Курс лекций для школьников старших классов и студентов Saint Petersburg corona print Uchitel & Uchenic

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depict [di 'pikt] v изображать, описы­вать

descriptive [dis 'knptivj о описатель­ный; наглядный

desperate ['despant] а отчаянный; ужасный

devour [di'vaua] v пожирать

dragon ['draegan] n дракон

embankment [im'bcerjkmsnt] n насыпь

enormous [I'noimas] о громадный, ог­ромный

epic ['epik] n эпическая поэма

evil [i:vl] n зло

fan [fsen] v поэт, обвевать, освежать (о ветерке)

fasten ['fa:sn] v скреплять; укреплять

fear [йэ] л страх

feast [first] n пир; празднество

fen [fen] л болото, топь

floater f'flauta] n плот, паром

foamy ['fbumi] о покрытый пеной

frightful ['fraitful] о страшный, ужас­ный

gleam [gli:m] v светиться; мерцать

glide [glaid] v двигаться крадучись

glitter ['gilts] v блестеть, сверкать

grapple ['graepl] v схватиться, бороться

grip [grip] n сжатие

harm [ha:m] v вредить, причинять вред

hospitality Lhnspi'taeliti] n гостеприим­ство

immense [i 'mens] а огромный, гро­мадный

lair [1еэ] п логовище; нора

leap [li:p] v (leapt, leaped) прыгнуть, вскочить

manuscript ['maenjusknpt] n рукопись

masterpiece ['ma:stapi:s] n шедевр

mead [mi:d] n мёд (напиток)

metaphor ['metafa] n метафора

misty ['misti] а туманный

monster ['rrmnsta] n чудовище

moorland ['mualand] местность, порос­шая вереском

mourn [mo:n] v оплакивать; скорбеть

overcome [^эшэ'клт] v (overcame; overcome) побороть, победить

paw [po:] n nana

peninsula [pi'ninsjula] n полуостров

plunge ['pUnay v нырять; бросаться

portrayal [po:'treial] n описание; изо­бражение

precipitous [pn' srpitas] n крутой; от­весный

rage [reidj;] n ярость, гнев

raid [reid] n набег

rejoice [n'djois] v радоваться

roar [ro:] v реветь, рычать

rumour ['ш:тэ] п слух, молва

scene [si:n] n место действия

shriek [fri:k] v пронзительно кричать, орать

sloping ['slaupirj] а покатый

spirit ['spirit] n дух

stroke [strauk] n удар

subject ['sAbdpkt] n тема

swollen ['swaulan] а опухший; разду­тый

sword [so:d] n меч

theme [9i:m] л тема

twist [twist] v крутить; виться twist-stemmed vessel судно с витым носом

vivid ['vivid] а яркий

warn [wo:n] v предупреждать

wrath [ro:9] n гнев, ярость

wrestle ['rest] v бороться

Questions and Tasks


  1. When was poem Beowulf compiled?

  2. What is the social interest of the poem?

  3. What time does the poem tell us of?

  4. Where is the scene of the poem set?

  5. What does the poem tell us about the Jutes and the Danes?

  6. What kind of man was the young knight of the Jutes Beowulf?

  7. How is the poem composed?

  8. What interests us besides the subject of the poem?

9. What is the poem famous for?
10. Retell the contents of Beowulf.

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Anglo-Saxon Literature

(the 7th-11th centuries)

The culture of the early Britons changed greatly under the influ­ence of Christianity. Christianity penetrated into the British Isles in the 3rd century. It was made the Roman national faith in the year 306 when Constantine the Great became emperor over the whole of the Roman Empire. The religion was called the Catholic Church (the word "Church" means "religion", "catholic" means "univer­sal"). The Greek and Latin languages became the languages of the Church all over Europe.

At the end of the 4th century, after the fall of the Roman Em­pire, Britain was conquered by Germanic tribes. They were pa­gans. They persecuted the British Christians and put many of them to death or drove them away to Wales and Ireland.

At the end of the 6th century monks came from Rome to Britain again with the purpose to convert the Anglo-Saxons to Christianity. You know that in the 7th century the Anglo-Saxons were converted to Christianity.

The part of England where the monks landed was Kent and the first church they built was in the town of Canterbury. Up to this day it is the English religious centre. Now that Roman civilization

poured into the country again, a second set of Latin words was introduced into the language of the Anglo-Saxons, because the religious books that the Roman monks had brought to England were all written in Latin and Greek. The monasteries where the art of reading and writing was practised became the centres of almost all the learning and education in the country. No wonder many poets and writers imitated those Latin books about the early Christians, and they also made up many stories of their own aboiit saints. Though the poets were English, they had to write in Latin. Notwithstanding this custom, a poet appeared in the 7th century by the name of Caedmon Г kaedman] who wrote in Anglo-Saxon. He was a shepherd, who start­ed singing verses and became a poet. Later monks took him to a monastery where he made up religious poetry. He wrote a poem — the Paraphrase ['pserafreiz]. It tells part of a Bible-story.

Another writer of this time was Bede [bi: d]. He described the coun­try and the people of his time in his work The History of the English Church. His work was a fusion of historical truth and fantastic stories. It was the first history of England and Bede is regarded as "the father of English history".




Another outstanding figure in En glish history and literature was Al­fred the Great (849-901), the king of Wessex. Though he was a soldier he fought no wars except those in order to defend his country. He built a fleet of ships to beat the Danes who had again come to invade Wessex. He also made up a code of law. He tried to develop the culture of his people. He founded the first English public school for young men. He translated the Church-history of Bede from Latin into a language the people could understand, and a portion of the Bible as well. To him the English owe the famous Anglo- The Venerable writing the life of

„ _,, . , , . , , St Cuthbert, the monk who spread



ЬахОП LhrOIUCle Which may be Christianity in the north of Britain


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called the first history of England, the first prose in English litera­ture. It was continued for 250 years after the death of Alfred, till the reign of Henry II in 1154.


Questions and Tasks •

  1. When did Christianity penetrate the British Isles?

  2. When was it made the Roman national faith?

  3. What was the religion called?

  4. What languages became the languages of the Church all over Europe?

  5. Why did monks come from Rome to Britain at the end of the 6th century?
  6. When were the Anglo-Saxons converted to Christianity?


  7. Where did the monks land?

  8. Where was the first church built?

  9. Why did the monasteries become the centres of all the learning and education?




  1. What language did the English poets have to write?

  2. What representatives of Anglo-Saxon literature can you name?

  3. What poem did Caedmon write?

  4. Say about Bede and his work.

  5. Speak about the contribution of king Alfred to the development of English literature and culture.

Vocabulary

Catholic ['каевэИк] a католический Christian ['knstjsn] n христианин Christianity [.kristi'asniti] n христианство code [koud] n свод законов contribution [,kcntrf bju:Jbn] n вклад convert [kan'v3:t] v обращать (в дру­гую веру) emperor ['етрэгэ] п император empire ['empara] n империя faith [feiG] л вера fusion ['fjirjsn] п слияние imitate ['imiteit] v подражать, имити­ровать influence ['mfluans] n влияние introduce [,mtra'dju:s] v вводить monastery ['rrronsstsri] n монастырь

notwithstanding [,rrotwi9'staendm] prep

несмотря на owe [эи] v быть обязанным penetrate ['penitreit] v проникать persecute ['p3:sikju:t] v преследовать,

подвергать гонениям portion ['рэ:/эп] п часть pour [рэ:] v вливать regard [n'ga:d] v рассматривать saint [semt] n святой set [set] n ряд shepherd ['Jepad] n пастух universal [Ju:m'v3:sal] а всеобщий venerable ['vensrabl] о преподобный

(о святом)

THE DANISH CONQUEST AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE LANGUAGE OF THE ANGLO-SAXONS

When King Alfred died, fighting with the Danes soon began again. They occupied the north and east of England (Scotland and Ireland) and also sailed over the Channel and fought in France.

The land they conquered in the North of France was called Normandy and the people who lived there the Northmen. In the hundred years that were to follow they began to be called Normans.

The Danes who had occupied the North and East of Eng­land spoke a language only slightly different from the Anglo-Saxon dialects. The roots of the words were the same while the endings were different. Soon these languages merged with one another as they were spoken by all classes of society. The language of the Anglo-Saxons took many new words from Danish, particularly those regarding state affairs and ship­building. Such words as law, ship, fellow, husband, sky, ill are of Scandinavian origin. The Danes were in many ways more civilized than the English. The Danes were accustomed to chairs and benches while the English still sat on the floor. The Danes brought the game of chess to England which originally had come to them from the East.

Vocabulary

accustom [a'kAStam] v приучать Northman ['по:8тэп] п норманн

affair [эТеэ] п дело origin ['ппфп] п происхождение

civilized ['smlaizd] а цивилизованный originally [э'гк%пэ11] adv первоначально

comment ['tomant] v комментировать regarding [n'ga:dm] prep относительно,

conquest ['kurjkwast] л завоевание что касается

dialect ['daislekt] л диалект root [ru:t] n корень

merge [тз:сй v сливаться, соединяться slightly ['slaitli] adv слегка
Normandy ['rmnandi] n Нормандия


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"

Questions and Tasks



  1. When did fighting with the Danes begin again?

  2. What part of the country did they occupy?

  3. What name was given to the land in the north of France?

  4. What language did the Northmen speak?

  5. What do you know about the language the Danes spoke?

  6. Comment on the development of the English language influenced by the Danish invasion.




The Norman Period

(the 12th-13th centuries) THE NORMAN CONQUEST

The Northmen or the Vikings who had settled in Northwestern France were called Normans. They had adopted the French civi­lization and language. They were good soldiers, administrators and lawyers.

In 1066 at the battle of Hastings [ 'heistrnz] the Norman Duke William defeated the Saxon King Harold. Again a new invasion took place. Within five years William the Conqueror was complete mas­ter of the whole of England. He divided the land of the conquered people among his lords. With the Norman conquest the feudal sys­tem was established in England. The English peasants were made to work for the Norman barons, they became their serfs and were cruelly oppressed.

William the Conqueror could not speak a word of English. He and his barons spoke Norman-French, not pure French, because the Normans were simply the same Danes with a French polish. The English language was neglected by the conquerors.

Norman-French became the official language of the state and

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remained as such up to the middle of the 14th century. It was the language of the ruling class, of the court and the law, it was spo­ken by the Norman nobility.

But the common people of the native population kept speaking their mother tongue, Anglo-Saxon. While at the monasteries, at the centres of learning, the clergy used Latin for services and the literary activities.

In the Norman times three languages were spoken in the country. Until the 12th century it was mostly monks who were in­terested in books and learning. With the development of sciences, such as medicine and law, "Universities" appeared in Europe. Paris became the centre of higher education for English stu­dents.

In 1168 a group of professors from Paris founded the first uni­versity at Oxford. In 1209 the second university was formed at Cambridge. The students were taught Latin, theology, medicine, grammar, rhetoric, logic, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy and music.

By and by the elements of French and Latin penetrated into Anglo-Saxon. They belonged to all spheres of life-words denot­ing relations, religious terms, words connected with government and military terms. War, pbace, guard, council, tower, wage, comfort, beef, tailor — all these words are of French origin. Sometimes the French words replaced the corresponding Eng­lish words, sometimes they remained side by side forming syno­nyms. A well-known example of such differentiation is present­ed by the names of animals, which were of Anglo-Saxon origin, and the name of the meat of these animals, which was French, such as ox-beef, calf-veal, sheep-mutton etc. Enriched by French and Latin borrowings, their language still remained basically Anglo-Saxon.

Finally it became the national language (we now call it Middle English). The formation of the national language was completed in the 14th century.

In 1349 English began to be studied in schools. In 1366 it was adopted in the courts of Law.

Vocabulary


nobility [nau'bihti] л знать

oppress [a'pres] v угнетать

peasant ['pezsnt] л крестьянин

polish [poilj] л тонкость, изысканность

pure [pjua] а правильный

replace [n'pleis] v заменять

rhetoric ['retsnk] n риторика

serf [s3:f] л крепостной

sphere fsfis] л сфера, круг

state1 [steit] л состояние

state2 [steit] n государство

term [t3:m] л термин

theology [9i'rjl3cfei] n богословие

tonque [Un] л язык

wage [weictj] n заработная плата


adopt [s'dnpt] v принимать basically ['beisiksli] adv в основном borrowing ['bDrsuin] л заимствование briefly [bri:fli] adv кратко clergy ['kl3:d^i] n духовенство complete [ksm'plil] о полный; v за­канчивать corresponding [^kDns'prmdin] о соот­ветствующий council ['kaunsil] л совет court [ko:t] л суд differentiation [^difsrenfi'eijsn] n раз

личение establish [is'taeblif] v основать neglect [m'glekt] v пренебрегать

Questions and Tasks


  1. What was the name of the Northmen?

  2. When did the battle of Hastings take place?

  3. Who conquered England?

4. How many years was William the Conqueror complete master of the whole
of England?

  1. Describe the conditions of peasants after the Norman conquest.

  2. What language became the official language of the state?

  3. Who spoke Anglo-Saxon?

  4. What language did the clergy use?

  5. How many languages were spoken in the Norman times?



  1. Who was interested in books and learning until the 12th century?


  2. What city became the centre of higher education for English students?

  3. Where were the first and the second universities formed?

  4. What subjects were the students taught there?

  5. Comment on the state of the English language after the Norman Conquest.

  6. When was the formation of the national language completed?

  7. When did English begin to be studied in schools?

  8. When was it adopted in the courts of Law?

  9. Relate briefly the story of the Normans and the Norman Conquest.


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LITERATURE IN THE NORMAN TIMES

The Normans brought to England romances — love stories and lyrical poems about their brave knights and their ladies.

The first English romances were translations from French. But later on in the 12th century, there appeared romances of Arthur, a legendary king of Britain. In the 15th century Thomas Malory col­lected and published them under the title Sir Thomas Malory's Book of King Arthur and of his Noble Knights of the Round Table. The knights gathered in King Arthur's city of Camelot f kaemiltrt]. Their meetings were held at a round table, hence the title of the book. All the knights were brave and gallant in their struggle against rob­bers, bad kings and monsters. King Arthur was the wisest and most honest of them all.

The townsfolk expressed their thoughts in fabliaus [ 'fasbliauz] (funny stories about townsfolk) and fables. Fables were short sto­ries with animals for characters and contained a moral.

Anglo-Saxon was spoken by the common people from the 5th till the 14th century. The songs and ballads about harvest, mow­ing, spinning and weaving were created by the country-folk, and were learnt by heart, recited and sung accompanied by musical instruments and dancing."



  1. Who collected and published the romances?

  2. Under what title did Thomas Malory collect the books?

  3. What was the book about?

  4. Where did the townsfolk express their thoughts?

  5. What was created by the country-folk?

  6. Say how the Norman Conquest affected English literature.


Vocabulary

accompany [э'клтрэга] ^сопровождать legendary ['leapndgn] а легендарный

contain [кэп Чет] v содержать mowing ['тэшп] п косьба

fable f'feibl] n басня recite [rfsait] v декламировать

fabliau [fae'blisu] n фабльо romance [re'maens] n роман

gallant ['gsebnt] а храбрый spinning ['spmm] n прядение

hence [hens] adv отсюда weaving ['wi:virj] n тканье

knight [nait] л рыцарь wise [waiz] а мудрый

Questions and Tasks


  1. What stories did the Normans bring to England?

  2. What were the first English romances?

  3. What romances appeared in the 12th century?

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English Literature in the 14th Century


PRE-RENAISSANCE IN ENGLAND

The Norman kings made London their residence. The London dialect was the central dialect, and it was understood throughout the country. It was the London dialect from which the national language developed.

In the 14th century the English bourgeoisie traded with Flan­ders (now Belgium). The English sold wool to Flanders and the latter produced the finest cloth. England wanted to become the centre of the world market. Flemish weavers were invited to Eng­land to teach the English their trade. But feudalism was a serious obstacle to the development of the country. In the first half of the 14th century France threatened the free towns of Flanders, wish­ing to seize them. England was afraid of losing its wool market.

A collision between France and England was inevitable. King Edward III made war with France in 1337. This war is now called the Hundred Years' War because it lasted over a hundred years. At first England was successful in the war. The English fleet defeated the French fleet in the Channel. Then the English also won battles on

land. B\it the ruin of France and the famine brought about a terrible disease called the "pestilence". It was brought over to England from France. The English soldiers called it the "Black Death". By the year 1348 one-third of England's population had perished. The peasants who had survived were forced to till the land of their lords.

As years went on, the French united against their enemy. As the king needed money for the war, Parliament voted for extra taxes. The increasing feudal oppression, cruel laws and the growth of taxes aroused people's indignation and revolts broke out all over the country. In 1381 there was a great uprising with Wat Tyler at the head. The rebels set fire to the houses, burnt valuable things, killed the king's judges and officials. They demanded the aboli­tion of serfdom and taxes, higher wages and guarantees against feudal oppression. But the rebellion was suppressed, and Wat Tyler was murdered.

Nothing made the people so angry as the rich foreign bishops of the Catholic Church who did not think about the sufferings of the people. The protest against the Catholic Church and the growth of national feeling during the first years of the Great War found an echo in literature. There appeared poor priests who wandered from one village to another and talked to the people. They protested against the rich bishops and also against all churchmen who were ignorant men and did not want to teach the people anything.

Such poor priests were the poet William Langland and John4 Wycliffe. They urged to fight for their rights. But the greatest writer of the 14th century was Geoffrey Chaucer, who was the writer of the new class, the bourgeoisie. He was the first to clear the way for realism.

Vocabulary


ignorant ['ignsrent] а невежественный indignation [^mdig'neifan] n возмуще­ние, негодование inevitable [m'evitabl] а неизбежный latter ['tets] а последний obstacle ['obstakl] л препятствие official [s'ftjbl] n чиновник; служащий oppression [э'рге/эп] л угнетение; гнет outcome ['autksm] л последствие

abolition Laebs'lifgn] л отмена bishop ['bijbp] л епископ collision [кэ'11зэп] л столкновение echo ['екэи] л отражение famine ['fsemm] л голод Flanders ['flaindaz] л Фландрия Flemish ['flemij] а фламандский force [fo:s] v заставлять guarantee Lgasran'ti:] v гарантировать


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perish ['penfl v погибать pestilence ['pestibns] n чума rebellion [n'beljsn] n восстание revolt [ri'vault] n восстание serfdom ['s3:fdsm] n крепостное право suppress [sa'pres] v подавлять survive [sg'vaiv] v выжить, уцелеть

tax [tasks] n налог threaten ['Gretn] v угрожать throughout [9ru:'aut] adv повсюду till [til] v обрабатывать (землю), пахать urge [з:с&] v побуждать, заставлять wander ['wands] v бродить weaver ['wirval n ткач

Questions and Tasks



  1. Describe the political situation of England in the 14th century.

  2. How did people react to growing feudal oppression?

  3. Talk about Wat Tyler's Rebellion and its outcome.

  4. What was the result of the protest against the Catholic Church?

  5. What did poor priests protest against?
  6. What do you know about the poets William Langland and John Wycliffe?

  7. Who was the greatest writer of the 14th century?

Geoffrey Chaucer

(1340-1400)

Geoffrey Chaucer
T he most vivid description of the 14th century England was given by Geoffrey Chaucer [ 'd3efn 'tfo:ss]. He was the first truly great writer in Eng­lish literature and is called the "father of English poetry". Chaucer was born in London, into the family of a wine merchant. His father had connections with the court and hoped for a courti­er's career for his son. At seventeen Ge­offrey became page to a lady at the court of Edward III. At twenty, Chau­cer was in France, serving as a squire. During 1373 and the next few years Chaucer travelled much and lived a busy life. He went to France, made three journeys to Italy. Italian literature opened to Chaucer a new world of art. Chaucer's earli­est poems were written in imitation of the French romances.

The second period of Chaucer's literary work was that of the Ital­ian influence. To this period belong the following poems: The House of Fame, The Parliament of Fowls, a poem satirizing Parliament, The Legend of Good Women and others.

When Chaucer came back to England, he received the post of Controller of the Customs in the port of London. Chaucer held this position for ten years. He devoted his free time to hard study and writing. Later Chaucer was appointed "Knight for the Shire of Kent", which meant that he sat in Parliament as a representa­tive for Kent.

He often had to go on business to Kent and there he observed the pilgrimages to Canterbury.

The third period of Chaucer's creative work begins in the year 1384, when he started writing his masterpiece, The Can­terbury Tales.

Chaucer died in 1400 and was buried in Westminster Abbey. Chaucer was the last English writer of the Middle Ages and the first of the Renaissance.

Vocabulary

post [psust] n поет, должность satirize ['saetaraiz] v высмеивать shire [fara] n графство source [so:s] n источник vivid ['vivid] о яркий


court [ko:t] n двор короля courtier ['кэ:ф] п придворный esquire [is'kwaia] n оруженосец pilgrimage ['pilgnmKfe] n паломни чество

Questions and Tasks



  1. Give the main facts of Chaucer's life.

  2. What were the sources of Chaucer's creative work?

  3. Speak about the three periods of Chaucer's creative work.

  4. What is his masterpiece?

  5. When did Chaucer die?

  6. Where was he buried?


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The Canterbury Tales

This is the greatest work of Chaucer in which his realism, iro­ny and freedom of views reached such a high level that it had no equal in all the English literature up to the 16th century. That's why Chaucer was called "the founder of realism". It is for the Canterbury Tales that Chaucer's name is best remembered. The book is an unfinished collection of stories in verse told by the pilgrims on their journey to Canterbury. Each pilgrim was to tell four stories. Chaucer managed to write only twenty-four instead of the proposed one hundred and twenty-four stories.

All his characters are typical representatives of their classes. When assembled, they form one people, the English people. Chaucer kept the whole poem alive and full of humour not only by the tales themselves but also by the talk, comments and the opinions of the pilgrims.

The prologue is the most interesting part of the work. It acquaints the reader with medieval society. The pilgrims are persons of dif­ferent social ranks and occupations. Chaucer has portrayed them with great skill at once as types and as individuals true to their own age. There is a knight, a yeoman (a man who owned land; a farmer), a nun, a monk, a priest, a"merchant, a clerk, a sailor, Chaucer himself and others, thirty-one pilgrims in all. The knight is brave, simple and modest. He is Chaucer's ideal of a soldier. The nun weeps seeing a mouse caught in a trap but turns her head from a beggar in his "ugly rags". The fat monk prefers hunting and good dinners to prayers. The merchant's wife is merry and strong. She has red cheeks and red stockings on her fat legs. The clerk is a poor philosopher who spends all his money on books.

Each of the travellers tells a different kind of story showing his own views and character. Some are comical, gay, witty or roman­tic, others are serious and even tragic.

In Chaucer's age the English language was still divided by dia­lects. Chaucer wrote in the London dialect, the most popular one at that time. With his poetry the London dialect became the Eng­lish literary language. Chaucer does not teach his readers what is good or bad by moralizing; he was not a preacher. He merely paid





joi

*mi
Pilgrims on their journey to Canterbury

attention to the people around him; he drew his characters "ac­cording to profession and degree", so they instantly became typi­cal of their class.

Vocabulary


merely ['miali] adv только, просто moralize ['rrrorelaiz] v поучать nun [плп] п монахиня pilgrim ['pilgrim] n паломник prayer ['preis] n молитва preacher ['pritfa] л проповедник prologue fprsulog] n пролог rank [rserjk] n звание; ранг trap [trsep] n капкан weep [wi:p] v (wept) плакать yeoman Пэитэп] п иомен, фермер

appoint [a'pomt] v назначать assemble [o'sembl] v собираться career [кэ'пэ] п карьера comment [ 'knmsnt] n комментарий,

толкование degree [di'gri:] n положение, ранг equal ['i:kwal] а равный framework ['freimw3:k] n структура instantly ['mstanth] adv немедленно level ['levl] n уровень medieval [^medi'i^sl] а средневековый





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Английская и американская литература: Курс лекций для школьников старших классов и студентов / Тексты, примеч. Н. Л. Утевской. — СПб.: Учитель и ученик КОРОНА принт, 2002. — 384 с.

ISBN 5-7931-0176-4

Книга представляет собой лекции по программе, утвержденной для школ с углубленным изучением английского языка. Лекции включают краткий и емкий обзор различных литературных направлений, стилей, школ, а также жизнеописание и анализ творчества писателей и поэтов за последние де­сять веков. Пособие окажет неоценимую помощь учащимся и преподавате­лям школ и вузов, а также всем изучающим английский язык.

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