Greenwood professor of hellenistic greek and indo-european philology in the victoria university of manchester tutor in new testament language and literature


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Digitized by Ted Hildebrandt, Gordon College, Wenham, MA

March 2006




THE call for a second edition of this work within six or seven

months of its first appearance gives me a welcome opportunity

of making a good many corrections and additions, without

altering in any way its general plan. Of the scope of these new

features I shall have something to say later; at this point I

have to explain the title-page, from which certain words have

disappeared, not without great reluctance on my part. The

statement in the first edition that the book was "based on

W. F. Moulton's edition of G. B. Winer's Grammar," claimed

for it connexion with a work which for thirty-five years had

been in constant use among New Testament students in this

country and elsewhere. I should hardly have yielded this

statement for excision, had not the suggestion come from one

whose motives for retaining it are only less strong than my

own. Sir John Clark, whose kindness throughout the progress

of this work it is a special pleasure to acknowledge on such

an opportunity, advised me that misapprehension was fre-

quently occurring with those whose knowledge of this book

was limited to the title. Since the present volume is entirely

new, and does not in any way follow the lines of its great

predecessor it seems better to confine the history of the

undertaking to the Preface, and take sole responsibility. I

have unhappily no means of divining what judgement either

Winer or his editor would have passed on my doctrines; and

it is therefore, perhaps, due to Pietat that I should drop what

Pietat mainly prompted.

It is now forty years since my father, to whose memory

this book is dedicated, was invited by Messrs T. & T. Clark

to translate and edit G. B. Winer's epoch-making Grammatik

des neutestamentliehen Spraehidioms. The proposal originated

with Bishop Ellicott, afterwards Chairman of the New Testa-



ment Revision Company, and the last survivor of a band of

workers who, while the following pages were in the press,

became united once more. Dr Ellicott had been in corre-

spondence on biblical matters with the young Assistant Tutor

at the Wesleyan Theological College, Richmond; and his

estimate of his powers was shown first by the proposal as to

Winer, and not long after by the Bishop's large use of my

father's advice in selecting new members of the Revision

Company. Mr Moulton took his place in the Jerusalem

Chamber in 1870, the youngest member of the Company;

and in the same year his edition of Winer appeared. My

brother's Life of our father (Isbister, 1899) gives an account

of its reception. It would not be seemly for me to enlarge

on its merits, and it would be as superfluous as unbecoming.

I will only allow myself the satisfaction of quoting a few

words from one who may well be called the greatest New

Testament scholar this country has seen for generations. In

giving his Cambridge students a short list of reference books,

Dr Hort said (Romans and Ephesians, p. 71):—

Winer's Grammar of the New Testament, as translated

and enlarged by Dr Moulton, stands far above every

other for this purpose. It does not need many minutes

to learn the ready use of the admirable indices, of

passages and of subjects: and when the book is con-

sulted in this manner, its extremely useful contents

become in most cases readily accessible. Dr Moulton's

references to the notes of the best recent English com-

mentaries are a helpful addition.

In 1875 Dr Moulton was transferred to Cambridge,

charged by his Church with the heavy task of building up

from the foundation a great Public School. What time a

Head Master could spare to scholarship was for many years

almost entirely pledged to the New Testament and Apocrypha

Revision. Naturally it was not possible to do much to his

Grammar when the second edition was called for in 1877.

The third edition, five years later, was even less delayed for

the incorporation of new matter; and the book stands now,

in all essential points, just as it first came from its author's

pen. Meanwhile the conviction was growing that the next


edition must be a new book. Winer's own last edition,

though far from antiquated, was growing decidedly old;

its jubilee is in fact celebrated by its English descendant

of to-day. The very thoroughness of Winer's work had made

useless for the modern student many a disquisition against

grammatical heresies which no one would now wish to drag

from the lumber-room. The literature to which Winer

appealed was largely buried in inaccessible foreign periodicals.

And as the reputation of his editor grew, men asked for a

more compact, better arranged, more up-to-date volume, in

which the ripest and most modern work should no longer be

stowed away in compressed notes at the foot of the page.

Had time and strength permitted, Dr Moulton would have

consulted his most cherished wish by returning to the work

of his youth and rewriting his Grammar as an independent

book. But "wisest Fate said No." He chose his junior col-

league, to whom he had given, at first as his pupil, and

afterwards during years of University training and colleague-

ship in teaching, an insight into his methods and principles,

and at least an eager enthusiasm for the subject to which he

had devoted his own life. But not a page of the new book

was written when, in February 1898, "God's finger touched

him, and he slept."

Since heredity does not suffice to make a grammarian,

and there are many roads by which a student of New Testa-

ment language may come to his task, I must add a word

to explain in what special directions this book may perhaps

contribute to the understanding of the inexhaustible subject

with which it deals. Till four years ago, my own teaching

work scarcely touched the Greek Testament, classics and com-

parative philology claiming the major part of my time. But

I have not felt that this time was ill spent as a prepara-

tion for the teaching of the New Testament. The study of

the Science of Language in general, and especially in the field

of the languages which are nearest of kin to Greek, is well

adapted to provide points of view from which new light may

be shed on the words of Scripture. Theologians, adepts in

criticism, experts in early Christian literature, bring to a task

like this an equipment to which I can make no pretence.

But there are other studies, never more active than now,

which may help the biblical student in unexpected ways.

The life-history of the Greek language has been investi-

gated with minutest care, not only in the age of its glory,

but also throughout the centuries of its supposed senility

and decay. Its syntax has been illuminated by the com-

parative method; and scholars have arisen who have been

willing to desert the masterpieces of literature and trace the

humble development of the Hellenistic vernacular down to

its lineal descendant in the vulgar tongue of the present day.

Biblical scholars cannot study everything, and there are some

of them who have never heard of Brugmann and Thumb.

It may be some service to introduce them to the side-lights

which comparative philology can provide.

But I hope this book may bring to the exegete material

yet more important for his purpose, which might not otherwise

come his way. The immense stores of illustration which have

been opened to us by the discoveries of Egyptian papyri, ac-

cessible to all on their lexical side in the brilliant Bible Studies

of Deissmann, have not hitherto been systematically treated

in their bearing on the grammar of New Testament Greek.

The main purpose of these Prolegomena has accordingly been

to provide a sketch of the language of the New Testament as

it appears to those who have followed Deissmann into a new

field of research. There are many matters of principle need-

ing detailed discussion, and much new illustrative material

from papyri and inscriptions, the presentation of which will, I

hope, be found helpful and suggestive. In the present volume,

therefore, I make no attempt at exhaustiveness, and of ten

omit important subjects on which I have nothing new to say.

By dint of much labour on the indices, I have tried to provide

a partial remedy for the manifold inconveniences of form

which the plan of these pages entails. My reviewers en-

courage me to hope that I have succeeded in one cherished

ambition, that of writing a Grammar which can be read.

The fascination of the Science of Language has possessed me

ever since in boyhood I read Max Muller's incomparable

Lectures; and I have made it my aim to communicate what

I could of this fascination before going on to dry statistics

and formulae. In the second volume I shall try to present

as concisely as I can the systematic facts of Hellenistic acci-

dence and syntax, not in the form of an appendix to a

grammar of classical Greek, but giving the later language

the independent dignity which it deserves. Both Winer

himself and the other older scholars, whom a reviewer thinks

I have unduly neglected, will naturally bulk more largely

than they can do in chapters mainly intended to describe

the most modern work. But the mere citation of authori-

ties, in a handbook designed for practical utility, must

naturally be subordinated to the succinct presentation of

results. There will, I hope, be small danger of my readers'

overlooking my indebtedness to earlier workers, and least

of all that to my primary teacher, whose labours it is

my supreme object to preserve for the benefit of a new


It remains to perform the pleasant duty of acknowledging

varied help which has contributed a large proportion of any-

thing that may be true or useful in this book. It would be

endless were I to name teachers, colleagues, and friends in

Cambridge, to whom through twenty years' residence I con-

tracted debts of those manifold and intangible kinds which

can only be summarised in the most inadequate way: no

Cantab who has lived as long within that home of exact

science and sincere research, will fail to understand what I

fail to express. Next to the Cambridge influences are those

which come from teachers and friends whom I have never

seen, and especially those great German scholars whose labours,

too little assisted by those of other countries, have established

the Science of Language on the firm basis it occupies to-day.

In fields where British scholarship is more on a level with

that of Germany, especially those of biblical exegesis and

of Greek classical lore, I have also done my best to learn

what fellow-workers east of the Rhine contribute to the

common stock. It is to a German professor, working

upon the material of which our own Drs Grenfell and

Hunt have provided so large a proportion, that I owe the

impulse which has produced the chief novelty of my work.

My appreciation of the memorable achievement of Dr Deiss-

mann is expressed in the body of the book; and I must

only add here my grateful acknowledgement of the many

encouragements he has given me in my efforts to glean

after him in the field he has made his own. He has now

crowned them with the all too generous appreciations of

my work which he has contributed to the Theologische

Literaturzeitung and the Theologische Rundschau. Another

great name figures on most of the pages of this book.

The services that Professor Blass has rendered to New

Testament study are already almost equal to those he has

rendered to classical scholarship. I have been frequently

obliged to record a difference of opinion, though never with-

out the inward voice whispering "impar congresses Achilli."

But the freshness of view which this great Hellenist brings

to the subject makes him almost as helpful when he fails

to convince as when he succeeds; and I have learned more

and more from him, the more earnestly I have studied for

myself. The name of another brilliant writer on New

Testament Grammar, Professor Schmiedel, will figure more

constantly in my second volume than my plan allows it to

do in this.

The mention of the books which have been most fre-

quently used, recalls the need of one or two explanations

before closing this Preface. The text which is assumed

throughout is naturally that of Westcott and Hort. The

principles on which it is based, and the minute accuracy with

which they are followed out, seem to allow no alternative to

a grammatical worker, even if the B type of text were held

to be only the result of second century revision. But in

frequently quoting other readings, and especially those which

belong to what Dr Kenyon conveniently calls the d-text,

I follow very readily the precedent of Blass. I need not

say that Mr Geden's Concordance has been in continual

use. I have not felt bound to enter much into questions

of "higher criticism." In the case of the Synoptic Gospels,

the assumption of the "two-source hypothesis" has suggested

a number of grammaticul points of interest. Grammar helps

to rivet closer the links which bind together the writings of

Luke, and those of Paul (though the Pastorals often need

separate treatment): while the Johannine Gospel and Epistles

similarly form a single grammatical entity. Whether the

remaining Books add seven or nine to the tale of separate

authors, does not concern us here; for the Apocalypse,


1 Peter and 2 Peter must be treated individually as much

as Hebrews, whether the traditional authorship be accepted

or rejected.

Last come the specific acknowledgements of most generous

and welcome help received directly in the preparation of this

volume. I count myself fortunate indeed in that three

scholars of the first rank in different lines of study have

read my proofs through, and helped me with invaluable

encouragement and advice. It is only due to them that I

should claim the sole responsibility for errors which I may

have failed to escape, in spite of their watchfulness on my

behalf. Two of them are old friends with whom I have

taken counsel for many years. Dr G. G. Findlay has gone

over my work with minute care, and has saved me from

many a loose and ambiguous statement, besides giving me the

fruit of his profound and accurate exegesis, which students

of his works on St. Paul's Epistles know well. Dr Bendel

Harris has brought me fresh lights from other points of

view and I have been particularly glad of criticism from a

specialist in Syriac, who speaks with authority on matters

which take a prominent place in my argument. The third

name is that of Professor Albert Thumb, of Marburg. The

kindness of this great scholar, in examining so carefully the

work of one who is still a]gnoou

be adequately acknowledged here. Nearly every page of my

book owes its debt either to his writings or to the criticisms

and suggestions with which he has favoured me. At least

twice he has called my attention to important articles in

English which I had overlooked and in my illustrations

from Modern Greek I have felt myself able to venture often

into fields which might have been full of pitfalls, had I not

been secure in his expert guidance. Finally, in the necessary

drudgery of index-making I have had welcome aid at home.

By drawing up the index of Scripture quotations, my mother

has done for me what she did for my father nearly forty years

ago. My brother, the Rev. W. Fiddian Moulton, M.A., has

spared time from a busy pastor's life to make me the Greek

index. To all these who have helped me so freely, and to

many others whose encouragement and counsel has been a

constant stimulus—I would mention especially my Man-

chester colleagues, Dr R. W. Moss and Professor A. S. Peake

—I tender my heartfelt thanks.

The new features of this edition are necessarily confined

within narrow range. The Additional Notes are suggested

by my own reading or by suggestions from various reviewers

and correspondents, whose kindness I gratefully acknowledge.

A new lecture by Professor Thumb, and reviews by such

scholars as Dr Marcus Dods, Dr H. A. A. Kennedy, and Dr

Souter, have naturally provided more material than I can at

present use. My special thanks are due to Mr H. Scott, of

Oxton, Birkenhead, who went over the index of texts and

two or three complicated numerical computations in the body

of the book, and sent me unsolicited some corrections and

additions, for which the reader will add his gratitude to

mine. As far as was possible, the numerous additions to the

Indices have been worked in at their place; but some pages

of Addenda have been necessary, which will not, I hope,

seriously inconvenience the reader. The unbroken kindness of

my reviewers makes it needless for me to reply to criticisms

here. I am tempted to enlarge upon one or two remarks in the

learned and helpful Athenaeum review, but will confine myself

to a comment on the "awkward results " which the writer

anticipates from the evidence of the papyri as set forth in my

work. My Prolegomena, he says, "really prove that there can

be no grammar of New Testament Greek, and that the grammar

of the Greek in the New Testament is one and the same with

the grammar of the 'common Greek' of the papyri." I agree

with everything except the "awkwardness" of this result

for me. To call this book a Grammar of the 'Common'

Greek, and enlarge it by including phenomena which do

not happen to be represented in the New Testament, would

certainly be more scientific. But the practical advantages of

confining attention to what concerns the grammatical inter-

pretation of a Book of unique importance, written in a language

which has absolutely no other literature worthy of the name,

need hardly be laboured here, and this foreword is already

long enough. I am as conscious as ever of the shortcomings

of this book when placed in the succession of, one which has

so many associations of learning and industry, of caution and

flawless accuracy. But I hope that its many deficiencies may


not prevent it from leading its readers nearer to the meaning

of the great literature which it strives to interpret. The

new tool is certain not to be all its maker fondly wished it

to be; but from a vein so rich in treasure even the poorest

instrument can hardly fail to bring out nuggets of pure gold.

J. H. M.
DIDSBURY COLLEGE, Avg. 13, 1906.

As it is not yet three years since this book first appeared,

I am spared the necessity of introducing very drastic change.

Several new collections of papyri have been published, and

other fresh material, of which I should have liked to avail

myself more fully. But the alterations and additions have

been limited by my wish not to disturb the pagination.

Within this limit, however, I have managed to bring in a

large number of small changes-removing obscurities, correcting

mistakes, or registering a change of opinion; while, by the use

of blank spaces, or the cutting down of superfluities, I have

added very many fresh references. For the convenience of

readers who possess former editions, I add below1 a note of

the pages on which changes or additions occur, other than

those that are quite trifling. No small proportion of my

time has been given to the Indices. Experience has shown

that I had planned the Greek Index on too small a scale.

In the expansion of this Index, as also for the correction of

many statistics in the body of the book, I have again to

acknowledge with hearty thanks the generous help of Mr

1 See pp. xii., xx.-xxiii., 4, 7, 8, 10, 13-17, 19, 21, 26, 27, 29, 36, 38, 40,

41. 43, 45-50, 52-56, 64, 65, 67-69, 76-81, 86, 87, 93, 95-99, 101, 105, 107,

110, 113-115, 117, 119-121, 123, 125, 129, 130, 134, 135, 144, 145, 150, 156, 159,

161-163, 167, 168, 174, 176-179, 181, 185, 187, 188, 191;193-196, 198, 200, 204,

205, 214, 215, 223-225, 227-231, 234-237, 239-211, 213-249. Pp. 260-265

have many alterations, Index iii a few. Index ii and the Addenda are new.


H. Scott. To the kindness of many reviewers and corre-

spondents I must make a general acknowledgement for the

help they have given me. One debt of this kind, however,

I could not omit to mention, due to a learned member of

my own College, who is working in the same field. The

Accidence of Mr H. St. J. Thackeray's Septuagint Grammar

is now happily far advanced towards publication; and I have

had the privilege of reading it in MS, to my own great

profit. I only wish I could have succeeded in my endeavour

to provide ere now for my kind critics an instalment of the

systematic grammar to which this volume is intended to be

an introduction. It is small comfort that Prof. Schmiedel

is still in the middle of the sentence where he left off ten

years ago. The irreparable loss that Prof. Blass's death

inflicts on our studies makes me more than ever wishful

that Dr Schmiedel and his new coadjutor may not keep us

waiting long.

Some important fields which I might have entered have

been pointed out by Prof. S. Dickey, in the Princeton Theological

Review for Jan. 1908, p. 151. Happily, I need not be

exhaustive in Prolegomena, though the temptation to rove

further is very strong. There is only one topic on which

I feel it essential to enlarge at present, touching as it does

my central position, that the New Testament was written

in the normal Koinh< of the Empire, except for certain parts

where over-literal translation from Semitic originals affected

its quality. I must not here defend afresh the general thesis

against attacks like that of Messrs Conybeare and Stock,

delivered in advance in their excellent Selections from the

Septuagint, p. 22 (1905), or Dr Nestle's review of my book in

the Berliner Philologische Wochenschrift for December 8, 1906.

There are many points in this learned and suggestive review

to which I hope to recur before long. But there is one new

line essayed by some leading critics of Deissmannism—if

I may coin a word on an obvious analogy—which claims

a few words here. In the first additional note appended to

my second edition (p. 242, below), I referred to the evidence

for a large Aramaic-speaking Jewish population in Egypt, and

anticipated the possibility that "Hebraists" might interpret

our parallels from the papyri as Aramaisms of home growth,


As this argument had not yet been advanced, I did not offer

an answer. But simultaneously Prof. Swete was bringing out

his monumental Commentary on the Apocalypse; and I

found on p. cxx that the veteran editor of the LXX was dis-

posed to take this very line. The late Dr H. A. Redpath also

wrote to me, referring to an article of his own in the American

Journal of Theology for January 1903, pp. 10 f., which I should

not have overlooked. With two such authorities to support

this suggestion, I cannot of course leave the matter as it

stands in the note referred to. Fuller discussion I must defer,

but I may point out that our case does not rest on the papyri

alone. Let it be granted, for the sake of argument, that we

have no right to delete from the list of Hebraisms uses for

which we can only quote Egyptian parallels, such as the use

of meta< referred to on p. 246. There will still remain a

multitude of uses in which we can support the papyri from

vernacular inscriptions of different countries, without encoun-

tering any probability of Jewish influence. Take, for example,

the case of instrumental e]n, where the Hebrew b; has naturally

been recognised by most scholars in the past. I have asserted

(p. 12) that Ptolemaic exx. of e]n maxaial.) rescue

Paul's e]n r[a

Dr Findlay (EGT on 1 Co 4 21) cited Lucian, Dial. Mort.

xxiii. 3. Now let us suppose that the Egyptian official who

wrote Tb P 16 was unconsciously using an idiom of the

Ghetto, and that Lucian's Syrian origin—credat Iudaeus.

was peeping out in a reminiscence of the nursery. We shall

still be able to cite examples of the reckless extension

of e]n in Hellenistic of other countries; and we shall find

that the roots of this particular extension go down deep into

classical uses loquendi: see the quotations in Kuhner-Gerth

i. 465, and especially note the Homeric e]n o]fqalmoi?si

Fide kaiIl. xxiv. 38),

which are quite near enough to explain the development.

That some Biblical uses of e]n go beyond even the generous

limits of Hellenistic usage, neither Deissmann nor I seek to

deny (see p. 104). But evidence accumulates to forbid my

allowing Semitisin as a vera causa for the mass of Biblical

instances of e]n in senses which make the Atticist stare and

gasp. And on the general question I confess myself uncon-

vinced that Egyptian Greek differs materially from that

current in the Empire as a whole, or that the large Jewish

population left their stamp on the language of Greeks or

bilingual Egyptians in the Delta, any more than the perhaps

equally large proportion of Jews in Manchester affects the

speech of our Lancashire working men. There is another line

of argument which I personally believe to be sound, but I do

not press it here—the dogma of Thumb (see pp. 17 n. and

94 below), that a usage native in Modern Greek is ipso facto

no Semitism. It has been pressed by Psichari in his valuable

Essai sur le grec de la Septante (1908). But I have already

overstepped the limits of a Preface, and will only express

the earnest hope that the modest results of a laborious

revision may make this book more helpful to the great

company of Biblical students whom it is my ambition to


J. H. M.



Chap. Page





ABBREVIATIONS for the names of Books of Scripture will explain them-

selves. In the OT and Apocrypha the names of the Books follow the

English RV (except Ca for Song of Songs), as also do the numbers for

chapter and verse: the LXX numbering, where it differs, is added within


Centuries are denoted iii/13 B.C., ii/A.D., etc., except when an exact date

is given. Where the date may fall within wider limits, the notation

is ii/i B.C., iv/v A.D., etc. Where papyri or inscriptions are not dated,

it may generally be taken that no date is given by the editor.

The abbreviations for papyri and inscriptions are given in Index I (c)

and (d), pp. 251 ff. below, with the full titles of the collections quoted.

The ordinary abbreviations for MSS, Versions, and patristic writers

are used in textual notes.

Other abbreviations will, it is hoped, need no explanation: perhaps

MGr for Modern Greek should be mentioned. It should be observed

that references are to pages, unless otherwise stated: papyri and inscrip-

tions are generally cited by number. In all these documents the usual

notation is followed, and the original spelling preserved.

Abbott JG= Johannine Grammar, by E. A. Abbott. London 1906.

Abbott—see Index I (e) iii.

AJP=American Journal of Philology, ed. B. L. Gildersleeve, Baltimore

1880 ft.

Archiv—see Index I (c).

Audollent—see Index I (c).

BCH— see Index I (c).

Blass= Grammar of NT Greek, by F. Blass. Second English edition,

tr. H. St J. Thackeray, London 1905. (This differs from ed. 1 only

by the addition of pp. 306-333.) Sometimes the reference is to notes

in Blass's Acta Apostolorum (Gottingen 1895): the context will

make it clear.

Brugmann Dist.= Die distributiven u. d. kollektiven Numeralia der idg.

Sprachen, by K. Brugmann. (Abhandl. d. K. S. Ges. d. Wiss., xxv. v,

Leipzig 1907.)

Burton MT= New Testament Moods and Tenses, by E. D. Burton.

Second edition, Edinburgh 1894.

Buttmann= Grammar of New Testament Greek, by A. Buttmaun.

English edition by J. H. Thayer, Andover 1876.


BZ= Byzantinische Zeitschrift, ed. K. Krumbacher, Leipzig 1892

Cauer—see Index I (c).

CGT= Cambridge Greek Testament for Schools and Colleges.

CR= Classical Review (London 1887 ff.). Especially reference is made

to the writer's collection of forms and syntactical examples from the

papyri, in CR xv. 31-38 and 434-442 (Feb. and Dec. 1901), and

xviii. 106-112 and 151-155 (March and April 1904—to be continued).

CQ = Classical Quarterly. London 1907 f.

Dalman Words= The Words of Jesus, by G. Dalman. English edition,

tr. D. M. Kay, Edinburgh 1902.

Dalman Gramm.= Grammatik des judisch-palastinischen Aramaisch, by

G. Dalman, Leipzig 1894.

DB=Dictionary of the Bible, edited by J. Hastings. 5 vols., Edinburgh


Deissmann BS= Bible Studies, by G. A. Deissmann. English edition,

including Bibelstudien and Neue Bibelstudien, tr. A. Grieve, Edinburgh


Deissmann In Christo =Die Die neutestamentliche Formel "in Christo Jesu,"

by G. A. Deissmann, Marburg 1892.

Delbruck Grundr.= Grundriss der vergleichenden Grammatik der

indogermanischen Sprachen, by K. Brugmann and B. Delbruck:

Dritter Band, Vergleichende Syntax, by Delbruck, Strassburg 1893-

1900. (References to Brugmann's part, on phonology and morphology,

are given to his own abridgement, Kurze vergleichende Grammatik,

1904, which has also an abridged Comparative Syntax.)

Dieterich Unters.=Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der griechischen

Sprache, von der hellenistischen Zeit bis zum 10. Jahrh. n. Chr., by

K. Dieterich, Leipzig 1898.

DLZ= Deutsche Literaturzeitung, Leipzig.

EB=Encyclopaedia Biblica, edited by T. K. Cheyne and J. S. Black.

4 vols., London 1899-1903.

EGT=Expositor's Greek Testament, edited by W. Robertson Nicoll.

4 vols. (vol. iv. not yet published), London 1897-1903.

Exp B=Expositor's Bible, edited by W. R. Nicoll. 49 vols., London


Expos= The Expositor, edited by W. R. Nicoll. Cited by series, volume,

and page. London 1875 ff.

Exp T= The Expository Times, edited by J. Hastings. Edinburgh 1889 ff.

Gildersleeve Studies= Studies in Honor of Professor Gildersleeve, Baltimore.

Gildersleeve Synt. = Syntax of Classical Greek, by B. L. Gildersleeve and

C. W. E. Miller. Part i, New York 1900.

Giles Manual 2=A Short Manual of Comparative Philology for classical

students, by P. Giles. Second edition, London 1901.

Goodwin MT = Syntax of the Moods and Tenses of the Greek Verb, by

W. W. Goodwin. Third edition, London 1889.

Goodwin Greek Gram. = A Greek Grammar, by W. W. Goodwin. London


Grimm-Thayer =Grimm's Wilke's Clavis Novi Testamenti, translated and

enlarged by J. H. Thayer, as " A Greek-English Lexicon of the New

Testament." Edinburgh 1886.

Hatzidakis = Einleitung in die neugriechische Grammatik, by G. N.

Hatzidakis. Leipzig 1892.

Hawkins HS= Howe Synopticce, by J. C. Hawkins. Oxford 1899.

HR= A Concordance to the Septuagint, by E. Hatch and H. A. Redpath.

Oxford 1897.

IMA—see Index I (c).

Indog. Forsch.= Indogermanische Forschungen, edited by K. Brugmann

and. W. Streitberg. Strassburg 1892

Jannaris HG= A Historical Greek Grammar, by A. N. Jannaris. London


JBL =Journal of Biblical Literature. Boston 1881 ff.

JHS—see Index I (c).

JTS =Journal of Theological Studies. London 1900 ff.

Julicher Introd.=Introduction to the New Testament, by A. Julicher.

English edition, tr. by J. P. Ward, London 1904.

Kalker=Quaestiones de elocutione Polybiana, by F. Kaelker. In Leipziger

Studien III.. ii., 1880.

Kuhner 3, or Kuhner-Blass, Kuhner-Gerth =Ausfuhrliche Grammatik der

griechischen Sprache, by R. Kuhner. Third edition, Elementar-und

Formenlehre, by F. Blass. 2 vols., Hannover 1890-2. Satzlehre, by

B. Gerth. 2 vols., 1898, 1904.

Kuhring Praep. = De Praepusitionum Graec. in chards Aegyptiis usu, by

W. Kuhring. Bonn 1906.

KZ=Kuhn’s Zeitschrift fur vergleichende Sprachforschung. Berlin and

Gutersloh 1852 ff.

LS=A Greek-English Lexicon, by H. G. Liddell and R. Scott. Eighth

edition, Oxford 1901.

Mayser= Grammatik der gr. Papyri aus der Ptolemilerzeit, by E. Mayser.

Leipzig 1006.

Meisterhans 3= Grammatik der attischen Inschriften, by K. Meisterhans.

Third edition by E. Schwyzer (see p. 29 n.), Berlin 1900.

MG=Concordance to the Greek Testament, by W. F. Moulton and A. S.

Geden. Edinburgh 1897.

Milligan-Moulton Commentary on the Gospel of St John, by W. Milligan

and W. F. Moulton. Edinburgh 1898.

Mithraslit.—see Index I (4

Monro HG= Homeric Grammar, by D. B. Monro. Second edition,

Oxford 1891.

Nachmanson=Laute and Formen der Magnetischen Inschriften, by E.

Nachmanson, Upsala 1903.

Ramsay Paul= Paul the Traveller and Roman Citizen, by W. M. Ramsay

Third edition, London 1897.

Ramsay C. and B.—see Index I (e).

RE 3 = Herzog-Hauck Realencyclopadie. (In progress.) Leipzig.

REGr=Revue des Etudes grecques. Paris 188t ff.

Reinhold=De Graecitate Patrum, by H. Reinhold. Halle 1896.

RhM= Rheinisches Museum. Bonn 1827 ff.

Riddell = A Digest of Platonic Idioms, by J. Riddell (in his edition of

the Apology, Oxford 1867).

Rutherford NP= The New Phrynichus, by W. G. Rutherford, London 1881.

Schanz Beitr.=Beitrage zur historischen Syntax der griechischen Sprache,

edited by M. Schanz. Wurtzburg 1882 ff.

Schmid Attic. = Der Atticismus in seinen Hauptvertretern von Dionysius

von Halikarnass his auf den zweiten Philostratus, by W. Schmid.

4 vols. and Register, Stuttgart 1887-1897.

Schmidt Jos.= De Flavii Josephi elocutione, by W. Schmidt, Leipzig 1893.

Schulze Gr. Lat. =Graeca Latina, by W. Schulze, Gottingen 1901.

Schwyzer Perg.= Grammatik der pergamenischen Inschrif ten, by E.

Schweizer (see p. 29 n.), Berlin 1898.

SH= The Epistle to the Romans, by W. Sanday and A. C. Headlam.

Fifth edition, Edinburgh 1902.

ThLZ=Theologische Literaturzeitung, edited by A. Harnack and E.

Schurer, Leipzig 1876 ff.

Thumb Hellen.= Die griechische Sprache im Zeitalter des Hellenismus,

by A. Thumb, Strassburg 1901.

Thumb Handb.= Handbuch der neugriechischen Volkssprache, by A.

Thumb, Strassburg 1895.

Ti=Novum Testamentum Graece, by C. Tischendorf. Editio octava

critica maior. 2 vols., Leipzig 1869-72. Also vol. iii, by C. R.

Gregory, containing Prolegomena, 1894.

Viereck SG—see Index I (c).

Viteau = Etude sur le grec du Noveau Testament, by J. Viteau. Vol. i,

Le Verbe: Syntaxe des Propositions, Paris 1893; vol. ii, Sujet,

Complement et Attribut, 1896.

Volker = Syntax der griechischen Papyri. I. Der Artikel, by F. Volker,

Munster i. W. 1903.

Votaw= The Use of the Infinitive in Biblical Greek, by C. W. Votaw.

Chicago 1896.

Wellh.=Einleitung in die drei ersten Evangelien, by J. Wellhausen.

Berlin 1905.

WH= The New Testament in the Original Greek, by B. F. Westcott and

F. J. A. Hort. Vol. i, Text (also ed. minor); vol. ii, Introduction.

Cambridge and London 1881; second edition of vol. ii, 1896.

WH App= Appendix to WH, in vol. ii, containing Notes on Select

Readings and on Orthography, etc.

Witk. = Epistulae Privatae Graecae, ed. S. Witkowski. Leipzig 1906.

WM= A Treatise on the Grammar of New Testament Greek, regarded as

a sure basis for New Testament Exegesis, by G. B. Winer. Trans-

lated from the German, with large additions and full indices, by

W. F. Moulton. Third edition, Edinburgh 1882.

WS= G. B. Winer's Grammatik des neutestamentlichen Sprachidionis.

Eighth edition, newly edited by P. W. Schinieclel, Gottingen 1894 ff.

(In progress.)

ZNTW =Zeitschrift fur die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft, edited by

E. Preuselien. Giessen 1900




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