Round 1 Tossups by Matt Keller 1. Coulomb and Becquerel observed it in wood, though Brugmans was the first to observe it, and Faraday gave it its name. Earnshaw's Theorem does not apply to this property, so pyrolitic graphite is able to achieve stationary levitation. The susceptibility of pyrolitic graphite is about three times greater than that for bismuth, the element with the largest value, and a superconductor displays the perfect kind of this behavior due to the Meissner effect. It is explained by applying Lenz's law on a microscopic scale since induced fields oppose the changes that created them. FTP name this weak form of magnetism that opposes an applied magnetic field.
2. A student with whom the protagonist of this work has an affair spends much of Act II scene six speculating that men go to war to compensate for having small penises. Act II scene 11 finds the main character asking his wife Helga for a divorce shortly before the supposed titular character returns. Those two central characters had first met at Ambassador Koening's party, and they have further meetings at the Chinese Opera before eventually getting a flat together. Through conversations with Comrade Chin, though, we learn that Song Liling, whom Rene Gallimard thought was a "modest girl" during their 20 year affair, is actually a male Chinese spy. FTP name this Tony-winning play by David Henry Hwan, whose Puccini-inspired title turns out to refer to Rene, leaving Song as the Pinkerton character.
ANSWER: M. Butterfly (do not accept or prompt on Madame Butterfly)
3. Current theory holds that the site of this battle was actually about 30 miles north of where a monument was built in the 19th century. The commander of one side had achieved the rank of equestrian growing up in Rome, while the other had grown unpopular after charging tribute in the region he governed. This caused the Marsi, Bructeri, and Cherusci to unite and create a false report of a local rebellion that the Romans needed to put down. Segestes, the father-in-law of the winning commander, tried unsuccessfully to warn the loser that it was a trick, and they found themselves marching though a marshy, narrow field when they were ambushed by the Germans. FTP name this battle that saw Segimerus and Arminius rout the three legions of Quintilius Varus in 9 CE.
ANSWER: Battle of Teutoburg Forest
4. The logic used to derive this law can also lead to the abstractly related Walras' Law. The implication of it in Keynesian terms is that a free-market economy is always at full employment, though structural unemployment is still possible. It says that recessions are not caused by a lack of money, and that "the only way of getting rid of money is in the purchase of some product." First expressed in A Treatise on Political Economy, David Ricardo and James Mill came up with its most common form, though more generally, it says that there cannot be long-term gluts. FTP name this "law of markets" developed by a Frenchman that is often stated as "supply creates its own demand."
ANSWER: Say's Law
5. The experience of its celebration by those around Geoffrey Firmin is the center of a 1947 novel. A version of the Don Juan legend is traditionally performed during this holiday which was originally celebrated in late July-early August. Moved to October-November to correspond with Christian holidays, it honors Mictecacihuatl (mict-cock-ee-wat-al), the Queen of Mictlan, and all of the departed. The setting of Malcolm Lowry's Under the Volcano --for 10 points-- name this November 1st and 2nd Fillipino and Mexican celebration corresponding to All Saints Day.
ANSWER: Day of the Dead or El Día de los Muertos
6. Like in the liver, cytochrome P-450 is necessary for the function of many of this organ's enzymes, including 21 beta and 17 alpha hydroxylases. Conn's syndrome results from a tumor in the zona glomerulosa, which is the outermost layer of this organ. The zona reticularis produces DHEA , which is more important for women than for men. Either a pituitary adenoma or overactivity of its zona fasiculata can result in Cushing's Syndrome, and a primary insufficiency of the entire cortex results in Addison's Disease. FTP name this small organ that produces aldosterone, cortisol, and androgens in its cortex and norepinephrine and epinephrine in its medulla.
ANSWER: adrenal glands
7. He discussed whether it is better to be wise but unhappy or content but imbecilic in "The Story of a Good Brahman," and he described Demogorgon's shortfalls in creating the earth in "Plato's Dream." He attacked Maupertuis, president of the Berlin Academy, in "Diatribe of Doctor Akakia," and his best-known historical work is one about a Swedish warrior-king, History of Charles XII. Plays such as Mahomet and Oedipe achieved great success in his day, though he got in trouble for praising English freedoms, while also attacking French inequities, in his Philosophical Letters. Known for later works like the Philosophical Dictionary and the tale Zadig, FTP name this French author most famous for a work featuring characters like Anabaptist Jacques, Martin, Cacambo, Cunegonde, and Candide.
ANSWER: Francois Marie Arouet de Voltaire
8. The long violin cantilena in the finale of this work contrasts the first theme so much that it is not featured in the development. The scherzo liberally quotes the composer's earlier song Hans und Grethe, and the first movement's Allegro theme consists almost entirely of the second of his Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen. Inspired by an engraving called "The Huntsmen's Funeral," the piece opens with the sounds of hunting horns and distant fanfares. After three disastrous debuts, an extra Andante section was cut out, and a program was added to help the audience enjoy the work. FTP name this work whose most famous movement is its third, which features the minor-key version of "Frere Jacqes" in a funeral march, nicknamed "Titan" and composed by Gustav Mahler.
9. Saint Louis IX of France was said to have had one, but it turned out to be a 15th century forgery. The one of Charles III prevented the union of Naples and the Two Sicilies, and one created by Charles V established the Netherlands as a separate and coequal Hapsburg land. Ferdinand VII's led to the Carlist Wars, and one issued at Bourges created a council with authority over the pope, though after the death of the issuer Charles VII, it was repealed in favor of the Concordat of Bologna. The most famous example was initially accepted but then rejected by the likes of Charles Albert of Bavaria and Frederick the Great. FTP name these decrees of emperors or kings, the best known of which called for Maria Theresa to inherit the territories of her father Charles VI, but which led to the War of Austrian Succession.
ANSWER: Pragmatic Sanctions
10. One of the supporting characters in this movie, Abe, was expected to be a rabbi given his great understanding of the Torah, but disappointed his family by going into law. The main character disappoints Abe by citing the wrong case in moot court after showing up late, which also further alienates Jo, his former girlfriend. He had been driving the truck of his sort-of mentor, played by John Turturo, as part of his promise to Jo, which he broke after picking up his friend Worm from prison. Worm owes Gramma $25 thousand, and after the main character, Mike, vouches for him, Worm runs off after they get caught cheating and lose their money. FTP name this movie which sees Mike redeem himself at the end playing heads up against Teddy KGB, a 1998 film starring John Malkovich, Edward Norton, and Matt Damon as some high stakes poker players.
11. In Act II, scene 3, this character describes to his newly purchased slave how he "slew friend and enemy with [his] stratagems" while fighting for Charles V. He has a good chuckle in Act III scene 2 when his daughters' two suitors, Lodowick and Mathias, kill each other in a duel after he had promised her to both of them. He framed Jacomo for the murder of Barnardine, both of whom knew about his poisoning an entire nunnery after his daughter Abigail joined it. Still angry at the governor Ferneze for confiscating his estate, he fakes his own death in Act V to help the Turks take control. FTP name this man who is then betrayed by Ferneze and dies in a cauldron while cursing the "damn'd Christians, dogs, and Turkish infidels," the titular character of a Christopher Marlowe play.
ANSWER: Barabas or The Jew of Malta
12. According to the Wiener-Khinchin theorem, the autocorrelation of a function can be found by applying this procedure to the absolute square of the function. A common way of computing one form of it involves recursively breaking it down into smaller ones, which reduces the run time to O(n log n), known as the Cooley-Tukey algorithm. In the discrete form, leakage error occurs due to the inherent truncation, and the Gibbs phenomenon occurs near discontinuities. Often used in signal and image processing due to its convolution theorem, FTP name this mathematical process that breaks down a signal into its component sinusoidal frequencies.
ANSWER: Fourier transform
13. He lost his first faculty position after publishing "On the Basis of Our Belief in the Divine Governance of the World," which said that God did not exist outside the moral world order. His review of Schulze's polemic against his biggest influence provided much of the impetus for his own philosophy, which started with a Tathandlung, or self-evident certainty. He wrote several works concerning his system of Wissenschaftslehre, or "science of knowledge," at Jena before moving on to Berlin, where he applied that system to history in The Characteristics of the Present Age and Addresses to the German Nation. FTP name this follower of Kant and author of An Attempt at a Critique of All Revelation and The Vocation of Man.
ANSWER: Johann Gottlieb Fichte
14. The "Long Assembly," convened shortly before this event, set up trade restrictions and a defensive chain of command that many saw as corrupt. The early signs of trouble involved a raid by the Doegs on Thomas Mathews' land, followed by a retaliatory raid on the wrong group – the Susquehanaugs. After several standoffs with his cousin, the leader of this event was made general of the forces against the Indians, a position he used to conduct numerous raids and to wrest power from that cousin, Governor William Berkeley of Virginia. Shortly after issuing his "Declaration of the People" during the height of this event, though, Berkeley's men infiltrated his group, and he soon died of body lice. FTP name this uprising of 1676 in Jamestown named for its ill-tempered leader.
ANSWER: Bacon's Rebellion
15. Other mythological holders of this name include a steed of Eos and a son of Tithonus who was a keeper of Aphrodite's shrine. After the death of this character, his friend Cycnus of Liguria grieved so much that he became a swan, and his sisters' tears turned to amber as they became poplar trees along the Po River. By some accounts, his ambitions were triggered by some trash talking following a foot race against a son of Zeus, Epaphus. After telling his father that he is the son of Clymene, he was granted a wish that eventually turned Libya into a desert. FTP name this son of Apollo who tried to drive the chariot of the sun across the sky but lost control of the horses, wreaking much havoc in his path.
16. The first vaccine to have an effect on cancer worked by preventing one form of this class of diseases and thus its associated carcinoma; that form is also treated with lamivudine. One type of it is a prerequisite for subsequent infection with the “delta agent,” while another severe variety is usually treated with ribivarin and alpha interferon. The A, E, and F types arrive via the oral-fecal route, while the B, C, D, and G varieties are sexually transmitted, and any type can be aggravated by alcohol use. FTP, name this group of diseases, the general name for inflammation of the liver.
17. The middle section of this poem attempts to find analogies to the titular entity, including "a high-born maiden / In a palace-tower", "a Poet hidden / In the light of thought", and the "Sound of vernal showers / On the twinkling grass." The final section says that even "if we could scorn / Hate and pride and fear," we would never be as happy as the titular creature, which the speaker asks to "Teach us...What sweet thoughts are thine." In the opening section, that animal "Pourest thy full heart" as it "singing still dost soar, and soaring ever singest." FTP name this poem that opens with the line "Hail to thee, blithe Spirit," a work by Percy Shelley.
ANSWER: To a Sky-lark
18. This country's human population is concentrated in the valleys, such as the Gissar and Yavansu, that make up less than 10 percent of its land area. It includes the semi-autonomous region of Gorno-Badakhsan in the southeast, and the Panj River forms much of its southern boundary. That river joins up with the Vaksh, the main river of the western portion of the country, to form the Amu Darya. Most of the land is mountainous, containing the Zeravshan and Trans Alay ranges of the southern Tien Shan, as well as Communism Peak in the Pamirs. FTP name this central Asian country bordered by China, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, and Kyrgyzstan, with capital at Dushanbe.
19. He was from the small Batetela tribe, which served to distinguish him from his two chief rivals later in life. He became active in the Liberal Party of his country, and after serving jail time for embezzlement, he founded his homeland's National Movement. He was imprisoned again for inciting a riot against proposed elections, but his party won a huge majority anyway. Once in power, he lost control of a secessionist region under Moise Tshombe and had to request help from the Soviet Union when the UN refused to intervene in Katanga. This move got him dismissed by President Kasavubu shortly before Joseph Mobutu seized power. FTP name this first prime minister of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
ANSWER: Patrice Lumumba
20. In the distant background of this work, some puffy clouds appear over a hill fortress as the sun sets. The upper right is dominated by a building based on a description of a basilica by Vitruvius, and the bases of two pillars can be seen in the upper left. Two distressed babies appear in the central foreground, which makes sense since next to them, an old man tries in vain to fight off a guy with a dagger from taking his daughter. Many other small battles take place behind them as Romulus, wearing a red cloak and holding a spear, looks on from above. FTP name this Nicolas Poussin work depicting the bachelors of Rome getting themselves some women to impregnate.
ANSWER: Rape (or Abduction) of the Sabine Women
Boni by Matt Keller
1. Name these members of FDR's cabinet FTPE.
 FDR's Secretary of War from 1940-45, he had earlier served the same post under Taft and was Hoover's Secretary of State, during which his namesake Doctrine was issued over Japan's invasion of Manchuria.
ANSWER: Henry Lewis Stimson
 The Secretary of the Navy for FDR's final two years in office, he also became the first Secretary of Defense before committing suicide.
ANSWER: James Forrestal
 This female Secretary of Labor served all 12 years under FDR.
ANSWER: Frances Perkins
2. Answer the following related to the cell cytoskeleton FTPE.
 This long filamentous protein comprises most of the micro filaments in the cytoskeleton as well as protrusions like filopodia and lamellopodia.
 The movement of cilia and flagella is due to the action of this protein sliding microtubules past each other.
 This ubiquitous class of transmembrane receptors, each consisting of a particular alpha and a particular beta subunit, connects the cytoskeleton to extracellular matrix components like fibronectin and laminin.
3. Identify these Yeats poems FTPE.
 Commemorating an incident from the Irish Rebellion, it describes various people or groups affected who have been "changed, changed utterly: A terrible beauty is born."
ANSWER: Easter 1916
 This work is named for the damaged stone on which three Chinamen are carved. As they climb upward, their "eyes mid many wrinkles, their eyes, Their ancient, glittering eyes, are gay."
ANSWER: Lapis Lazuli
 The speaker of this poem neither hates nor loves either his allies or enemies, and he says that "I know I shall meet my fate / Somewhere among the clouds above."
4. Answer the following related to Yggdrasil, the "world tree" of Norse myth, FTPE.
 This dragon or serpent lies in Niflheim and constantly gnaws at the roots of Yggdrasil.
 This squirrel scurries back and forth relaying insults between Nidhogg and Vidofnir, the eagle that sits atop the branches of Yggdrasil.
 The well of Mimir, from which Odin drank and gained knowledge, lay underneath the root of Yggdrasil terminating in this land of the frost giants.
5. Identify the following artists who had sculptures placed in Orsanmichele in Florence FTPE.
 Like Donatello, he made three sculptures for the building, including St. John the Baptist, but is better known for some gilded doors on the Florence Baptistry.
ANSWER: Lorenzo Ghiberti
 The most famous of his three sculptures is Four Crowned Martyrs, which depicts some Christian sculptors who wouldn't betray their faith by sculpting Roman gods.
Answer: Nanni di Banco
 This teacher of Leonardo is renowned for his only contribution to the building: TheDoubting of St. Thomas.
ANSWER: Andrea del Verrocchio
6. Answer the following about a period in Chinese history FTPE.
 This rebellion of the second century CE was led by the Taoist faith healer Chang Chueh and named for its adherents' headwear.
ANSWER: Yellow Turban Rebellion
 The Yellow Turban Rebellion helped to overthrow this dynasty, named for China’s largest ethnic group.
ANSWER: Han Dynasty
 This short-lived dynasty finally reunited the entire country in 589 CE under Wen-di, but it gave way to the Tang dynasty just 30 years later.
ANSWER: Sui Dynasty
7. Identify the following Christian heresies FTPE.
 Named for a patriarch of Constantinople, it emphasized the separation of the human and divine natures of Christ and held that Mary gave birth to Christ's human nature only. It was condemned by the 431 Council of Ephesus.
 This heresy, officially defined as such by the Sixth Ecumenical Council, was a reaction against Nestorianism by claiming that Christ had a single divine, and not human, nature. It is still held by the Ethiopian, Coptic, and Armenian churches.
ANSWER: monophysitism or Eutychianism  This North-African heresy taught that the moral character of a priest determined the effectiveness of the sacraments he performed. Its adherents refused to readmit to the priesthood anyone who had abandoned the faith during Diocletian's persecutions.
ANSWER: Donatism 8. It was first observed by Arthur Eddington during a solar eclipse. FTPE:
 Coming in strong, weak, and micro varieties, name this consequence of general relativity in which massive objects can bend light around them.
ANSWER: gravitational lensing
 In the special case that the source, gravitational lens, and observer lie in a straight line, the object will appear to the observer as one of these circular entities rather than a point source.
ANSWER: Einstein ring
 Lensing has been used to try to find these huge stellar objects, one of the proposed forms of dark matter. If one passes in front of a star, that star should appear brighter due to lensing.
ANSWER: MACHOs or massive compact halo objects
9. Name these works of Herman Melville FTPE.
 This short story collection, which takes its name from the first story in it, is known for tales of a Spanish ship captain and a man who "prefers not to" do most things.
ANSWER: The Piazza Tales
 The titular character goes about deceiving people with false hopes in this cynical satire without much of a plot that takes place on a Mississippi River boat named the Fidele.
ANSWER: The Confidence Man: His Masquerade
 This novel follows the crew of the Julia as it mutinies and is imprisoned on Tahiti. The hero and Dr. Long Ghost are released and subsequently explore the island.
ANSWER: Omoo: A Narrative of Adventures in the South Seas
10. The Winter Olympics weren't too exciting this year, but answer the following about reasons to watch FTPE.
 She made it ok for straight men to watch ice dancing, as this gorgeous American and partner Ben Agosto took silver in that event.
ANSWER: Tanith Belbin
 This snowboarder has posed for FHM magazine and was a favorite for gold in the half pipe event, but she had to settle for silver.
ANSWER: Gretchen Bleiler
 Ana Arce put together a calendar featuring women from this sport posing nude that became a surprise hit. The Swedish women won gold over Switzerland.
ANSWER: curling 11. Answer the following about ethers FTPE.
 The most common way to synthesize ethers is this reaction that uses metal alkoxides and primary alkyl halides.
ANSWER: Williamson ether synthesis
 Named for their distinctive shape, these ethers handily sequester metal cations, allowing inorganic salts to be dissolved in nonpolar organic solvents.
ANSWER: crown ethers
 If the oxygen atom of an ether is replaced by sulfur, a compound of this class is formed.
12. Answer the following about people and things related to James II of England FTPE.
 James had remained king of Ireland after his ouster by William and Mary until William defeated him at this battle in 1690 near Drogheda, and he was forced to flee to France.
ANSWER: Battle of the Boyne
 James's grandson and last Stuart claimant to the throne, he landed in Scotland in 1745 to stir up a Jacobite rebellion against George II.
ANSWER: Bonnie Prince Charlie or The Young Pretender or Charles Edward Stuart
 Bonnie Prince Charlie got his ass handed to him at this 1746 battle by George's son, the Duke of Cumberland. It pretty much ended any hope he had of gaining the throne.
ANSWER: Culloden Moor
13. Identify the following works of Antonin Dvorák FTPE.
 This most well-known symphony features a famous English horn part in the second movement. Written in America, it displays African American, Native American, and still some Bohemian influences.
ANSWER: 9th Symphony or "From the New World"
 Some of his most popular works, though not great critical successes, were the two sets of these folk song-inspired dances of his homeland, opus 46 and opus 72.
ANSWER: Slavonic Dances
 Probably his most famous concerto was one written in B minor for this instrument.
ANSWER: cello 14. They were influenced by the Parnassians and Symbolists and experimented with old and new verse forms. FTPE:
 Name this Latin American movement of the late 19th and early 20th centuries whose major figures included Jose Rodo, Jose Chocano, and Ruben Darío.
 Darío is best known for this collection of poetry and prose sketches, his first publication, that was full of his trademark lush, exotic imagery.
ANSWER: Azul (I suppose Blue would be acceptable)
 Some critics believe that modernismo was first started by this Cuban revolutionary's publication of Ismaelillo.
ANSWER: Jose Martí
15. Name these court cases associated with Roger Taney that are not Dred Scott FTPE.
 This case, brought by a company that had originally been granted a charter for a structure in Boston, said that rights not specifically conferred in a document could be inferred from the language.
ANSWER: Charles River Bridge v. Warren Bridge
 Taney's decision in Charles River Bridge represented a modification of the view expressed in this earlier case, argued by Daniel Webster, which said that the state legislature could modify the obligations of a charter.
ANSWER: Dartmouth College v. Woodward
 While circuit riding, Taney ruled in this case that only Congress could suspend writs of habeas corpus, though President Lincoln ignored it in continuing to hold the namesake Confederate sympathizer prisoner.
ANSWER: Ex Parte Merryman
16. In his autobiography Persons and Places, he divided his life into three phases: growing up in Spain and his Harvard undergrad days; his time as a grad student and professor at Harvard; and writing and traveling in Europe. FTPE:
 Name this philosopher who also wrote the novel The Last Puritan.
ANSWER: George Santayana
 Santayana defined this two word term, which appears in the title of one of his most famous works, as a non-conscious being generating irrational beliefs in the natural world that are "radically incapable of truth."
ANSWER: animal faith
 Santayana examines the distinguishable characteristics of knowledge in this ontological work, divided into four volumes on matter, essence, spirit, and truth.
ANSWER: Realms of Being
17. Identify the following statistical distributions FTPE.
 Its shape is determined solely by the degrees of freedom, and it is most commonly used when assessing goodness of fit or independence of classification criteria.
ANSWER: chi-square distribution
 The ratio of two chi-square distributions, one encounters this distribution when determining if two samples have equal variances as well as providing the decision criteria for ANOVA procedures.
ANSWER: F distribution
 It is characterized by a single parameter that is both its mean and variance. Generally used to predict the occurrence of rare events, it can approximate a binomial distribution with large n and small p.
ANSWER: Poisson distribution
18. He did field research on Brazilian Indians, which influenced parts of his Tristes Tropiques. FTPE.
 Name this anthropologist who fled Paris during WWII to teach at The New School, famous for The Savage Mind and The Elementary Structures of Kinship.
ANSWER: Claude Levi-Strauss
 Levi-Strauss traveled all over the Pacific coast of the Americas doing research for this massive four volume collection detailing many stories and traditions of various Indian tribes.
ANSWER: Mythologiques or Mythologies
 Another major work by Levi-Strauss is this 1973 book whose title defines the field of anthropology that he created.
ANSWER: Structural Anthropology or Anthropologie structurale deux
19. Name these figures from Sophocles' Theban plays FTSNOP.
[5,5] These are Oedipus' two sons who shun him, though one of them eventually comes back to his side before he dies. They kill each other in battle after the end of Oedipus at Colonus.
ANSWER: Eteocles and Polynices
 This daughter of Oedipus tries to convince Creon that she helped her sister bury Polynices, whom Creon had branded a traitor, but he sets her free before punishing her sister.
 This son of Creon was engaged to Antigone, but he kills himself after he discovers that Antigone was already dead before Creon tried to change his mind about her punishment.
20. It was first discovered by Captain Cook and is home to Strathcona Provincial Park and the cities of Duncan, Nanaimo, and Port Alberni. FTPE:
 Name this island that is separated from the mainland in part by the Johnstone and Queen Charlotte straits.
ANSWER: Vancouver Island
 Vancouver Island is separated from Vancouver by this strait, which, despite its name, is nowhere near a southeastern state.
ANSWER: Georgia Strait
 Vancouver Island is separated from Washington's Olympic Peninsula by this body of water, named for a Greek sailing in the service of Spain.