Human Physiology Homework: Homeostasis

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Human Physiology Homework: Homeostasis

Problem 1

You have to take care of a patient who has mostly lost ability to regulate his homeostasis - assume heroin overdose. You, as a doctor, have to take over control of his internal environment. Choose 1 physiological parameter that you would monitor.




  1. For this physiological parameter, describe normal control mechanism - draw a feedback control loop.




  1. Describe acceptable values of this physiological parameter.


  2. Describe what sensors are normally involved.


  3. Describe what compensation mechanisms are normally available.


  4. Now assume that the natural control of this physiological parameter is compromised and you are taking over.


  5. Describe medical procedures you would use to monitor this physiological parameter.


  6. Describe compensation mechanisms available to stabilize the chosen physiological parameter within acceptable range.


  7. For how long do you anticipate the need for your involvement in control mechanism?



Problem 2


Repeat problem 1 for an additional physiological parameter.


  1. For this physiological parameter, describe normal control mechanism - draw a feedback control loop.




  1. Describe acceptable values of this physiological parameter.


  2. Describe what sensors are normally involved.


  3. Describe what compensation mechanisms are normally available.

  4. Now assume that the natural control of this physiological parameter is compromised and you are taking over.



  5. Describe medical procedures you would use to monitor this physiological parameter.


  6. Describe compensation mechanisms available to stabilize the chosen physiological parameter within acceptable range.


  7. For how long do you anticipate the need for your involvement in control mechanism?


Problem 3


Continue this table by transfusing blood type B, AB and 0. Indicate antibodies and clumping. Choose the blood type for transfusion to an individual with blood type B.



Problem 4

Consider the following case study: Frozen' Man Revived From the Brink of Death After Being Found in the Snow With No Pulse


from: http://abcnews.go.com/Health/frozen-man-revived-brink-death-found-snow-pulse/story?id=36380318

http://www.cbsnews.com/news/man-feared-frozen-to-death-makes-miracle-recovery/


A Pennsylvania man's tale of survival is drawing attention to the dangers of cold weather exposure after a walk home in subzero temperatures left him unconscious, with no pulse when he was found in the snow the following day.

Justin Smith, 26, was walking home in below freezing temperatures after having a few beers with friends last winter when he blacked out, according to the Lehigh Valley Health Network. The college student was in the snow for hours as temperatures plunged to 4 degrees Fahrenheit below zero.

He wasn't found until the next morning, when his father Don Smith saw his son lying by the road.

"He was blue his face, he was lifeless. I checked for a pulse, I checked for a heartbeat, there was nothing," Don Smith told ABC affiliate WNEP.
Nearly a year after the ordeal, Justin Smith was finally healthy enough to thank his doctors in person at a news conference on Monday. His doctors said Smith's incredible tale of survival may affect how they treat other hypothermic patients in the future.

When Don Smith called paramedics after finding his son unconscious in the snow, they did not give up on the student. They started CPR with chest compressions.


Dr. Gerald Coleman, an emergency medicine physician at Lehigh Valley Hospital in Hazleton, Pennsylvania, had Smith rushed to the hospital for care.
"You're not dead until you're warm and dead," Coleman said on the Lehigh Valley Health Network website -- referring to a phenomenon in which people who are kept at cold temperatures can be revived despite a lack of vital signs.
When Smith was brought into the emergency room, Coleman couldn't even get an accurate body temperature reading because Smith was too cold. But the doctor did not give up. He transferred Smith via helicopter to a hospital where he could be hooked up to a machine called an ECMO (extracorporeal membrane oxygenation), which warms the blood and oxygenates it then pumps it back into the body.
Dr. James Wu, a cardiothoracic surgeon at Leigh Valley Hospital at Cedar Crest, said it was a still a long shot that Smith could survive but after the machine was turned on, within 90 minutes his heart was beating on his own.
“With very low temperatures, it can preserve the brain and other organ functions," Wu said at a news conference on Monday.

In spite of his nearly miraculous survival, Smith didn't wake up immediately. Doctors were concerned he could have had serious brain damage. He also had severe frost bite and lost his toes and pinkies due to frostbite.

Approximately 30 days after he was found with no pulse, Smith woke up in a hospital room surrounded by family. He now is back at school at Penn State and aims to get a degree in psychology.
"It’s amazing," Smith said at the news conference about his survival. "It’s something I never heard of and I can’t thank everyone enough.”
Questions:

Why did Justin lost his pulse?


How did the doctors treat Justin?
Why was it important to inject warm AND oxygenated blood (not just warm blood)?
What would have happened if Justin was just immersed in a warm bath at home?


Problem 5 – fill the blanks

Four-year-old Toby Ault cried out in pain as his mother Kathryn gently lifted him up to tuck him into bed. ‘He said it was his legs and they were really hurting him again,’ says Kathryn, 27. ‘It was the third or fourth time in the space of a few weeks. At first I’d thought it might be growing pains, but by this stage I was starting to worry it might be something more serious,’ recalls the hairdresser, who lives in Lancing, West Sussex, with her partner Sam, 25, a surveyor.

Toby also wasn’t walking as well as his two older brothers Lewis, then six, and Jake, five, had done at the same age — ‘and his legs were a bowed shape,’ says Kathryn.

It was Kathryn’s 76-year-old grandmother Diana who, noticing this, raised the possibility that Toby might be suffering from _____________ — a disease she remembered from her own childhood in the Thirties.

‘I thought it was highly unlikely,’ recalls Kathryn. ‘But I took Toby to my GP to be on the safe side.

‘Imagine my horror when blood tests revealed my grandmother was right — Toby had very low _____________ levels and was suffering from what the hospital children’s department described as early-onset ____________.

'I just couldn’t believe it — Toby had always been so well cared for, but now he had a disease straight from the pages of Oliver Twist.’...









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