Курс лекций для школьников старших классов и студентов Saint Petersburg corona print Uchitel & Uchenic

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Ernest did not feel at ease — Эрнест не чувствовал себя спокойно

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Ernest s favourite place was the family's house in northern Michigan where the family usually spent their summer vacations. The boy used to accompany his father on sporting trips.

Ernest received a good education at the Oak Park High School. At school he was recognized as a very good football player and boxer. He was also fond of fishing and hunting. At school Ernest was a gifted, energetic, successful pupil and a good sportsman. He played football, was a member of a swimming team, and learned to box. At school he began to be interested in literature, wrote to weekly news-sheet, and contributed poetry and prose to the school's literary magazines.

Ernest's schooldays were not quite unanxious. The atmosphere created by his mother in the family oppressed him so much that he twice ran away from home, working at farms as a labourer, a dishwasher or as a waiter.

In 1917, when the United States entered the First World War, Hemingway volunteered for active service, but he was not taken because of his injured eye. Then he went to Kansas to stay with his uncle. There he began to work as a reporter on the Kansas City Star. The journalistic training he received there marked his style for the rest of his career. In the spring of 1918, Heming­way heard that volunteers were needed to drive Red Cross ambu­lances on the Italian front. He sailed for Europe. After a short stay in France, he went to Italy. Two months later he was badly wounded.

He was taken to hospital in Milan, where 227 shell fragments were removed from his body in the course of twelve operations. When he recovered, he served for two months with Italian in­fantry, and was awarded a silver medal by the Italian Govern­ment.

Hemingway's war experience was very important for him. It influenced not only his life, but also all that he wrote. In 1920 Hemingway returned to America and worked as a reporter for the Toronto Star. In 1921 he returned to Europe and settled in Paris. To collect the material for his future stories and novels Hemingway travelled all over the world. He visited Germany, Spain, Switzerland

and other countries. His first work Three Stories and Ten Poems (1923) was not a success. His next book, a collection of stories entitled In Our Time (1923) won public recognition.

Hemingway's first novel The Sun Also Rises (1926) (thesecond title is Fiesta) is his most well-known book. A Farewell to Arms (1929), portraying World War I and its consequences, brought great popularity to the author.

In the late twenties and the thirties Hemingway published two story collections Men Without Women (1927) and Winner Take Nothing (1933). The most prominent novels written in the first half of the 30's are Death in the Afternoon (1932) and The Green Hills of Africa (1935). Death in the Afternoon describes the bullfights in Spain. The Green Hills of Africa, and his well-known stories The Snow of Kilimanjaro (1936) and The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber (1936) were written about Hemingway's hunting trip in Africa. A lover of nature he masterfully describes African landscapes. In 1936 the Civil War in Spain began and Hemingway hurried to Spain to take part in the war as an anti-fascist correspondent and a writer. The next three years of his life were closely connected with the struggle of the Spanish people against the fascists.

He participated in the shooting of a documentary film The Spanish Earth which defended the cause of the Spanish people. Hemingway wrote the film script and did the reading of the text himself. He wrote his only play The Fifth Column (1938) out of his Spanish war experience and a novel For Whom the Bell Tolls (1940), which he considered his best work.

Deep hatred for fascism made Hemingway an active participant in World War II. He served as a war correspondent in Europe. He volunteered for service with his motor-yacht to support an anti­submarine patrol in Cuban waters. He took part in air raids over Germany. Together with the French partisans he was among the first to free Paris from the German troops.

In 1941 Hemingway sent a telegram to the Soviet govern­ment, in which he expressed his solidarity with the Soviet peo­ple, and his admiration of their heroic straggle against the fascist nvaders.



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Hemingway, who had participated in all the wars of the 20th century, summed up his war experience in the preface to Men at War (1924), a collection of the best war stories of all time.

The tower near Havana which Hemingway built for himself

In his 1948 preface to A Farewell to Arms he wrote that the people who had "planned the war and would plan an­other" should be shot on the first day of the war by sentence of the people. He considered World War I" the most colos­sal, murderous butchery that has even taken place on the earth". On the con­trary, the Spanish Civil War was for him "a strange new kind of war", a just war of a people who fought "to be allowed to live as human beings".

World War II also made sense to him as it was a war against fascism.

After the war Hemingway settled on a farm, Finca Vigia, in Cuba, visiting Ame-rica and Spain. He heartily supported the Cuban revolutionaries irrtheir struggle. Simple Cuban people were his friends. In Cuba Hemingway worked on a big novel about the land, the sea and the air. The Old Men and the Sea (1952) is the epilogue of a novel about the sea. In 1954 Hemingway was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature. The prize committee es­pecially mentioned The Old Man and the Sea.

During his African trip he suffered two airplane crashes. The last years of his life he was seriously ill. In November 1960, Hemingway returned to America, and on July, 1961, in Ketchum, Idaho, after a long and exhausting illness, he committed suicide. He was buried at Ketchum. His house in Cuba is a museum now. In 1966 a memorial was erected to his memory with the following words on it:

Best of all he loved the fall

The leaves yellow on the cottonwoods

Leaves floating on the front streams

And above the hills

The high blue windless skies

... Now he will be part of them forever.

Hemingway is a great writer who was extremely honest and /hose principles were:


  1. never write if you have nothing to say;

  2. to write only when you can't help it;

  3. to write things you know well.

Hemingway studied carefully both American and European literature. He admired the works of many writers, among them Flaubert1, Maupassant2, StendahP, Dante4, Tholstoy, Turgenev, Chekhov, Dostoevsky and many others.

He had never been in our country, but he always mentioned about the importance which Russian literature had had for him.



oppress [a'pres] v угнетать patrol [pa'traul] л патрулирование preface ['prefis] n предисловие prominent ['prranmant] а известный raid [reid] n налет

recognition [декад'nifan] п признание sentence ['sentans] n (судебный) приго­вор • shell [fel] n снаряд

shoot [fut] v(shot) стрелять; снимать фильм shot |jbt] past и р. р. от shoot trout [traut] n форель unanxious ['An'asnkjas] о спокойный volunteer [,vnlan'tia] v поступить доб­ровольцем


Vocabulary

absorb [ab'so:b] v поглощать anti-submarine ['eentfsAbmarni] о про­тиволодочный butchery ['but/an] n бойня colossal [ka'tosl] а громадный consequence [ 'knnsikwsns] n послед­ствие constant ['ktmstant] а постоянный crash [kraef] n авария epilogue ['epilog] n эпилог exhausting [ig'zo:stirj] а изнурительный film script ['film'srkrpt] n киносценарий fragment ['fnsgmant] n обломок; кусок infantry ['mfantn] n пехота murderous ['m3:daras] о кровавый



'Flaubert [flau'bea], Gustave (1821 -1880) — Гюстав Флобер, франц. писатель

2 Maupassant [^mau'pasa], Guy de (1850—1893) — Гиде Мопассан, франц.

писатель


3 Stendahl [sten'da:l] (1783 - 1842) —- Стендаль, франц. писатель
4Dante ['dsenti:], (1265- 1321) —Данте, итальянский поэт


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A Farewell to Arms

A Farewell to Arms is one of the best novels about World War I.

The book is considered to be Hemingway's masterpiece and it was translated into many languages.

In the novels The Sun Also Rises and A Farewell to Anns Heming­way describes the tragedy of the so called "lost generation". The term "lost generation" was introduced by an American writer, Gertrude Stein, who once addressed Hemingway saying: "You are the lost generation".

The "lost generation" were the people who suffered all the hor­rors of World War I. The post-war generation was disillusioned, because they realized that all the sacrifices and deaths were in vain. The ideals: freedom, brotherhood, justice, patriotism were mere words, in which nobody believed. The "lost generation" saw no purpose in life and gradually it became spiritually dead.

In the first novel the author shows the results of World War I, and in the second — the process which created the "lost generation".

The novel A Farewell to Arms is partly autobiographical. Like his hero, Frederick [ 'fredrik] Henry, the writer himself was an American volunteer, a lieutenant in the Italian ambulance corps, was badly wounded, sav? the horrors of the war and came to hate it.

There are two main themes in the novel: war and love. At first Fredric Henry is sure that he is fighting a just war, but gradually he doubts it, and at last he understands that the war is being waged for the benefit of those who profit by it. Frederic's opinion is shared by soldiers, drivers, workers and other common people.

Having decided it is not his war, Frederic makes a "separate peace" and becomes a deserter.

The other theme of the novel is love. Fredric falls in love with Catherine Barkley ['кгевпп 'ba:kli], a volunteer nurse from Great Britain.

When he is wounded, she takes care of him. Then Frederic Henry and Catherine Barkley escape to Switzerland.

For a while they are happy, living together, but it does not last long. Catherine dies in childbirth. After her death he remains quite alone. He is very much depressed.

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The author proves that private happiness is impossible in the restless world of the 20th century. Seeing misery around him, Hemingway's hero cannot be happy. It also emphasizes the fact that you cannot make a separate peace. The motifs of pessimism and despair are characteristic of the novel, as well as of other works written in the 20's, but in A Farewell to Arms Hemingway for the first time calls World War I a crime against humanity.

Hemingway's style of narration is laconic. He does not use the long detailed descriptions which were characteristic of his predecessors. Inner dialogues are typical for him. He seldom speaks of the feelings of his characters, much is left unsaid, but he manages to make the reader feel what his hero feels.

One more peculiarity of Hemingway's style is the use of weather as an accompaniment to the emotional tones of different scenes. The background of every tragic episode in A Farewell to Arms is "rain". It was raining when Catherine died.


accompaniment [э'клтрэштэгИ] п со­провождение benefit ['bensfit] n польза, благо

for the benefit of в пользу corps [кэ:] п {pi corps [ko:z]) род войск depress [di'pres] /угнетать, подавлять despair [dis'pea] n отчаяние disillusion [,disi'lu:z3n] n разочарование emotional [I'rmufanl] а эмоциональный emphasize ['emfgsaiz] v подчеркивать gradually ['graedjuali] adv постепенно laconic [ta'ktmik] о лаконичный


lieutenant [lef'tengnt] n лейтенант mere [mis] а лишь motif [тэи'Ш] л основная тема narration [nae'reijbn] n повествование peculiarity [pi,kju:li'senti] n характер­ная черта predecessor [ 'pridisess] n предше­ственник profit ['profit] v получать выгоду sacrifice ['saskrrfais] n жертва spiritually ['spintjusli] adv духовно wage [weidj] v вести


The Old Man and the Sea

Hemingway himself said of his book: "I tried to make a real old man, a real boy, a real sea and a real fish and real sharks. But if I made them good and true enough they would mean many things".

The story is a realistic description of an episode from the life of a fisherman. The author himself was a fisherman, and his close

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friendship with Cuban fishermen helped him to describe all the details of the process.

Santiago is a poor man, a widower and he lives alone. He is very lonely and then he finds that he has a devoted friend — the boy Manolin, whom he teaches the craft of fishing. Manolin looks after the old man, takes care of the old man's food. The boy loves the old man for his kind heart, his skill, his devotion to sea. The boy's parents have forbidden him to go fishing with the old man, because Santia­go's luck has deserted him. Manolin thinks that he will bring him good luck, and he wants to go fishing with Santiago again.

The old man goes out to fish alone and hooks one of the biggest marlines. The battle with the fish is very hard and full of danger. Santiago has conquered the marline but the battle with the sea has not ended. Sharks start swimming after the skiff and the fish. San­tiago kills the strongest, but the shark takes his harpoon and the rope. Santiago does not give up the fight. Almost broken physi­cally, but spiritually unfeated, he reaches shore safely.

At the end of the story Santiago says:"... man is not made for defeat. ... A man can be destroyed but not defeated".

These words is the main idea of Hemingway's story.

Santiago's character embodies all the positive features of an ordinary man. When he meets disaster, his courage, moral strength and resolution support him in the most desperate moments of his life.

Vocabulary


craft [kra:ft] n умение desert [di'z3:t] v покидать desperate ['despant] а ужасный disaster [di'za:sta] n бедствие embody [im'bpdi] v содержать harpoon [ha:'pu:n] n гарпун

hook [huk] v ловить (рыбу)

marline ['malm] n мор. марлинь

shark [fa:k] n акула

skiff [skif] n ялик

unfeated [An'frtid] о непобежденный

widower ['widgua] n вдовец

Questions and Tasks


  1. Relate the story of Hemingway's childhood and schooldays.

  2. What did he do when the USA entered World War I?

  3. Why was Hemingway's war experience very important to him?




  1. What was his first work?

  2. What war books did Hemingway write?

  3. Comment on Hemingway's war books.

  4. What novel describes the bullfights in Spain?

  5. What Hemingway's works are written about his hunting trip to Africa?

  6. How did the Qvii War in Spain affect Hemingway?




  1. What works did Hemingway write out of his Spanish war experience?

  2. Prove that Hemingway was an active participant of World War II.

  3. In how many wars did Hemingway take part?

  4. Where did he live after World War II?

  5. What story did he write in 1952?

  6. When was Hemingway awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature?

  7. In what novels did Hemingway depict the tragedy of the so called "lost generation"?

  8. Explain the term "lost generation".

  9. Give a brief account of the novel A Farewell to Arms.
  10. Comment on Hemingway's style of narration.


  11. What can you say about the plot and the main characters of The Old Man and the Sea?

  12. What is the main idea of Hemingway's story?

Margaret Mitche (1900-1949)



Margaret Mitchell ['maigsrat 'mitf/al] was born in Atlanta, Georgia. She was the daughter of an attorney who was presi­dent of the Atlanta Historical Society. All the family were interested in American history and she grew up in an atmosphere of stories about the Civil War.

Margaret Mitchell lived in one of the most important cities in the American South and her family had shaped Atlan­ta's history for three generations before her birth.



Margaret Mitchell

She was educated at Washington Se­minary in Atlanta and Smith College, Northampton. She worked for a time on the Atlanta Journal. She wrote hundred of essays,


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articles and reviews for the journal in the four years of her employ­ment there between 1922—1926. She read all the standard jour­nals, magazines, and reviews of her time.

The vivacity and intensity of her personality shines through everything she did, said, or wrote.

In 1925 Margaret Mitchell married John Marsh, and it was then she began to put on paper all the stories she had heard about the Civil War. The result was Gone with the Wind, first published in 1936. She worked on the book for ten years. It is a novel about the American Civil War and the Reconstruction as seen from a Southern point of view. The novel is a variant on the tradition of Southern romance fiction. Its action turns on the attempts of the heroine, Scar­lett O'Hara, to restore Тага, the family plantation, and on her love relationships.

Margaret Mitchell became world-famous as the author of Gone with the Wind, the America's classic best-seller. More than 8 million copies were sold in 40 countries.

The novel was translated into eighteen languages. It won the Pulitzer Prize1 for fiction in 1937. It was later made into a highly successful film starring Vivien Leigh, Clark Gable and Leslie Howard.

Margaret Mitchell pfoduced the most famous novel in the English-speaking world. This book was her only published work. She died in 1949.

Questions and Tasks


  1. Where was Margaret Mitchell born?

  2. What was her family interested in?

  3. Where was she educated?

  4. Where did she work for a time?

  5. What did she write for the journal?

  6. When did she begin to write the novel Gone with the Wind?

  7. How long did she work on the book?

  8. Comment on the plot of the novel.

  9. Why do we say that the book was America's classic best-seller?




  1. When did she get the Pulitzer Price for fiction?

  2. What can you say about the film based on the novel?

Vocabulary

attorney [эЧэ:ш] п юрист review [n'vju:] n рецензия

intensity [m'tensiti] n глубина shape Lfeip] v создавать

relationship [n'leifsnfip] n отношение vivacity [vi'vaesiti] n жизненная сила


restore [n'sto:] v восстанавливать

1 Pulitzer ['pulitsa] Prize — пулитцеровская премия: учреждена по завеща­нию Джозефа Пулитцера (1847 —1911), амер. журналиста и издателя

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chology of youth was Jerome David Salinger, whose novel Catcher in the Rye (1951) was devoted to the youth problem in the post­war period.

Some other well-known American contemporary writers such as John Updike and Ken Kesey examined various aspects of American life.

American post-war literature managed to present a many-sided picture of the changing American reality.

Vocabulary


American Literature in the Post-War Period

The USA ended World War II as the most powerful capitalist country. The post-war period and the onset of the Cold War were in 1950s and 1960s. This was the period of political hostility between America and Russia. *•

The atmosphere of evil caused caution. The national mood was nervous and aggressive. It was the era of the so-called "silent generation", a generation who had stopped believing in humanist ideas. Some philosophers concluded that the Americans were becoming a nation of conformists1 with no fixed standards or beliefs.

Among the first to protest again the atmosphere of conformity2 were the writers of Beat Generation3.

The best-known figure of the "Beat" writers in prose was Jack Kerouac ['фаек 'кегэшк]. The writer who tried to explore the psy-

1 conformist [ksn'foimist] — конформист, букв, согласный

2 conformity [kgn'fo:miti] — приспособленчество, пассивное принятие суще­
ствующего порядка господствующих мнений

3 Beat Generation — усталое, разбитое, разочарованное поколение; битники

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aspect ['sespekt] n аспект, сторона onset [/onset] n начало

caution ['kotfan] n осторожность psychology [sai'tolscfr] n психология

hostility [hDs'tiliti] n враждебность many-sided ['meni'saidid] о многосто­ронний

Questions ant Tasks



  1. Characterize the post-war period of 1950s and 1960s.

  2. Why was this period called the era of "silent generation'?
  3. What writers were the first to protest against the atmosphere of conformity?


  4. Who was the best-known figure of the Beat writers in prose?

  5. What writer tried to explore the psychology of youth?

  6. Name some other well-known American writers who examined various aspects of American life.

Jerome Salinger (bom in 1919)

Jerome David Salinger ['фэ'гэит 'deivid 'seeling] was bora in 1919 in New York into a prosperous family. His father was an importer of ham and cheeses. The boy had a sister eight years older than he. Salinger did not study well at school, that's why his parents enrolled him in the Valley Forge Academy in Penn­sylvania. It was a military academy. He began writing his first short stories there. When Salinger graduated from the Valley Forge Academy he told his parents that he wanted to become a writer.

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But his father did not think that it was a suitable career for his son and sent him to Poland to learn the ham business. For some time he slaughtered pigs. Then he returned to America. In 1940 he published his first story the Young Men. During World War II Salinger spent four years in the army. In 1943, when he was in France, the American maga­zine Saturday Evening Post published his story The Varioni Brothers. In 1944 Salinger met Ernest Hemingway, who

] _. . т^ _ Jerome David Salinger

was a war-correspondent in France y

then. Hemingway had read Salinger's stories and said that the young writer was talented. In 1946 Salinger wrote some stories which brought him fame as a writer. They were published in the New Yorker, a very respectable literary magazine.


The Catcher in the Rye

In 1951 Salinger wrote his novel The Catcher in the Rye. It is one of the best novels devoted to youth problems in the post­war period. The book became popular with the readers. The story is told by a teenager Holden Caulfield. He is a sixteen-year-old pupil of the Pencey Preparatory school, which is a boarding school. He has been expelled from several schools, and he is about to be expelled from this school, too, as he has failed in a number of subjects. He is not sorry. He hates school and teachers. Finally, he runs away from school and goes to New York, where his parents live. Afraid to approach them, he regis­ters at a hotel. During the few days he stays away from home, he goes to a restaurant, meets a girl friend, his sister Phoebe [ 'fi:bi] and his former teacher Mr Antolini. Holden loves Phoebe, and he tells her of his troubles. She is much younger than he but she always listens to him and understands him.

Touched by Phoebe's wish to run away from home with him, he decides to go home with her instead.

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Holden observes the hypocrisy and false values in the adult world. He is against judging people by their wealth. At school he hates insincerity. He does not like cheap, sensational films and plays shown at the Broadway theatres. He is against the American way of life. He is devoted to the few genuine people in his life.

His sister Phoebe is one of them. His deepest concern is to save other children from the pain of adapting themselves to the false adult world. His dream is to become a catcher in a rye field keeping watch on the edge of a steep cliff and saving little children from falling into the abyss.

Really, Holden's dream is unreal as children cannot avoid growing up. Holden's former teacher tries to persuade him that belonging to the adult world means maturity.

But the hero refuses to compromise his false environment and this leads him to a nervous breakdown.

Holden's way of talking is ungrammatical and slangy. But it produces a great impression.

Jerome David Salinger has become a classic because of his understanding of American youth. In his works he portrays young boys and girls who can't find their way after the war. They are honest, kind and good young people who look odd in the surroundings of modern society.

Vocabulary


insincerity [,msm'senti] n лицемерие

maturity [ms'tjuanti] л зрелость

nervous ['ri3:v3s] а нервный

odd [nd] а странный

register ['realists] v записывать свое имя в книгу гостей в гостинице

respectable [ns'pektabl] а представи­тельный

sensational [sen'seijbnl] о сенсацион­ный

slangy ['slaerji] а жаргонный

slaughter ['sb:tg] забивать (скот)

steep [sti:p] а крутой

suitable ['sju:t3bl] а подходящий


abyss [a'bis] л бездна adapt [s'daept] v приспособляться adult ['sd\lt] л взрослый breakdown ['breikdaun] л расстройство cliff [klif] л отвесная скала concern [kan'sain] л беспокойство compromise ['кютпргэтак] v пойти на

компромисс enroll [m'reul] v записывать environment [m,vaiaren'ment] л окру­жение



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expel [iks'pel] v исключить genuine ['djenjum] а настоящий importer [im'poits] л импортер


Questions and Tasks

  1. Give a brief account of Jerome David Salinger's life.

  2. Where was Salinger during World War II?

  3. When did Salinger meet Ernest Hemingway?

  4. What was Hemingway's opinion of his stories?

  5. What novel brought Salinger fame as a writer?

  6. What literary form did Salinger choose for his novel The Catcher in the Rye?

  7. Comment on the contents of the novel.

  8. Characterise the main character of the novel.
  9. What does the rye field represent in Holden's imagination?


10. Who is the catcher?

Jack Kerouac (1922-1969)





Jack Kerouac ['фаек 'кегэшк] was born in Lowell, Massachusetts on March 12, 1922. His family were of French Canadian and North American Indian descent. His family were Catholic and he was educated at a Jesuit school, graduating from High School in 1939. At school he distinguished himself as a sportsman.

. He left University after less than one year.

Kerouac loved literature, composing
poems and writing, short novels from a very
early age. He was particularly influenced
by the work of Jack London, and deter­
mined, like London, to become a wander- Jack Kerouac

ing poet and traveller.

During the Second World War, Kerouac joined the Merchant Navy and began to write his first novel, The Sea Is My Brother, which was never published. In 1944, he returned to New York where he met and started lasting friendship with the poet Allen Ginsberg and the novelist William Burroughs [ 'be:reuz]. Later they became termed as the Beat Generation. Their work and their

lifestyles, characterized by drugs, alcohol and jazz music, were considered very shocking in the 1950s to the majority of middle-class Americans.

In 1944, after the accidented stabbing of a friend of Kerouac's by another friend, Kerouac was arrested and charged by the Po­lice as a witness to murder. He left prison on bail1.

In 1946 he went travelling across America, by car, train or hitch-hiking. These wild adventures on the road, filled with sto­ries of girls, music, problems with the police formed the material for his greatest novel On the Road.

Kerouac constantly kept a journal during his journeys, and On the Road, which he wrote in seven days in 1951, was the result of his semi-autobiographical, semi-fictional experience travelling around.

This novel was followed by The Dharma Bums (1958), Doctor Sax (1959), BigSur (1962), and Destonation Angels (1965), which are his most notable novels and the most typical of the Beat generation. He also published poetry and other biographical fragments. After the publication of On the Road, Kerouac became interested in Oriental spiritualism2 and Buddhism.

He lived a rather solidary life increasingly dependent on alcohol.

He died at the tragically young age of 47.

His novel On the Road describes the adventures of a group of young people who refuse to be tied down to steady jobs or any social obligations and wander all over Canada and Mexico.

Kerouac's characters live as simply as possible and register spontaneous impressions of people, events and things. They do not try to understand the world around them. Travel is both a liberation from society and a narcotic to them.

The rebellion of the beat writers was personal. It was a protest against the mean, limited, provincial, narrow and hypocritical values of a society in crisis.

The novel On the Road has had many imitators, and continues to be a popular novel in Europe as well as in America.


1 on bail — под залог

2 spiritualism [ 'spintjiralizm] — спиритуализм (религиозно-философское,
идеалистическое учение, признающее дух сущностью и первоосновой мира)


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Questions and tasks

  1. When was Jack Kerouac born?

  2. Where was he educated?

  3. When did he begin to compose poems and write short novels?

  4. What writer was he particularly influenced by?

  5. What did he do during the Second World War?

  6. Characterize the writers of the Beat Generation.

  7. What happened to Kerouec in 1944?

  8. How did his greatest novel On the Road originate?

  9. Speak on the plot of the novel On the Road.




  1. Name his other notable works.

  2. When did Kerouac die?




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Английская и американская литература: Курс лекций для школьников старших классов и студентов / Тексты, примеч. Н. Л. Утевской. — СПб.: Учитель и ученик КОРОНА принт, 2002. — 384 с.

ISBN 5-7931-0176-4

Книга представляет собой лекции по программе, утвержденной для школ с углубленным изучением английского языка. Лекции включают краткий и емкий обзор различных литературных направлений, стилей, школ, а также жизнеописание и анализ творчества писателей и поэтов за последние де­сять веков. Пособие окажет неоценимую помощь учащимся и преподавате­лям школ и вузов, а также всем изучающим английский язык.

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