A Note from the TSI The Comprehensive District Annual Plan has been prepared under several limitations and constraints. Though this has been attempted to be a model of its kind, still errors are not unlikely despite best of our efforts and intentions. Formatting errors may also be encountered, particularly in respect of page numbering. We apologize for any such unintentional errors; and hope that in the next attempts such errors would be avoided.
The annual plan includes ambitious activity plans for certain sectors like secondary education, obviously in the greater interest of the public. The other side of the truth is that projects so far taken up are not sufficient to meet the requirements or the objective.
We thank all the concerned departments/agencies/individuals/authorities whose help and contribution could make its preparation possible.
SECTION-I District Profile SWOT Analysis District Vision 2020
Acknowledgement PRIA has been involved in the district plan preparation process in several states of India, and hence the assignment of following the same process in the Angul district is but an addition to the list. However, each district has its own challenges and opportunities; so it’s not just a mere repetition of the process everywhere. Rather, each such case has been a new learning for us enriching our understanding of the process and enhancing our capability.
The district of Angul, despite its challenges, has been more or less favourable for us in respect of the cooperation of the district administration including the Collector, Angul; the Project Director, DRDA, Angul; and the District Planning Officer, Angul; local NGOs, Block Development Officers, and other departmental authorities. We take this opportunity to thank all of them, and particularly to Foundation for Ecological Security(FES), Angul; Viswa Yuva Kendra, Baninali; Jana Bikas Kendra, Pallahara; Community Development Services(CDS), Banarpal; and i-concept initiatives, Bhubaneswar for their support.
To make the envisioning process participatory, PRIA has organized a number of multi-stakeholder consultations both at district level and block level. Further, orientation programme on vision building has been conducted for the line departments; and personal guidance has also been provided to individual departmental authorities. In addition to that, the suggestions of various stakeholders have been followed for necessary improvement of the vision document.
Despite several limitations, we have attempted to make this district ‘dream’ for the best possible development by the year 2020. This however has not ignored the realities; rather we have encouraged the district to overcome the present limitations for a better future. It will be great if the ‘dream’ is fulfilled, but this obviously would require efforts from all sectors and personal sincerity of the responsible individuals.
We are happy that the Planning & Coordination Department, Government of Orissa has trusted PRIA to develop the vision document and the district plan for Angul. We hope that this trust has been duly honoured through our work.
An Overview of Angul District
Situational Analysis of Angul District
Elements of Angul District Vision 2020
Strategies to achieve future development goals
Future Growth Engines
Vision Exercise in District Angul
Preparation of District Plan has always been an arduous task for the district administration. In the post 73rd Constitutional Amendment Act (CAA) period efforts have been going on to overhaul the planning process, i.e. top-down to bottom-up. As a step towards the strengthening of Panchayats, an exercise of Comprehensive District Planning has been undertaken to fulfill the basic ethos of 73rd CAA and to enable the participation of people in the planning exercise. Efforts have been put to make the planning exercise participatory by incorporating the views of people about their Panchayat/ Block/ Zilla. In addition efforts have been put to meet or consult as many stakeholders (i.e. CSOs, line department officials, active groups (youth, women etc), elected representatives).as possible during the exercise. The preliminary outcome of this exercise is the Vision Document. It is a positive/constructive approach for sustainable development that virtually overcomes the present limitations/constraints through realistic strategies. It touches all important aspects of development of human- as well as natural resources along with adequate strategy for the optimum utilization of required resources. A district vision document unites various stakeholders of a district for a common cause, i.e. equitable and sustainable development with a promising future. In nutshell, it is a guide towards the planning process of district and broadly outlines the goals to be achieved during the course of time.
To achieve desired targets of economic growth and balanced regional development the efforts for decentralized planning commenced with the first Five Year Plan. The plan recognized the need to break up planning exercise into National, State, District and Local Government level. But it failed to spell out the process for the same. In the second Five Year Plan, two new elements, namely, establishment of District Development Council and drawing up of village plans were introduced. But again the attempt went futile due to lack of proper enabling framework. On the recommendations of Balwant Rai Mehta Committee in 1957, village, block and district level Panchayat Institutions were established in many states. But, they were not assigned with any meaningful role or resources. Administrative Reforms Commission (1967) highlighted in its Report that district planning needed to be focused in those areas where local variations in the pattern and process of development were likely to yield quick results in terms of growth. In 1969, the Planning Commission communicated guidelines to the states for formulating district plans detailing the concept and methodology of drawing up such plans. It gave some fruitful results but limited to few states. A Central Scheme was also operational from Fourth to Ninth Five Year Plan to assist states for strengthening their planning. This scheme was extended to district level in 1982-83. A Working Group headed by Prof. M. L. Dantwala (1978) identified remoteness of planning agencies at district level from actual scene of action as the cause for mismatch of financial allocations with location specific needs. The Group recommended Block as the appropriate sub-state planning unit. Planning Commission also issued guidelines on formulation of Block level plans in tune to these recommendations. The Ashok Mehta Committee (1978) in its report recommended that Panchayats ought to be strengthened for undertaking local planning. The Hanumantha Rao Committee (1984) brought out the fact that planning from below was undermined by different streams of funding the district plan. The Group recommends decentralization of function, powers and finances, setting up of district planning bodies and district planning cells. The G. V. K. Rao Committee (1985) reviewed the administrative arrangements for rural development and recommended district Panchayat to manage all development programmes. The Sarkaria Commission also highlighted the need for people’s participation in the planning and administrative machinery at local level. During Sixth and Seventh Plan role of Panchayats in rural development was also enlarged. In 1992-93, the 73rd and 74th Amendments gave Constitutional status to local self- governments and provided a new and universalized platform for decentralized planning. In recent initiatives taken by MoPR regarding decentralized planning it is recommended that under Article 243ZD of the Constitution District Planning Committee (DPC) shall be constituted at the district level in every state to consolidate the plans prepared by the Panchayats and the Municipalities in the district and to prepare a draft development plan for the district. The object of district planning is to arrive at an integrated, participatory coordinated idea of development of a local area. The comprehensive district plan will integrate multiple programmes that are in operation in the district concerned and therefore address backwardness through a combination of resources that flow to the district.
Under Comprehensive District Plan, a district vision has to be prepared for a district through a participative process starting from the grassroots to perceive the status of district in terms of overall holistic development over the next 10-15 years. This would be the companion and guiding document during the process of development of a district. A basic requirement is that the preparation of the vision is not conditioned by schemes and programmes. The vision would be primarily articulated in terms of goals and outcomes and would address basically three aspects of development, namely,
The idea is that the envisioning process, being participative, would build a spirit of teamwork and hopefully break down the department wise planning process that is dominant till date.
The broad objectives behind the preparation of vision document are:
To generate a common perspective, among diverse stakeholders, for the holistic development of the district.
To work out a strategy for the optimal and balanced utilization of natural resources.
To envisage and incorporate the role of women and marginalized in the mainstream development.
To help and motivate people of the district in preparing more realistic, objective oriented and executable five year and annual plans.
An Overview of District Angul
Angul district was a separate administrative unit during the British period, but became a part of Dhenkanal district after independence. However, on 1st April 1993 it was carved out as a separate district. Angul lies between 20° 31′ N & 21° 40′ N latitude and 84° 15′ E & 85° 23′ E longitude. The total geographical area of Angul is 6232 sq.kms, thus it is the 11th largest district among 30 districts of Orissa. Angul shares its borders with Sundargarh in the north, Deogarh, Sambalpur & Sonepur in the west, Boudh & Nayagarh districts in the south, Dhenkanal & Cuttack in the south-east and Keonjhar in the east.
The physiography of the district is marked by three major regions. The South and Western part comprises ranges of the Eastern Ghat Super group & the Older Metamorphic Group. The Central portion is represented by sediments deposited in the Satpura- Mahanadi graven defined by pronounced NW-SE trending lineaments on a Precambrian plat form, almost separating the Eastern ghat Mobile Belt and Orissa craton. The northern boundaries of Talcher Basin are faulted. On a regional scale, Talcher basin takes the shape of a north westerly plunging syncline with closure in the east & the younger horizon outcropping progressively towards west. On the other hand, the beds dip northerly & number of coal seams increases in that direction indicating a possible homoclinal structure. Three sets of intrabasinal faults trending E-W-NE-SW-WNW-ESE have been recognized. The North & North East part is occupied by hill ranges of Iron Ore Super group. The elevation varies from 76 m. to 1186 m. The highest peak of the district is Malyagiri of Pallahara Sub-division which is 1186 meter above MSL. Banamadali peak in Angul Sub-division is 790 meter in height. In Athamallik Sub-division the main peaks are Panchadhara and Hingamandal hills.
The river Mahanandi marks the southern boundary of this district. River Brahmani enters the district through Rengali reservoir and passes through Talcher sub- division. Both these great rivers have innumerable tributaries large and small. Pallahara & Talcher Sub-Divisions, a major portion of Angul Sub-division form a part of Brahmani basin. The basin of Mahanadi is spread over Athamallik Sub-division & part of Angul Sub-division. Mahanadi and the Brahmani are perennial rivers. A multi purpose dam has been constructed over the Brahmani at Rengali. 250 MW of electricity is generated at Rengali hydropower station. A barrage has been constructed 35 Kms. down stream at a place called Samal. This irrigation project is poised to irrigate 3,36,400 Ha. of land in Angul, Dhenkanal, Cuttack , Jajpur & Keonjhar districts. Other rivers of Angul are mountain streams, which are torrents in the rains and in the summer contain little or no water. Their banks in the most part are high. Their beds are rocky and they cannot be used for the purpose of navigation.
The climatic condition of Angul is much varied. It has mainly 4 seasons. The summer season is from March to Mid June, the period from Mid June to September is the Rainy season, October and November constitute the post monsoon season and winter is from December to February. The best time to visit this district is during winter. The average annual rainfall of the district is 1421 mm. However there is a great variation of rainfall from year to year. The rainfall in the district during the last 10 years varied between 896 mm & 1744 mm. There are 70 rainy days on an average in a year, but it varies from 66 at Athamallik to 80 at Pallahara. The distribution of rainfall is also quite erratic causing wide spread drought year after year.
The hot season commences by beginning of March. May is the hottest month with a mean daily maximum temperature at 44 degree Celsius. With the onset of monsoon, early in June day temperature drops appreciably. After outset of monsoon by the 1st week of October both day and night temperature began to fall steadily. December is usually coldest month of a year with a mean daily minimum temperature of 12° degree Celsius. In association with the passage of western disturbances across north India during winter months short spells of cold occur and the minimum temperature drops down to 10° Celsius. The highest maximum temperature recorded at Angul was 46.90° Celsius on 30th May 1998 whereas the lowest minimum temperature was 6° Celsius on 16th January 2003. The summer temperature has shown as increasing trend in recent past. The humidity of the air is generally high, especially during the South West monsoon and post monsoon months. In other months, the afternoons are comparatively drier. In the summer afternoons the relative humidity varies between 25 and 40 percent.
Special Weather Phenomena: The district is affected by hailstorm and depressions in the monsoon season and in October, when winds increase in force and widespread heavy rain occurs. Thunder storms, occurs mostly in the afternoon in the summer months and in October. The hailstorm, which occurred on 12th April 2002, caused heavy damage in the Angul town and nearby villages. Occasional fog occurs in the cold seasons.
There are 4 subdivisions with 8 blocks and 9 census towns. Total number of Gram Panchayats is 209. Assembly constituencies are 41 in number, and parliamentary constituencies 2(coming under Deogarh and Dhenkanal).
Situational Analysis of Angul District
Situational analysis provides the insight of the progress of different sectors of the economy in district Angul. The analysis will be quite helpful and provides direction to the planning process. Hence, in the present chapter, sector wise situational analysis of district Angul is carried out.
Demographic profile of the district is presented in Table 1. Angul has a total population of 11,40,003 consisting of 51.51 percent male population and 48.49 percent female population (2001 census) and sex ratio is 941 which is slightly less than the state average of 972. The population of Angul constitutes 3.10 percent of the Orissa’s total population. The population density is 179 persons per Km2 against the state average of 236. The decade 1991 to 2001 witnessed population growth of 18.55 percent against the state average of 15.94 percent. Literacy rate of the district is higher i.e. 68.8 percent as compared to 63 percent in a state as a whole. But the literacy rate of female population is only 55 percent, but it is higher than the state and national average. The literacy rate of SC and ST population is better in Angul district than the state average. Among the scheduled tribes the Paudi Bhuyans, who are dependent on shifting cultivation have received special attention under the Paudi Bhuyan Development Agency so as to reduce their vulnerability of livelihood.
There are 1910 villages in the district out of which 1661 are inhabited and 249 are uninhabited, as per the 2001 census2. The rural population of the district constitutes 86.10 percent while urban population constitutes 13.90 percent of the total population. Out of the total population of the Angul, 11.6 percent belongs to schedules tribes whose concentration is largest in the Pallahara block. The Paudi Bhuyans, the Juangs, and several other tribals groups are also found in this district. The population of scheduled castes is 17.19 percent of the total population. The important castes inhabited in this district are Chasa, Khandayat, Karana, Brahmin, Gouda, Paika, and Kumbhara. Among these, Chasas constitute the major community in the district and they are mainly cultivators whereas Gaudas are the chief pastoral caste of Orissa. Religion of the district Angul can broadly be classified into Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Sikhism, Jainism, Buddhism, Mahima Dharma and Nath cult.
Source: Statistical Abstract of Orissa: 2008 Occupational Structure
The majority of the population of Angul district depends on agriculture. The occupational structure of district Angul is presented in Table 2. The proportion of main workers to the total workers is 65.9 percent, which is less than the state average of 67.2 percent. On the other hand, work participation rate is 39.8 percent and is slightly higher than the state average. Proportion of cultivators to the total workers is 30.3 percent in the district. Agricultural laborers constitute 28 percent of the total workers in the district. The entrepreneurship of the people in agriculture/horticulture, particularly in Blocks like Chhendipada, is remarkable; and the work participation rate is higher than the state average. Mining & industrialization in few parts of the district have significantly influenced the traditional occupation of the local population partly because of direct or indirect employment opportunities in these projects and partly because of the loss of agricultural land through land acquisition by the government.
Table 2: Occupational Structure of district Angul
Proportion of Main-workers to total workers
Proportion of Marginal workers to total workers
Work participation rate
Proportion of cultivators to total workers
Proportion of agricultural labourers to total workers