins to response the conversation and the hearer gives comment and idea that they want to convey.
Both of listening process that has written by Brown and Taringan above, they have proved that many process to be a good listener. In other words, listening skills have to be learned early, especially English as foreign language in Indonesia.
2.1.2 Bottom –up and Top Down Strategies
Indrawati (2012) gave an illustration about bottom up and top down strategies.
When you have in lunch with your friend then your friend told you about his experiences of holiday that was very interesting and exciting in his home town. You will usually listen enthusiastically and sometimes you will give your opinion based on your experiences from your friend’s experiences that have been told.
Your friend call you and he invites you to come to his wedding day but you do not know the address then you will ask to your friend in detail and you try to make a note in your paper because when you do not get information clearly, you will get difficulty about information that you want to know.
From the illustration above, we can notice, there are the difference between illustration 1 and illustration 2. Top down strategy is used in illustration 1; the listener uses his background knowledge to catch the message that is wanted to be delivered. There is no limitation topic, when we are chatting with someone else.
For example, your friend talks about his holiday, automatically the listener imagines about holiday. When we talk about it, the listener would give a respond or opinion based on his background knowledge. While bottom up is used in illustration 2, the listener must get information clearly. When the speaker talks to listener, the listener has to listen to the listener in detail so the listener receives messages that are needed. For example the listener wants to know about place, address or something that he wants to know. So when the listener does not get information clearly, he will get difficulty about the information that he wants to know. In reality, it is very important to apply bottom up strategies, for example when we are hearing study, hearing the music and any more, the listener must understand listening input clearly.
2.1.3 What makes listening difficult?
Brown and Yule (1983 in Nunen 1991) gave four clusters of factors, which can affect the difficulty of oral language. Firstly the speaker, how quickly they speak. We can see, speed of speech can influence listener’s comprehension in a conversation. What types of accent they have. Every people have different accents and it makes listener are difficult in catching a conversation.
Secondly the listener, Listeners will be easier to catch what they hear, when they are listen interesting subject. Third is content such as grammar, vocabulary, information structure etc. A conversation will be difficult to understand, when the speaker uses bad contents such as bad grammar, bad vocabulary, bad structure in conversation and many more. The last is support such as pictures, diagrams or other visual aids to support the listener in understanding what the speaker wants to convey.
2.1.4 Communicative Approach or CLT (Communicative Language Teaching)
According to Richards and Rodgers (2001:159): “The communicative approach in language teaching starts from a theory of language as communication. “ The goal of language teaching is to develop what Hymes (1972) referred as communicative competence. While Kimtafsirah (2011) said, “CLT has become umbrella term, it is not only one approach but it is a set of approaches which have similar belief, in this case, language teaching.”
The goal of language teaching is communicative competence. According to Hymes (in Rodgers 2001), They have divided into four competences. Those are grammatical competence, discourse competence, sociolinguistic competence and strategic competence. In grammatical competence, learners focus on grammatical rules and meaning (lexical). In discourse competence, learners focus on many kinds of text. In sociolinguistic competence learners should be able to use formal and informal language and strategic competence learners should be able to start the conversation.
Brown (2001) has given six characteristics of CLT
Classroom goals are focused on four competences
Language techniques are designed to engage learners in the pragmatic, authentic, functional use of language for meaningful purposes
Fluency and accuracy are seen as complementary principles underlying competence techniques
Students have to use language productively and receptively in classroom
Students are given opportunities to focus on their own learning process
The teacher is as facilitator and adviser for students.
In this case, Richards and Rodgers (2001), Kimtafsirah (2011) and Brown (2001) describe that CLT in western countries is used for teaching English as second language.
2.1.5 CLT in Indonesian context
CLT that is explained above is CLT in western countries that is used for teaching English as second language. While in Indonesia, English as foreign language. Kimtafsirah (2011:20), gave some characteristics of CLT in Indonesia. Those are;
It is used for teaching English as a Foreign Language.
Students should work in the group.
One of the objectives of CLT is to make students able to speak and write in English.
CLT in Indonesian context adapts CLT in western context.
In CLT in Indonesia context teachers teach communicative competence to students.
Teachers teach language as communication.
Teachers teach communicating in the target language.
Most teachers are not native speakers.
Communicative activities and tasks are underlined.
CLT in western contexts has four competences while CLT in Indonesian context has five competences those are discourse competence, actional competence, social cultural competence, linguistic competence and strategic competence.
The goal of CLT is CC (based on Murcia 1998 in Kimtafsirah 2011) it means the teacher should gives five competences to students
- He or she should make students are able to understanding many able to kind of the text (discourse competence)
- He or she should make students able to speak and writing (actional competence)
- He or she should make students able to master grammar, structure and vocabulary (linguistic competence)
- He or she should make students able to use of formal and informal language. (Social cultural competence)
- He or she should make students able to start conversation or the negotiate the meaning (strategic competence)
2.2 Teaching Listening
Kimtafsirah (2011) said, “Teaching is a change for students’ behavior in order to obtain the knowledge.” In other words, teachers can give all of what they have based on their experiences, their knowledge to students. It is to make students get new experiences and new knowledge that will be used by students in future, Kimtafsirah (2011) also wrote four steps in her book about a process how the way teachers give their knowledge to students. It is teach, input, intake and output. In this case, teachers should be able to give all their knowledge to students especially in their subject then teachers are making every effort to convey a subject to students, to make students get a lot of intake of what they receive. Finally, students are expected to be able to apply what they get in the real life.
In this case, the writer focuses on teaching listening, especially English as foreign language, students must study it every day, in order they are accustomed in listening. Harmer (2007) explained, “Students can improve their listening skills through a combination of extensive and intensive listening material. In extensive listening, teachers usually encourage students to study listening skill outside of classroom. Such as at the students’ home, they study listening skill through watching English movie or listening English music. They can also go out to others place to improve their listening ability.” Harmer (2007) divided intensive listening into three types. Intensive listening: using audio material, intensive listening: ‘live’ listening and intensive listening: the role of the teacher
- Intensive listening: using audio material
In this case, teachers use audio material such as tape or CD as their learning process in listening skill. Students practice to catch what they hear on the tape or CD.
- Intensive listening: ‘live’ listening
This type is very popular. Many teachers use live listening as their learning process in listening skill. According to Jeremy Hammer (2007), there are four techniques in live listening. Reading aloud, story-telling, interviews and conversation.
Reading aloud: teachers usually read something loudly in other students can listen it clearly
Story telling: teachers are ideally placed to tell stories. It is good technique because in this case, students not only imagine about that story but also they will predict what is coming next in that story. Finally, it will help for students in increasing their listening ability.
Interviews: teachers can also use live interviews as their learning process in listening ability. Students will think about all kinds of questions that they ask, indirectly they will also hear the answer about what they have asked
Conversation: in this case, teachers usually ask the students to conduct English conversation in the class. It is in pair or group
- Intensive listening: the roles of the teacher
In this type, teachers conduct listening task. Teachers want to know about difficulty of students and usually teachers will give suggestion about students’ problem in listening skill.
As Harmer, Brown (2001) wrote in his book about types of classroom listening performance. Brown divides six types of classroom listening performance. It is reactive, intensive, responsive, selective, extensive and interactive
- Reactive: teachers use tape recorder as media, it focuses on pronunciation
- Intensive: teachers focus on components such as phonemes (English sound), morpheme (word), syntax (grammar and structure) lexicon (meaning) and so on.
- Responsive: teachers encourage students to be able to response a conversation immediately such as asking question, giving commands, seeking clarification and many more
- Selective: teachers encourage students to able to summarize or to find important information every speech, stories and anecdotes, conversation and many more.
- Extensive: in this type, teachers encourage students to be able to develop a top down global understanding to spoken language. Top-down processing, it emphasizes on students knowledge and experiences in understanding the message.
- Interactive: teachers encourage students to be able to interactive in the classroom. Generally, students do some activities such as discussion, debates, conversation, role-play and many more. In this case, we can find combination between listening and speaking.
2.2.1 Short Short Story in Teaching Listening
Short story is a story that is short nevertheless, we cannot divide how the size of the story. Nurgiantoro (2005:10) said short story is a story which is finish read one time. It means when we are reading short story, it does not need long time to know contain of that story. There are three variations of short story. Those are short short story, middle short story and long short story. It is very short in short short story. It has less than 500 words in a story.
In general, children like to hear a story. Many parents give stories such as tale, folklore etc to their children. We can see, children ask their parents to narrate a story when they want to sleep. Customarily, parents give folklore to their children such as Cinderella’s story, Malin Kundang’s story etc and each of stories has moral and massages that are conveyed in the stories.
Harmer (2007) said stories can be used by teacher in improving students’ listening ability. When teacher read or tell a story especially short short story, students do not need translate each word. Students try to imagine that story, with students’ curious, they will be predict what they are going to hear in that story. At the end, it will improve their listening ability.
Therefore, teachers can use short short story as a learning process especially in junior High School. When teachers use short short story as their learning and teaching process, hopefully it can improve students’ ability especially in listening and also the important thing is students are comfortable in learning and teaching process.
Bouarce (2010) explained in his thesis that when a teacher uses teaching technique using short story in this case short short story in teaching listening, he has to focus explaining clearly in framework and scheme theory because when students have understood about that, they will be easier to catch story that they are hearing. According to Gordon (1976) in Bouarce (2010) said, framework is a set of related categories which are to be filled by particular objects and events in the story to clarify this notion. While schema permits us to leave many details unsaid and inferred when interpreting language.