Курс лекций для школьников старших классов и студентов Saint Petersburg corona print Uchitel & Uchenic

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But soon Jack discovered the world of books. In 1885, he was borrowing books from the public library and read everything he could. He read books of adventure, travel and sea voyages. But as John London was often out of work, Jack had had to work since his early childhood to help his father support the family. He got up at 3 a. m. to deliver newspapers, after which he went to school. After school he delivered evening papers. On week­ends he worked as a porter or on an ice wagon. Because of fi­nancial difficulties, Jack got only a grammar school education. At the age of 13 he continued working as a newspaper boy and performed some other odd jobs. When he had some spare time from his work, he spent on the waterfront. The sea attracted him,

But family affairs went from bad to worse: John London was seriously injured, and now Jack had to provide his family. He found work in a cannery. His pay was very low, and he had to work overtime, standing at his machine for 18 and 20 hours a day. For several months he continued working there but then he joined the oyster pirates and was a sailor on board a schooner bound for Japan. In 1893 he returned to San Francisco. The only job he could find was in a jute mill where he earned one dollar for ten hours a day. After aSan Francisco Call offered a prize for a descriptive article. Jack's mother made him try for it. The attempt was successful. The first prize was given to Jack'Lon­don's 5fory of a Typhoon Off the Coast of Japan (1893). His suc­cess in the competition turned his thoughts to writing, but he had to earn his living. He got a job at a power plant, but soon he left the plant and joined an army of the unemployed. He tramped from San Francisco to Washington. Like many others he was arrested and spent a month in jail.

These hardships influenced his outlook. He began thinking of the necessity of improving his education. In 1896, after 3 months of preparatory study, he entered the University in California, but left before the year was up to support his mother and foster-father by working in a laundry. At the same time he decided once again

to try his skill in literature. Working day and night, Jack London wrote poetry, essays and stories, sending them to magazines, but receiving only rejection letters.

Then gold was discovered in the Klondike and Jack set sail for the Alaskan gold fields. He hoped to get money to be able to devote himself to literature. London mined no gold during his year's stay in the Klondike, but his contacts with many different people and his observations gave him a lot of material for many stories.

In 1889 he arrived home to find his father dead.

Jack returned to day labour, and at the same time he was trying to continue his literary work. He felt that in order to be­come a writer there were two things he had to acquire: knowledge and skill in writing. His reading continued: Kipling and Steven­son were his literary gods. At the cost of tremendous hardships his efforts were rewarded with success. His story To the Man on Trail (1898) was published in the Overland Monthly. In the course of the next four years London published his collection of northern stories (The Son of the Wolf (1900), The God of His Fathers (1901), Children of the Frost (1902), A Daughter of the Snows (1903) and The Call of the Wild (1903)), which brought the writer wide popularity.

London knew the North very well. He had met his characters in real life and knew their aspirations and troubles very well that's why all his personages are so realistically depicted.

In 1902 Jack London visited the capital of England. Out of that experience came the terrible picture of poverty, one of Lon­don's most popular books — The People of the Abyss (1903). The writer drew a realistic picture of the misery and suffering of the poor people who lived in the slums of London. The Russian Revolution in 1905 influenced London greatly and led London to a better understanding of class struggle. His new outlook was expressed in his books The War of the Classes (1905), The Iron Heel (1907) and Revolution and Other Essays (1910).

The years 1905- 1910 were the highest point in his political activity.



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"


deliberately [di'libantli] adv умышленно

deny [di'nai] v отрицать

descriptive [dis 'kriptiv] а описатель­ный

effort ['efat] n усилие

foster-father ['fo:sta ,fa:5a] n приемный отец

In 1905 Jack London went on a lecture tour of the country, and made a voyage to the Hawaii. On the deck of his yacht the Snark he began writing Martin Eden, the finest novel he ever wrote.

The years of 1906—1909 were the prime of London's creative work. He wrote some of his best works: The White Fang (1906), The South Sea Tales (1907), Martin Eden (1909) and many other works that brought the author great fame.

Many novels of his later period show that he made a compromise with those whom he had exposed in his previous books. These were his new works The Valley of the Moon (1914), and The Little Lady of the Big House (1916).

During the sixteen years of his literary activities Jack Lon­don wrote 19 novels, 18 books of short stories and articles, 3 plays and 8 autobiographical and sociological works. His work is very unequal. He expresses widely differing views of life. However, Jack London must be judged by the books in which he showed all his great talent, the books which brought fame to London's name all over the world.

On November 22, 1916, Jack London was found dead near Santa Rosa, California. Doctors explained his death as an over­dose of morphine. It is believed that it may have been taken de­liberately as during the year 1916 London felt very ill. He suf­fered from an incurable disease.

Jack London is one of the most popular writers in the world. He is still widely read. It is his realism and humanism that keep his writings living and fresh today as they were at the beginning of the century.

Vocabulary

acquire [a'kwaia] v приобретать aspiration Laespa'reijan] п стремление autobiographical [,o:tau,baiau'greeiikal]


а автобиографический cannery ['кгепэп] л консервный завод compromise ['ктлпргэтатг] v пойти на

компромисс

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pinch [pintf] л сжатие; v мучить pinch of poverty тиски нужды

pirate t'paiant] л пират

porter ['po:taJ л носильщик

power plant f'pauaplcunt] л электро­станция

prime [praim] n расцвет

schooner ['sku:na] л шхуна

slum [sLun] л обыкн. pi трущобы

sociologicol Csausja'lrxfcikal] а социо­логический

tramp [trasmp] v совершать путеше­ствие пешком

unequal [An'i:kwal] а неравноценный

waterfront f/vratafrAnt] л порт

yacht fjot] л яхта



hardship fha:djip] л обыкн pi трудности

incurable [m'kjuarabl] а неизлечимый

injure ['mdja] v ранить

jail [dseil] n тюрьма

judge [d$Ad3] v составлять мнение, оце­нивать

jute [dju:t] n джут

mine [mam] v добывать

morphine ['mo:fi:n] n морфий

occasion [a'kerjan] л случай

odd [t>d] а случайный

outlook ['autluk] n точка зрения; круго­зор

overdose fauvadaus] л слишком боль­шая доза

oyster ['oista] л устрица

Martin Eden

Martin Eden is an autobiographical novel in which London tells of his struggle to overcome his lack of knowledge and to turn himself from a plain sailor into an educated person. But this is a social novel as well. It shows the fate of a young man who comes from the working class and becomes a famous writer in bour­geois society.

The main characters of the novel are Martin Eden, Ruth Morse and her family. Martin saves in a hand-to-hand fight with a group of hooligans a young man named Arthur Morse. Arthur introduces Martin to his family, and he falls in love with his sister Ruth. Martin thinks the Morses to be the realm of spiritual beauty and intellectual life, and he considers Ruth to personify all these qualities.

It becomes Martin's desire to be her intellectual equal and to join the society she belongs to. He decides to educate himself to be worthy of Ruth. Martin Eden studies grammar, reads a lot of books. His swift development surprises and interests Ruth. She realizes that she is in love with Martin, but her parents have other plans for her. When Martin runs out of money he sets out as a

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Martin feels awfully tired. He refuses to write another word.

Martin thinks there is no cure for him except to escape from this world and sail on a liner to the South Seas.

Before his departure he feels that it is useless. The only thing he wants is rest, and finally he understands that only death will give him peace, and he commits suicide, he drawns himself.

Having developed the best traditions of the American criti­cal realism of Mark Twain, O. Henry and others, Jack London became one of the most significant classics of world literature. His talented, realistic works were highly appreciated by many progressive-minded people all over the world, and they inspired his contemporaries and many writers who came after him.




Speak about Jack London's childhood.

When was his first story written?

Why did Jack London go to the Klondike?

How did his stay in the Klondike influence on his writings?

Name Jack London's northern stories.

common sailor in a ship bound for the South Seas. While on board, a great idea comes to his head — to become a writer. That is a career that will help him to win Ruth.

On his return to Oakland, Martin devotes every minute of his time to writing and studying. He works from early morning till dark and sends the manuscripts to various magazines. His first stories are returned by the publishers, but he keeps on sending them.

In the meanwhile Martin and Ruth are engaged to be married. It is a great blow to Ruth's parents because Eden is a rough sailor. Wishing to have encouragement in his work, Martin shows some of his stories to Ruth. But she has little faith in his power as a writer. Ruth persuades him to give up writing and accept a job at her father's office.

But Martin continues sending his stories to various magazines.

His visits to the Morses convince him that he has been under the
wrong impression about the high society. He begins to under­
stand that Ruth also shares its narrowness. Under the pressure of
her parents Ruth breaks off the engagement. She agrees that
they are not made for each other. It is a terrible blow to Martin,
and he stops writing. But he continues to send his old rejected
stories to the printing houses. And soon they are accepted, one
after another. •»

Through unbearable hardships Martin manages to realize his dream. He becomes a famous writer. His stories and novels are now in great demand. Eden becomes rich and popular, but he is not happy. When he gets into "high society" he understands how shallow and hypocritical these people are. He can't understand that those who despised him before his books become popular, now invite him to dinner.

The Morses, hearing of Martin's brilliant career, are not against his union with Ruth. She even visits Martin to reconcile with him. "She is aware of her humiliation but she does not care. However all her efforts are in vain. The charm of love is gone. There is nothing in common between the youth, who was madly in love with Ruth, and the famous writer, tired, exhausted and indifferent. He cannot bring himself to feel sympathy for Ruth and is as unresponsive as a stone."

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Vocabulary

aware [s'wes] а знающий

to be aware сознавать, отдавать себе отчет charm [tja:m] n очарование convince [kan'vms] v убеждать despise [dis'paiz] v презирать encouragement [т'клпс&тэпГ] п под­держка engagement [m'geictjmsnt] n помолвка exhausted [ig'zo:stid] а измученный humiliation [hju^mili'eijgn] n унижение hypocritical Lhipa'kntikal] а лицемерный inspire [m'spara] v вдохновлять lack [laek] n нехватка narrowness [пэегэипв] п ограниченность overcome ['эшэклт] v(overcame; over­come) преодолеть

Questions and Tasks

personify [p3:'sDnifai] v олицетворять

progressive-minded [pre'gresiVmamdid] а прогрессивно настроенный

realm [relm] n сфера

reconcile freksnsail] v помириться

rough [rAf] а грубый

run out [глп aut] v кончаться

shallow ['/эе1эи] а ограниченный; пустой

share Цеэ] v разделять

spiritual ['spmtjusl] о духовный

unbearable [лп'ЬеэгэЫ] а невыносимый

unresponsive ['Anns'ponsiv] а не реа­гирующий

vain [vein] о напрасный in vain напрасно

worthy ['\V3:6i] а достойный

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  1. What novel was written after his visit to London?

  2. When was the prime of London's creative work?

  3. What works were written in this period of time?

  4. Characterise Jack London's literary activities.




  1. When did he die?

  2. What was the reason of his death?

  3. Analyse the novel Martin Eden.

  4. What are the main characters of the book?

  5. Give a summary of the contents of Martin Eden.

  6. Describe the character of Martin Eden.

  7. Comment on Jack London's place in American and world literature.

American Literature

Between 1917 and World

War II

The radical economic and social changes in American life dur­ing the twenties and thirties marked a fruitful time for critical realists. The writers reflected the new realities of American life. New themes, plots and heroes appeared in the novels and stories of the realistic writers.

Together with the books, the only purpose of which was to entertain the reader and try to avoid social problems, books ap­peared the purpose of which was to show the necessity of chang­ing the social order (for example Theodore Dreiser).

The fiction of the critical realists is distinguished by a great interest in social conflicts, attacks on accepted values and criti­cism of the American way of life.

Among the most outstanding American realists who revealed in his works the truth of American life, showed the tragic fate of young Americans after World War I, reflected the struggle with fascism, exposed industrial conditions and spoke out warmly

315


reflect [rn'flekt] v отражать reveal [n 'vi:l] v показывать; откры­вать


in defence of labour and depicted the spiritual emptiness of Ameri­can Society were Theodore Dreiser, Francis Scott Fitzgerald, Willliam Faulkner and Ernest Hemingway.

Vocabulary

emptiness ['emptmis] n пустота expose [iks'pauz] v показывать fruitful ['fruitful] о плодотворный

Questions and Tasks



  1. How can you characterize American life during the twenties and thirties of the 20th century?

  1. What books appeared in this period?

  2. Comment on the fiction of the critical realists.

  3. Name the most outstanding American realists of that time.

  4. What did they show in their works?

Theodore Dreiser (1871-1945)



Theodore Dreiser ['Giado: 'draiza], no­velist, was born in the little town of Terre Haute, Indiana into the family of a bankrupt small businessman. His childhood was a hard one, and he knew poverty and want. His father was a strict Catholic, narrow-minded and despotic. He made the future writer hate religion to the end of his days.

Theodore Dreiser

At the age of 16 Theodore had to leave school and support himself by doing odd jobs. He worked as a waiter, a dish-washer, a rent-collector, a laundry-worker.

In 1888 Theodore entered the univer­sity. But after a year he had to leave the university because of money difficulties.

In 1892 Dreiser turned to journalism working as a newspaper reporter and editor in Chicago, St Louis, Cleveland and Pittsburgh. Then he moved to New-York, where he got work as a magazine editor.

The first significant work by Dreiser was his novel Sister Car­rie (1900). The book describes the life of a poor country girl who goes to Chicago in search of work. Hardly had the book ap­peared when it was pronounced immoral and was withdrawn from print. However, in 1907, it became impossible to conceal it from the public, and it then appeared in an American edition. Only in ten years in 1911 was Dreiser's second novel Jenny Ger-hardt published. It is a life-story of a girl. The book roused fur­ther storm of criticism from readers and publishers who declared it immoral.


The Financier [fai'nsensia] (1912) and The Titan [ 'tartan] (1914) together with The Stoic (published posthumously in 1947) form The Trilogy of Desire. Its purpose was to show the ways of Ameri­can big business at the end of the 19th century. The chief charac­ter of all the three novels, Cowperwood, is a typical representative of that big business.

The Genius (1915) is the tragic story of a young painter who breaks down under the cruel injustice of bourgeois America.

An American Tragedy (1925) is Dreiser's best known novel. It is the story of a young American who is corrupted by the morals of American capitalist society and he becomes a criminal and murderer. The novel shows the American way of life with its con­trast of poverty and wealth.

In 1927 Theodore Dreiser visited the Soviet Union. In 1928 he published the book Dreiser Looks at Russia. It was one of the first books that told the American people about the Soviet Union.

Dreiser supported the working-class movement in America and wrote some publicist works — Tragic America (1931) and America Is Worth Saving (1941). During the last years of his life he worked at the novels published posthumously— The Bulwark (1941) and The Stoic (1947).

In June 1945 Theodore Dreiser joined the Communist Party of the United States.




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317

With the force of a true realist, Dreiser portrayed the world of American capitalism. Yet however severe that world appeared be­fore him, he never lost faith in "the greatness and dignity of man".

Vocabulary

conceal [kan'si:l] v скрывать rouse [rauz] v поднимать

dignity ['digniti] n достоинство withdraw [wi6 'dro:] v (withdrew; with-

posthumously ['pnstjumgsli] aoV посмер- drawn) забирать; снимать

тно withdrawn [wi6'dro:n] p. p. от withdraw


publicist ['pAbhsist] n публицист

An American Tragedy

The novel speaks of the fate of a common American, Clyde Griffiths. His parents are Kansas City street evangelists. They are good people, but very narrow-minded. Clyde is not happy at home. Clyde suffers because of poverty in which he has lived from his early childhood.

Sincerely believing that wealth alone makes people happy, he determines to pave his way to fortune.

Clyde begins life as% bell-boy in a large hotel. The duties of a bell-boy are to answer when anyone living in the hotel rings a bell and run on different small errands. Clyde thinks he is very lucky to get this situation. He is often given a tip when he is sent on an errand, and he learns that sometimes money can be earned very easily. His employment in the hotel is the beginning of Clyde's corruption. One day an incident happens which greatly influences his character.

When 18 years old, Clyde, together with some other boys, goes out for a good time in a motor-car that one of the boys has "borrowed" from his employer for this purpose. On their way back they run over and kill a child, and Clide is obliged to leave Kansas City secretly. He roams about the country, works as a salesman, coachman, dish-washer, and, finally, as a messenger boy in a large hotel in Chicago. Here, by a lucky chance, he meets his uncle, Samuel Griffiths, a prosperous manufacturer in Lycurgus. Samuel

Griffiths has not seen his brother, Clyde's father, for 25 years; the wealth of one and the poverty of the other has separated them. Clyde is in need of work, and his uncle gives him a small job as an ordinary worker. One of the girls, Roberta Alden, attracts him, and after a time he falls in love with her. But Clyde's attention is soon transferred to another girl, the wealthy and socially prominent Sondra Finchley. Clyde begins to think that marrying Sondra he will solve all his problems. At this critical moment Roberta discovers she is about to become a mother but Clyde refuses to marry her and doubles his attention to Sondra. At that moment he reads a news account of a boating accident in which a girl is drowned while the companion's body is not found. Horrified at his own thoughts, he decides to free himself by ending Roberta's life. He plans a crime. He takes Roberta for a boat-ride on a distant lake. The boat is capsized and Roberta is drowned. Clyde does nothing to save the girl. The crime is discovered and Clyde is arrested. He is accused of her murder.

The whole of the second book deals with the court trial of Clyde's case. The judges pronounce Clyde guilty.

But after he is found guilty and is waiting for his execution, Clyde begins to understand the moral meaning of his act. Encouraged by his mother, he looks upon his death as a necessary punishment for his moral cowardice.

Dreiser showed that the tragic fate of the individual was an integral part of American society.

Vocabulary


integral f'mtigral] а неотъемлемый manufacturer Lmaenju'faektfara] n пред­приниматель oblige [э'ЫакЩ v обязывать

to be obliged быть вынужденным pave [peiv] v мостить

to pave the way прокладывать путь tip [tip] n чаевые transfer [trans'f3:) v переносить


capsize [kaep'saiz] v опрокидываться

(о лодке) cowardice ['kausdis] n трусость determine [di't3:mm] v решать double ['алЫ] v удваивать employer [im'pbia] n хозяин evangelist [i'vaena^ilist] n евангелист execution [.eksi'kjuijan] n (смертная) казнь horrify ['rronfai] v ужасать




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Questions and Tasks

  1. What family was Theodore Dreiser born?

  2. What can you say about his childhood?

  3. What did he do before he became a journalist?

  4. What was Dreiser's first significant work?

  5. What is the theme of his novel 5/s/er Carrie1?

  6. Name some other works of Theodore Dreiser.

  7. What novel is Dreiser's masterpiece?




  1. Give a brief summary of the contents of American Tragedy.

  2. What theme did Dreiser touch upon in the novel?




  1. What book did he write after his visit of the Soviet Union?

  2. What novels did Dreiser work at during the last years of his life?
  3. Why is Dreiser considered one of the leading writers of the first ha the 20th century?

Francis Scott Fitzgerald (1896-1940)



Francis Scott Fitzgerald ['fra:nsis 'skot .fits'cfcerdd] is one of the most outstand­ing American writers of the lost genera­tion, a generation for whom "all the bat­tles have been fought" and "all the gods were dead". They are empty people, they cannot fight against the corruption of the rich. They try to fill their spiritual empti­ness with all kinds of entertainments.

Francis Scott Fitzgerald was born in St Paul, Minnesota into the family of a busi-

__ , „ . . ., , Francis Scott Fitzgerald

nessman. The family inherited money

from Fitzgerald's grandmother who was a wealthy grocer.

Fitzgerald attended Princeton, a university for rich Ameri­cans.

At that time the spirit of competition ruled at the university. Fitzgerald was influenced by it and tried to join the most fashion­able clubs, enjoying their aristocratic, idle atmosphere. Money gave him independence, privileges, style and beauty. Poverty

was mean and narrow. It is much later that Fitzgerald understood the falseness of his belief.

He left Princeton without a degree because of illness. His literary career began at the university. He wrote essays to the university magazine The Tiger. In 1917 he joined the army but he was not sent to the war in Europe. At the same time he fell in love with Zelda Laure, the daughter of a wealthy lawyer from Alabama [, aela'baeim]. He married two years later when his first work The Side of Paradise was published and was a success. Zelda did not want to marry a poor unknown man. The fact that the rich get the most beautiful girl made Fitzgerald think of social injustice. But he had no consistent world outlook. He viewed the world of the rich with a sense of admiration and contempt. His wife's demands for fashionable life abroad in Paris, the expensive hotel suites and endless parties led Fitzgerald into hack-writing for popular magazines, and this ruined his talent. How­ever, he managed to write some serious novels and stories.

His major novels appeared from 1920 to 1934: This Side of Paradise (1920), The Beautiful and Damned (1922), Great Gatsby ['gaetsbi] (1925) and Tender is the Night (1934).

Fitzgerald's best stories have been collected in the volumes: Tales of the Jazz Age (1922), All the Sad Young Men (1926) and some others. The main theme of almost all Fitzgerald's works is the corrupting force of money. He thought that the rich were a special race and only gradually he found out their corruption inhumanity, spiritual emptiness and futility. He found it out to­gether with his heroes who are largely autobiographical.

Vocabulary


major ['meicfcg] а главный mean [mi:n] а жалкий narrow ['пэегэи] а ограниченный privilege ['pnvilic^] n привилегия suite [swi:t] n номер-люкс (в гостинице) uphold [лр 'hould] v (upheld; upheld) оказывать моральную поддержку world outlook ['w3:ld'autluk] n миро­воззрение

consistent [kan'sistsnt] a соответству­ющий emptiness femptiras] n пустота entertainment [^ents'temmsnt] л раз­влечение futility [fju:'tiliti] n несерьезность hack-writing ['haekraitirj] n халтура idle ['aidl] а праздный idolize ['aictalaiz] v боготворить


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envelop [m'vebp] v охватывать faulty ['fo:lti] о неправильный income ['ткэт] п доход mansion ['тгепГэп] п особняк rumour ['пхтэ] л слух

The Great Gatsby

Fitzgerald's best work The Great Gatsby tells the life story of Jay Gatsby [ d3ei' gaetsbi], the son of a poor farmer, who falls in love with a rich and beautiful girl Daisy Fay [' deizi' fei]. She answers his love while his uniform conceals for a time his poverty. When war is over Daisy marries the rich Tom Buchanan ['torn 'bjuiksnan].

Gatsby does everything he can to get money and social position to be worthy of Daisy. He devotes all his life to it. But he can achieve it only by bootlegging and doing some other dubious things.

When later Gatsby meets Daisy again, she believes the rumours of his large fortune, rich mansion and fashionable parties. She tells him she will leave Tom. But once, driving Jay back from New York to Long Island in his car, she runs over and kills Myrtle Wil­son ['imitl wilsan], her husband's mistress. Tom persuades Myrtle's husband that Gatsby was driving the car. He follows Jay and kills him.

Daisy, having learned about Gatsby's dubious source of in­come, leaves him even before his death, in spite of the fact that Gatsby takes the fault of Myrtle's death on himself.

The story is told by Daisy's cousin Nick, who at the begin­ning despises Gatsby for his vanity, vulgar parties, ill-taste, faulty language. He gradually,understands the greatness of his roman­tic dream and the tremendous energy with which he achieves his aim. At the same time Nick sees the shallowness of Gatsby's dream, as the society he tries to get is cynical, vicious and violent. Gatsby is contrasted to hypocritical, disillusioned and corrupt members of upper society like Tom and Dasy.

Gatsby's fanatic attempt to reach his dreams is contrasted to the disillusioned life of the cynical members of upper society who do not know what to do. Satire in the portrayal of the empty pleas­ures of the rich is combined with lyrical atmosphere enveloping Gatsby's romantic dream.

Vocabulary


bootlegging ['bu:tlegirj] n тайная тор­говля спиртными напитками conceal [kan'si:!] v скрывать

despise [dis'paiz] v презирать disillusion Ldisi'lusan] v разочаровывать dubious ['djuibjas] а сомнительный

shallowness [ 'Jeetaums] n ограничен­ность ума upper ['лрэ] о высший vanity ['vseniti] п тщеславие vicious fvijas] а порочный violent ['varctant] а ожесточенный

Questions and Tasks


  1. Relate the main facts of Fitzgerald's life.

  2. What was his first work?

  3. When did his major books appear?

  4. Name his notable novels and the best collections of stories.

  5. What theme did he touch upon in almost of all his works?

  6. Give a brief summary of the contents of The Great Gatsby.

  7. What features of Fitzgerald's outlook are revealed in The Great Gatsby?

  8. Speak on Fitzgerald's place in American literature.

William Faulkner (1897-1962)



William Faulkner

William Faulkner [ 'wiljam 'fo:kna], one of the leading American 20th centu­ry novelists, was born in New Albany, Mississippi, in an impoverished aristo­cratic family. Faulkner was in the eleventh grade of the Oxford High School, when World War I broke out. His war experi­ences played an important part in the for­mation of his character. He enlisted as a cadet in the Canadian branch of the Royal Flying Corps in 1918. He was trained as a pilot, but the war was over before he fini­shed his studies.

After the war Faulkner returned to Oxford and worked as a postmaster at the University of Mississippi. At the same time he took some courses at the University and began writing. At first he wrote poetry and then stories.



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323






impoverished [im'pnvsnjt] а бедный legislative flec&istotiv] о законодательный measure ['тезэ] п мера mood [mu:d] n настроение psychological [parks'1гх1з1кэ1] а психо­логический violence ['vaiabnsl n ожесточенность

His first published work, a volume of poems entitled The Mar­ble Faun (1924) was not successful. Then he wrote his novel Soldier's Pay (1926) which was close to the moods of the lost gen­eration. He showed the tragedy of people who returned to peace­time life crippled both physically and spiritually. The novel was not a great success, but it established Faulkner's reputation as a creative writer.

From 1925 to 1929 he continued working as a carpenter and housepainter writing novels at the same time. In 1927 he pub­lished Mosquitos and in 1929 Sartoris. In the same year Faulkner published The Sound and the Fury which brought him fame in literary circles. After that he devoted himself to full-time writing. His work Sanctuary (1931), a story of murder and violence created a sensation and brought its author financial independence.

In the thirties Faulkner wrote his horror novels: As I Lay Dying (1930), Light in August (1932) and Absalom, Absalom! (1936). In 1942 Faulkner published a collection of stories entitled Go Down, Moses, and Other Stories. It includes one of his best stories The Bear. In 1948 he wrote Intruder in the Dust, one of his most impor­tant social novels on the Negro problem. In the forties and fifties Faulkner published his best work — The Snopes Trilogy consist­ing of The Hamlet (1-940), The Town (1957) and The Mansion (1959). Faulkner's last novel was The Fable (1954), the theme of which is humanity and war.

Faulkner was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1950. He died at the age of sixty-five.

William Faulkner is a very complicated writer. He belongs to the Southern School of American writers. A Southern Novelist touches on the history of the South of America and especially the Civil War.

He deals with the Negro problem in his books, but the Negro problem is not social but psychological. Faulkner sees the Negroes and whites bound together by the irony of history. He condemned racism and violence, but he is convinced that neither the whites nor the Negroes were ready for legislative measures. Faulkner's criticism is of a moral character.

Faulkner is a social-psychological novelist.

Vocabulary

bind [bamd] v (bound) связывать bound [baund] past и р. р. от bind cadet [ks'det] n курсант carpenter ['kapmts] n плотник complicated ['komplikeitid] а сложный condemn [ksn'dgm] v осуждать corps [ко:] п [pi corps [ko:z]) войска enlist [m'list] v зачислять

Questions and Tasks


  1. Relate the main facts of Faulkner's life.

  2. What was his first published work?

  3. What novel established Faulkner's reputation as a creative writer?

  4. What theme did he deal with in his novel Soldier's Pay?

  5. Name the most notable works by Faulkner.

  6. What problems did he touch on in his works?

  7. What kind of novelist is Faulkner?

Ernest Hemingway (1899-1961)

Ernest Hemingway [ 'з:пэ& 'heminwei] is one of the most widely read writers of the 20th century. He is a classic of American and world literature. He was bom in Oak Park, Illinois, into the family of a provincial doctor. His father was fond of hunting and fishing, and he taught his son to shoot and fish, and to love sports and nature.

Ernest's motherwas areligious woman, and she was wholly absorbed in church affairs. There were constant conflicts between his parents, and that was the

Ernest Hemingway

reason why Ernest did not feel at ease1 at home.

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Английская и американская литература: Курс лекций для школьников старших классов и студентов / Тексты, примеч. Н. Л. Утевской. — СПб.: Учитель и ученик КОРОНА принт, 2002. — 384 с.

ISBN 5-7931-0176-4

Книга представляет собой лекции по программе, утвержденной для школ с углубленным изучением английского языка. Лекции включают краткий и емкий обзор различных литературных направлений, стилей, школ, а также жизнеописание и анализ творчества писателей и поэтов за последние де­сять веков. Пособие окажет неоценимую помощь учащимся и преподавате­лям школ и вузов, а также всем изучающим английский язык.

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