Good morning and welcome to llt121 Classical Mythology. In our last class meeting, the god, Zeus came to power. The god Zeus, who, for all of the classical period of Greek history, was regarded as the supreme god


Download 49 Kb.
Size49 Kb.
Lecture 5

Good morning and welcome to LLT121 Classical Mythology. In our last class meeting, the god, Zeus came to power. The god Zeus, who, for all of the classical period of Greek history, was regarded as the supreme god. Zeus's wife, Hera, is regarded as the supreme goddess. Together, they are the third, if you will, royal couple of Greek mythology. I have very thoughtfully written up on the board here for you the three instances of the hieros gamos in Greek mythology. Hieros gamos is an ancient Greek term for holy marriage. It involves the sky god and the earth goddess. It originally is an aetiology, an explanation for the appearance of vegetation. In version number one, the oldest version, the animistic version, Uranus, the sky god, and his wife, Gaia, the earth goddess, make love. Rain takes place and vegetation grows. I know. That sounds pretty silly, but keep in mind that we're talking about a very ancient civilization, primitive as can be, and that they're trying to explain the world about them in terms they can understand; sex.

In version number two, Cronus, the youngest child of Gaia and Uranus, deposes his father by cutting off his testicles. Cronus cuts off Uranus’s testicles. Now I know what you're thinking. Your name is? You're thinking, "How is it that the sky, all of a sudden, has sprouted male genitalia?" You were thinking that weren't you? Good. Good, good, good. The correct answer is, "I don't know." We start to see little scraps and pieces of anthropomorphic beliefs crawling even into the animistic level of the story. Somehow, Uranus, the sky god, who is the sky, has acquired some genitals somewhere in the middle of this story. After Cronus severs the genitalia of his dad, Uranus, Cronus and his wife, Rhea, are king and queen, master and mistress of the universe—the second instance of the hieros gamos in ancient Greek mythology.

We only really have one or two good myths about Cronus and Rhea. Well, one, the so-called Deception of Cronus, in which Rhea gives birth to the couple's first five children. Cronus, who knows or remembers how he came to power, isn't interested in any repeats of that situation. He devours his first five children as soon as they are born. After the fifth birth, Rhea gets a clue. Rhea visits Gaia and Uranus and they tell her about a neat trick that she can pull on Cronus. Sure enough, when Rhea gives birth to her sixth child, instead of little baby Zeus—that's who it is—she hands Cronus a rock covered in baby clothes, which Cronus devours. Later still, Zeus grows to young adulthood in a cave, causes Cronus to vomit up his five siblings. Zeus and his five siblings, with the help of Prometheus, Mr. Foresight, take over the universe from Cronus in a big, huge, nasty war. That's, I think, where we left it last time.

I want to pause for any questions you may have before we push the envelope. Before we take it a bit further. Ray? No, thank you for that question. I wrote it on the board for a purpose. Hesiod is an ancient Greek who lived around 750 years before Christ. He lived in a time period where life was nasty, brutish, and short, and he writes as a fundamental believer in the truth of Zeus's justice, or Zeus as cosmic ruler of the universe. He believes in the literal truth of everything that he tells us in his poetry. He really does believe, for instance, that the sky god, Uranus, had genitalia and that these were cut off by Cronus. Okay, does that help? Ovid was very familiar with the work of Hesiod, but we're going to find out , not in this particular class, but shortly that Ovid, who comes 750 years later is going to have a kinder, gentler conception of the creation of the universe and of humankind. Good question, well answered. Any other questions? Josh? You are Josh, right? Who are you? Jeremy. Jeremy, you got any questions? Good. I like that.

Zeus, we're going to find out, and Hera, the third instance of the hieros gamos in ancient Greek mythology are anthropomorphic, human shape and human behavior to a fault. Following up on Ray's excellent observation slash question, Hesiod who believes implicitly in the justice of Zeus and in the absolute truth of everything he is saying, is in a kind of hard place to admit, to explain, some of the nasty stunts that Zeus is going to pull on his wife. One of Zeus's names, one of his epithets, one of the things that the ancient Greeks call him is, "The Father of Gods and Men," because he literally is the father of gods and men. He has thousands of children. What kind of personality do you think that Zeus is going to have? Your name is still Jennifer, right? Okay, I didn’t recognize you without your cast. Jennifer, if Zeus is the father of gods and men, what kind of personality is he going to have as a husband? He's a jerk. He is a lying, philandering, sleazeball who will sleep with anyone and anything. He has to. He's the father of all these gods and humans, but he has a wife and he has myths about him and his wife. Hera can't get even with Zeus for all his little extramarital exploits because he's Zeus and this is a patriarchal society. So Hera develops a personality which is not very complimentary. She's the kind of goddess who stalks around with a rolling pin, not looking for her husband, but for all the mortal women and goddesses that her husband sleeps with.

Hesiod himself was kind of puzzled as to how to explain these two different conceptions of Zeus. Zeus, actually, is credited with the worst pick-up line in all of western civilization. Zeus used the worst pick-up line in all of western civilization. He used it on his own wife—and it worked. That's a teaser for our next exciting class. It's pretty odd, when you think about the three different versions of the hieros gamos in Greek mythology. Gaia and Uranus are completely or almost completely animistic, the sky and the earth. Zeus and Hera are completely anthropomorphic to a fault. Cronus gained power over Uranus by castrating him. Zeus gained power over Cronus by fighting a war with him. It sounds kind of odd to hear about gods fighting wars, gods giving birth to their own children by vomiting.

But in fact, these themes show up in a number of different mythologies. One such is being the Hittite civilization. If you can see up here on these lands of the Bible map, just try to imagine the country of Turkey in your minds. Smack dab in the middle of what is now called Turkey was a civilization called the Hittite Empire. Does anybody care to guess who founded the Hittite Empire? Come on. That wasn’t bad. It wasn’t right, but it wasn’t bad. The Hittites! The Hittites, like the ancient Greeks, spoke a language that belongs to the Indo-European language family. That is to say, the same language family that Latin, ancient Greek, modern Greek, English, Norwegian, and German belong to. There is some linguistic evidence that suggests that the Hittites and the ancient Greeks shared a common ancestor way, way up the family tree, but, if you think about Greece and Turkey, you will think that these two civilizations were separated by hundreds of miles. Moreover, this myth that I'm about to tell you, this Hittite Cronus myth, is dated with confidence to the time period around 1500 BC. This is a time at which the ancient Greeks barely knew how to write. Meanwhile, the Hittites are writing down this Hittite Cronus myth. The Hittite civilization didn't stay on the map very long. There was a lot of civilizations in the eastern Mediterranean destroying one another. But before the Hittites took off, they left us this enchanting story about the change of power in the universe. It's called the Hittite Cronus myth. It'll be on your test.

In the beginning, the supreme ruler of the universe, according to the Hittites, was Alalus. Alalus ruled the entire universe for nine years, assisted by his trusty henchman, Anu. After nine years Anu turned on Alalus and deposed him. We don't know any more of the details. After nine years, the chief of staff, Anu, deposed the chief, Alalus. He becomes the second supreme ruler of the universe according to the Hittites. For nine years, Anu rules the universe, ably assisted and abetted by his number two man, his chief of command, a god named Kumarbi. After nine years—Elizabeth, do you want to guess what happens?—Kumarbi deposes Anu. You can see that whoever made up this particular myth was not really using up a lot of imagination here. Or maybe they were just saving it, because we do have some details about this. Not only did Kumarbi overthrow Anu and make himself the chief of the gods and the Hittite universe, Kumarbi castrates Anu—ding, ding, ding, ding; does that sound familiar? Okay, just checking—and then eats the severed genitalia of Anu. Oh, grotty! The ancient Hittites really believed this, by the way. I pause for your questions up to this point.

Kumarbi has castrated Anu. Kumarbi has eaten the severed genitals. Does anybody want to guess—you’re Kristen, right—what happens next? She shakes her head sadly. She doesn’t want to guess. Your name is? Jerod, do you want to guess? You’re pretty close, actually. He gets pregnant. This sounds like a bad Danny DeVito movie. Most of them are bad. He’s pregnant. Moreover, he's a pregnant guy with a problem. What's his problem? Well, I'll put it decorously. He is not equipped to give birth to children, shall we say? All the same, he vomits up four children. Does that sound familiar? Yes, good, well taught. Including one called Storm God. This child, Storm God, according to Hittite mythology, grows up and puts Kumarbi out of a job, becomes ruler of the universe. Why on earth did I tell you this weird story? Well, number one, hopefully it deflects a little weirdness from the Greek account in which Cronus castrates Uranus, then Cronus vomits up five of his six children, who join Zeus in deposing him. If you were to be taking my fine comparative mythology class, LLT321, we would examine several instances of other civilization mythologies in which this exact same thing sort of happens.

Pregnant gods giving birth or asking goddesses to help them give birth. Castrated gods. The universe being ripped up and created out of the destroyed body of a dead deity, humans created out of mud, blood, and spit. These two particular stories aren't necessarily all that weird. Another thing I want to point out to you, another reason why I told you this excellent, quote unquote, Hittite-Cronus myth. This is my present to you for showing up today. I'm putting it on the first quiz. Is that the parallels are instructive. Three generations Alalus, Anu, Kumarbi then Storm God. Uranus, Cronus, Zeus, then question mark. A good deal of influence is placed on the fertility aspect. We find out who Uranus's wife was. We find out who Cronus's wife is. We find out who Zeus's wife is. For whatever reason, the Hittites don't tell us about any wives of these supreme gods, which is, in and of itself, instructive. Another thing that I could bring up is that Alalus, Anu, and Kumarbi are finally replaced by Storm God. A storm is the opposite of civilization. A storm is something that destroys houses, and destroys people, and roads, and crops and the like. A storm god is usually a sign of anarchy, a destructive force. It's not coincidental that the Hittite Empire came to a very bad end.

I pause for your questions up to this point. If there are none, I've got some more Zeus stories to tell you. If ever you've gotten a promotion—most of you are just little kids, but some of us old folks might remember a situation, maybe, in which one day you were one of the workers and the next day you were promoted. You're an assistant manager and you are bossing around your old peers. Your old peers have no respect for you because they remember when you were a working shlub just like them. It becomes difficult. They wonder, "What makes Phil so special? Who died and made Phil the boss.?" It's the same thing with Zeus. In the very beginning of his career, Zeus gets no respect. The Giants are animals or creatures who are also born of Mother Earth. Supposedly, Gaia gave birth to these creatures known as Giants because she was angry at Zeus. It's nice to know that Gaia never changes type. Gaia got angry because Uranus put her kids in the ground. Now Gaia is angry because Zeus has deposed Cronus. What she does is she creates these creatures known as Giants. The giants start stacking mountains one on top of another in an attempt to bring Zeus down from his perch atop beautiful Mount Olympus. These two giants are stacking mountains on top of one another. However, what happens? Zeus reaches back, throws a thunderbolt. Boom! Whap, as John Madden would say. And pretty soon these Giants are no more. Supposedly, Zeus buried each Giant under a volcanic mountain. So that, when you're visiting Mount Etna, the volcano in Sicily, there's a Giant under there that Zeus threw there. Regina? Gaia. You bring up a good point. Remember, Gaia, just because she has been displaced as queen of the universe, has not ceased to exist. She's still very powerful. I might point out, since you bring this up, Regina—thank you—that it's very hard to keep a good earth mother goddess down.

Even though the Achaeans, the patriarchal, Indo-European speaking, warlike faction that invaded Greece on January 1, 2000 BC. Even though they got the upper hand, culturally, the myths about the all-powerful, all-fertile earth mother goddess cannot be suppressed. Are any of you familiar with a story in which humans built an enormous tower because they were feeling they were pretty special? They thought they were as good as God. And you know, God had to do what? Knock the thing down. It is the story of the Tower of Babel. More comparative mythology class fodder. In this version of this traditional story, it's two Giants. Zeus manages to put this rebellion down, but it doesn't do much for his personality. In story number two, challenge number two to Zeus, a creature by the name of Typhon or Typhoeus is born to Gaia. Gaia mingles in love with Tartarus and gives birth to a creature known as Typhon. Typhon is intended to challenge Zeus for rule of the universe. The battle between Typhon and Zeus takes longer and, by all accounts, is riskier. That is to say that Typhon had Zeus on the run. One popular story among the ancient Greeks is that Typhon's challenge to Zeus was so dangerous that many of the ancient Greek gods hid out down in ancient Egypt for a few years—in disguise. They put on animal heads so they wouldn't be recognized. This because ancient Egyptian gods and goddesses, often as not, will have the head of an animal. That's a cheesy aetiology. However, Zeus eventually gets the upper hand over Typhon and wins. End of challenge number two.

Does anybody know a word which we get from Typhon? Typhoon. What is a typhoon? Pardon? A sea storm. It's a storm. Guess what, Typhon is a storm god. Wow! As Atlas was heard to exclaim, it's a small world. Zeus puts down a challenge from a storm god in order to retain power over the universe. In the Hittite version of the story, Storm God takes over. Mark? Yeah, you sure can. I would just throw out, as a suggestion, that the Hittite civilization pretty much disappears by 1100 BC. Okay, you could possibly interpret that as the mythology of the Hittite reflecting their cultural circumstances. There is any number of nation-states jockeying for power in modern day Turkey, ancient Asia Minor. It's a less kind, less gentle world. Whereas, the ancient Greeks survived. Their civilization made a comeback. Zeus—excellent point, Mark—who stands for justice, authority and civilization defeats the powers of chaos. Boy, did I answer that one to death or what?

Okay. Perhaps you can understand why it is that Zeus is just a bit touchy. He's still a young god. He's still a kid. He has already put down two very dangerous challenges to his godhood, to his rule over the universe. Moreover, he hasn't forgotten how he's come to power. Nor has he forgotten how his dad had come to power. He's heard certain rumored prophecies that he might be succeeded someday. Like I said, you can understand why Zeus is just a little bit touchy. Our next stories—we're leaping ahead here into Unit Three, but I've done such a great job lecturing to you people that we've covered more ground than I thought possible (thank you)—is going to talk about the creation of humankind, which includes both mankind and womankind—although, we are going to find out, there are versions of the story in which there was just mankind and womankind came along later. These stories about the creation of humankind give us valuable insight into the ancient Greeks’ weltanschauung. Do we all remember weltanschauung? At least you're honest. I appreciate that. Weltanschauung is a big, long German word meaning outlook on the world. It includes your culture's own appreciation of the human's place in the world, the potential for human development, the hopes for development of a good society, whether there's a god or not, whether there are gods or not, whether the gods like you or dislike you, and so on and so forth. Your weltanschauung is your perception of your place in the universe around you.

Most of us have been brought up in the Judeo-Christian tradition, which teaches us that God created humans last for the purpose of ruling over and enjoying all of the good things he put on this earth. This, I would suggest, is an example of a positive weltanschauung. We are put here because God created us specifically to enjoy all the good things on this earth. We're going to find out that, in ancient Greek mythology, humans are created more or less as an afterthought. As a matter of fact, there are two or even three different accounts of how humans are created, according to the ancient Greeks. Which, to me at any rate, indicates a rather negative weltanschauung. That is to say that the Greeks really didn't see much point in life. The Greeks often wondered, "What are we doing here? We're freaks and losers." Well, at any rate, there are two major versions of the story of the creation of humankind. Our sources for the creation of humankind are Hesiod and Ovid again, but I, myself, have made up two different names for these stories. I'll call version number one, Prometheus and Mankind, because that's what it is. Version number two is called, The Ages of Humankind.

Confusingly, Hesiod, circa 750 BC, gives us both versions. It's kind of annoying. It makes me want to travel back in time, shake Hesiod by his collar—if he was wearing one—and ask him which of the two is right. Then he would call me a skeptical child of the 20th century and say, "They are both right, you Pagan. Now clear away from me before Zeus destroys us all with a thunderbolt." Actually, we can just assume that each story, in its own way, illustrates something to us about the ancient Greeks and the way they looked at things. Let's start out with Prometheus and Mankind.

In the beginning Zeus created men and these men had a pretty retched existence. Hesiod doesn't tell us very much about it, but suffice it to say that human creatures were not having a really good time. Then somebody took pity on them. Somebody took pity on the human race. It's our old friend, Prometheus. You will recall that Prometheus is the one Titans—actually he's not a full-fledged Titan, he's the son of a Titaness, Themis—but Prometheus is the Titan or Semi-Titan who recognizes Zeus was going to win, so he sided with Zeus. He has a high position in the Zeus administration, if you will. Prometheus, not Zeus, teaches the humans how to sacrifice, just as a favor to them. Keep in mind that, in a primitive society—and this story comes to us from a very primitive time in Greek society—that life is nasty, brutish, and short. The life expectancy is 32, 27 or 25 years. Mark? No I did not. Hesiod doesn't tell us, either. Okay, you Pagan, you. He can't tell us because, oh, maybe he took mud and water. How’s that? Hesiod doesn't consider that as important as the following little story. Prometheus decided to teach humans how to sacrifice.

Back in the dawn of time, when you sacrifice an animal to the gods and goddesses, what you're doing is actually trying to persuade the gods and goddesses to do you a favor. Your name is Erica, right? So if you have one cow, for example, and you sacrifice it to say, Zeus, you're expecting a pretty good favor, right? Does that make sense? You expect a pretty big favor. There's a considerable amount of risk involved if you sacrifice your one and only cow to Zeus in September. Why is this? It's all you have. If you kill Bossy, throw her on a fire, roast her completely, you are depriving yourself of what? Food, milk, fertilizer, hides for clothing. A cow is the most useful animal in the whole universe. In its day, a cow can pull a plow. In its day, a cow was the cutting edge of ancient technology. We only have one cow. If it's a cow and not a bull it can also have little cows and bulls, right? You're taking a risk when you sacrifice Bossy, the cow, to Zeus because he's Zeus. He doesn't have to do anything if he doesn't want to. Nice cow. Forget it.

Prometheus is the god who fixes all this. Prometheus says to the humans, "I will teach you a little trick. Next time you sacrifice Bossy, take the entrails and the guts and the junk—you know, the stuff you make headcheese out of— and cover it under a tasty-smelling layer of fat. Okay? Take the tripe, eyeballs, and the tongue and cover it with fat so it looks like a filet mignon. Then, what you do is you take the filet mignon and the other good cuts of meat and you cover them with hide, so it looks like it's just a bunch of junk and by-products. Then ask Zeus which of the two he wants. Will he take Pile A or Pile B? What is this? Ugh. Well, I’ll try it. Are you supposed to eat this? I kind of like it. Now Zeus comes down to earth. I once had a student who slipped me a piece of candy, said, “Here, try this.” In the middle of class, I discovered it was a red-hot. You see, that student tricked Zeus. He's still at this university today because he slipped me a red-hot. He should have graduated, but he slipped me a red-hot. Zeus abhors a wise guy. Zeus comes down to earth and takes a look at Pile A, the headcheese all covered in fat. He looks at Pile B, the filet mignon all covered with hides. And Prometheus, you can just see Prometheus, “Which is it going to be? Pile A or Pile B, Big Z? Which are you gonna take?”

Keep in mind that he's Zeus. Zeus knows everything right? Zeus picks Pile A. So they light Pile A up. He smells burning fat but no burning filet mignon. He smells burning headcheese. Has Zeus been tricked? Yeah, he has, but at the same time, he's Zeus. He can't be tricked. What we have here is an aetiology, a story which explains why it was that ancient Greeks would take the tripe and the headcheese and the tongues and the eyeballs, cover it over with fat and offer it to Zeus, saving the filet mignon and the brisket and all the other good parts of the late Bossy for themselves. They wanted to keep the good parts of the cow for themselves—the hide and all of that—but they had to explain, they had to have some rationale, they had to have some excuse, some reason why they could persuade themselves that Zeus was going to fall for this. Okay? And somebody has got to take the rap for this. Somebody has got to be the scapegoat. Somebody has got to pay. You can't fool Zeus. So here's what happens: Zeus takes fire away from mankind. Fire is good. Fire, as a leading social critic has once exclaimed, rules. “Fire rules.” What is fire good for? What can you do with fire? What’s your name? It’s still Scott. Okay, what can you do with fire, Scot? That’s often very good. You can cook food. Your name is? Okay, Snake Hat. What's another good thing you can do with fire? Heat your house, that is good. Your name is? Mitch, what's another good thing you can do with fire? Yeah, you can use it to frighten humans away. Your name is, Heather, right? What is another good thing you can use fire for? Any other good uses for fire? Light. Making tools. I mean, talk about a cow being the cutting edge of technology, fire is even better. And Zeus took fire away from humans because he was mad, because this wise guy, Prometheus, slipped him the sacrificial equivalent of a red-hot.

Notice, by the way, that Zeus doesn't take it out on Prometheus. Prometheus is a god. "I'm going to let Prometheus by this time. But I'm going to fix the humans by taking away fire." And Prometheus, even though Prometheus knew what he was doing—Prometheus’s name means Mr. Foresight and all of that—he knows who he's up against, nevertheless, Prometheus, that friend of humankind, sympathizes with the poor humans against nasty, mean Zeus and brings fire back to humankind. You have, no doubt, seen the statues. Prometheus is never, you know, this guy just shuffling along with fire hidden under his coat. Don't try that at home, anyway. He's always engaged in some heroic gesture, bringing fire down to the humans because Prometheus, darn it, is a culture hero. Prometheus is bring humans what they need to be civilized: fire. Prometheus is bringing them something that the chief god, Zeus, wishes to deny them. It makes Zeus look rather like a shmuck, doesn't it? He wants to deny humans this wonderful tool that drives animals away, that heats houses, that enables you to smelt and stuff. Zeus doesn't want you to have that. But, fortunately for you, Prometheus does.

How angry is Zeus when he finds out that Prometheus has stolen fire and given it back to the humans? He's very angry, indeed. He chains Prometheus up out on the Caucuses Mountains in the modern day country of Georgia, where he is spread out across mountain peaks. Okay? And every day a giant gutter eagle comes to eat his liver. The liver grows back every day, because Prometheus is, after all, a god. Okay, that's Prometheus's punishment. Yes, Mark? Why didn’t Zeus just take the fire back again? May I ask you Mark, do you ever watch soap opera? You know there's this guy named Patch. He's really good looking. One week he's a racecar driver and the next he's an open heart surgeon. Then he's the defensive end for the Dallas Cowboys, and the next week he's the king of East Swatsi. The story demands it, Mark. Did I dodge that one or what? Don't worry, there's a reason why Prometheus is going to be up there. He's an image stretched out there of a divine figure who is suffering for his love of humankind, if you see what I'm getting at.

Don't worry. I'm not going to do the gesture. but don't worry, because with one of his chained up hands Prometheus is flipping Zeus the bird, as it were. Because Prometheus knows something that Zeus doesn't know. He knows one thing that Zeus doesn't know. He knows he's going to come off that rock sooner or later. As for mankind, Zeus has another punishment for mankind. It is at this point which I take my cup of coffee and my notes and start backing slowly towards the door in order to ensure a quick getaway because, believe it or not, Zeus's revenge on mankind was the creation of women. Well, I'm glad to see that the women in this particular class are laughing. Usually, this would be my time to be running out the door under the barrage of backpacks and lipsticks and key chains and hair bunchies. Do those exist? Shoot me. I'm not an expert on hair.

This is where we're going to pick on our next class, obviously, but what I want to tell you right off the start as you read this stuff is, yes, any civilization in which one could explain the creation of women as a punishment for men is fundamentally misogynistic. That is to say, women-haters. It is very difficult to think of an ancient Greek mom telling her ancient Greek daughter, "Oh yes, then Zeus decided to get even with men and created us women, hehehe." Yeah, I don't think that happened, obviously. But, for better or worse, the ancient Greek culture is not the only culture in which everything bad is based on something that a woman did wrong. I leave you with that tantalizing thought. You've been a good class. We'll see you next time in Classical Mythology, LLT121.
Directory: josephhughes -> myth -> TranscriptsWord
TranscriptsWord -> Good afternoon and welcome to llt121. My name is Dr. Pauline Nugent
TranscriptsWord -> Good morning and welcome to llt121 Classical Mythology
TranscriptsWord -> Good morning and welcome to llt121 Classical Mythology. We resume with the career of Theseus, the greatest hero of the city of Athens
TranscriptsWord -> Let me give you a little bit of background. The quote/unquote
TranscriptsWord -> Good morning and welcome to llt121 Classical Mythology. In our last class, we were examining the concept of the Ages of Humankind. Hesiod was the first to write it down, circa 750 bc
TranscriptsWord -> Sit right back and you’ll hear the tale, the tale of a faithful myth that started one fine Theban day when Zeus stole a fleeting kiss. It proceeded past a kiss, Zeus being the incredible fertile god that he is
TranscriptsWord -> Good morning and welcome to llt121 Classical Mythology. I fought the temptation, at the beginning of this class, of saying, Welcome back, my friends, to the show that never ends
TranscriptsWord -> Orpheus. Orpheus was a great musician. He was awesome. Like many great musicians—who can name me a great musician that died young? Yes? Poser? Who? Okay. Who else? Okay, who else was a great musician? Poser
TranscriptsWord -> Good morning and welcome to llt121 Classical Mythology. When last we left off, we were considering the Eleusinian mystery religion, the mysteries of Demeter and her search for her lost daughter, Persephone
TranscriptsWord -> Good morning and welcome to llt121 Classical Mythology, in which we resume our adventures in the city of Thebes, the city that the gods seem to love to hate. The original founder turns into a snake

Share with your friends:

The database is protected by copyright © 2019
send message

    Main page