Курс лекций для школьников старших классов и студентов Saint Petersburg corona print Uchitel & Uchenic

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John Lyly [ 'lih] (1554— 1606) —Джон Лили, англ. писатель и драматург Thomas Kyd (1558 — 1594) — Томас Кид, англ. драматург


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  1. Describe the Globe theatre, built in 1599.

  2. Talk about the first plays written in imitation of Ancient Roman tragedies and comedies.

  3. What were the names of the greatest playwrights of the time?

  4. Who were among the "University Wits"?

to reveal the suffering of man. Marlowe introduced blank verse in his tragedies and pointed out the way to William Shakespeare, the greatest of the Renaissance humanists. In imagination, richness of expression, originality and general poetic and dramatic power he is inferior to Shakespeare alone in the 16th century.


Christopher Marlowe (1564-1593)



Christopher Marlowe [ 'kristsfa 'ma:bu] was a young dramatist who surpassed all his contemporaries. His father was a shoemaker in Canterbury. Christopher Marlowe studied at Cam­bridge University and was greatly in­fluenced by the ideas of the Renais­sance. Almost nothing is known of his life after he left the University. He was killed at a tavern at the age of twenty-nine.

Christopher Marlowe

Christopher Marlowe is famous for his four tragedies: Tamburlaine ['tajmbalein] the Great; Doctor Faus-tus ['fo:stas]; The Jew of Malta ['molts] and Edward II.

Marlowe approached history from a Renaissance point of view. His tragedies show strong men who fight for their own benefit. No enemy can overcome them except death. They are great per­sonalities who challenge men and gods with their strength.


Doctor Faustus is considered to be the best of his works. Mar­lowe used in it the German legend of a scholar who for the sake of knowledge sold his soul to the devil. Dr. Faustus wants to have power over the world: "All things that move between the quiet poles shall be at my command". The devil serves him twenty-four years. When Faustus sees the beautiful Helen he wants to get his soul back. It is too late.

Marlowe's plays taught people to understand a tragedy which was not performed just to show horror and crime on the stage, but

Vocabulary

approach [s'prautj] v подходить inferior [т'йэпй] п стоящий ниже

blank verse ['bter)k'v3:s] n белый стих overcome [ 'эотэклт] v (overcame;
challenge ['tfaslmcfe] v вызывать на со- overcome) побороть, преодолеть

ревнование reveal [n'vi:l] v показывать

contemporary [кэп'temparan] n совре- scholar ['sknlg] n ученый

менник soul [saul] n душа

devil ['devil] n дьявол surpass [s9'pa:s] v превосходить

for the sake of ради tavern ['taevan] n таверна


horror ['гтгэ] п
ужас

Questions and Tasks



  1. Tell the main facts of Marlowe's life.

  2. What is Marlowe's famous for?

  3. Comment on his tragedies.

  4. What is considered to be the best of his works?

  5. What can you say about the plot of Doctor Faustus?

  6. Speak on the meaning of Marlowe's plays.

William Shakespeare (1564-1616)

The great poet and dramatist William Shakespeare was a genius formed by the epoch of the Renaissance.

He is often called by his people "Our National Bard" (bard = a singer of ancient songs, a poet), "The Immortal Poet of Nature" (When the English people called Shakespeare "the poet of Na­ture" they meant "the poet of realism", but they didn't know such a word then) and "the Great Unknown". Indeed very little can be told about his life with certainty, as no biography of Shakespeare was published during his life time nor for 93 years after his death.



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Yet, patient research by certain scho­lars has uncovered the biography, but not fully.

William Shakespeare

William Shakespeare was born at Stratford-on-Avon feivan] on the 23rd of April, 1564. His father, John Shakespeare, was a farmer's son, who came to Stratford in 1551 and became a prosperous tradesman. John Shakespeare was elected al­derman and later by the time his eld­est children were born he acted as bailiff which meant he had to keep order in the town according to the local laws. John Shakespeare was illiterate; he marked his name by a cross because he was unable to write it.

His mother, Mary Arden [' mean ' a:dn] was a farmer's daughter. John and Mary had eight children, four girls and four boys, but their two eldest daughters died at an early age. The third child was William. William was a boy of a free and open nature, much like his mother who was a woman of a lively disposition. Of Shake­speare's education we know little, except that for a few years he attended the local grammar school where he learned some Latin, Greek, arithmetic and a few other subjects. His real teachers, meanwhile, were the men and women around him. Stratford was a charming little town in the very centre of England. Near at hand was the Forest of Arden, the old castles of Warwick and Kenilworth, and the old Roman camps and military roads. The beauty of the place must have influenced powerfully to the poet's imagination.

When Shakespeare was about fourteen years old, his father lost his property and fell into debt and so the boy had to leave school and help his family. On leaving school, William Shakespeare be­gan to learn foreign languages. His father had an Italian in his house who was quite a good scholar. This Italian taught William the Italian language, brushed up his Latin and studied the poetry of many Latin, Greek and Italian authors with him.

William was still a boy when his first poems appeared. Writing poems was very common in Shakespeare's days. It was called son-

netising [' sonitaizin]. His future wife Anne Hathaway [' sen' haeQawei] also expressed her feeling for William in verse. Anne and William met by the river Avon, and she calls him "Sweet Swan of Avon". In his nineteenth year William Shakespeare married Anne Hathaway, the daughter of a well-to-do farmer. They had three children — Susanna [su: 'zaena], and the twins, Judith [ 'd^urdiG] and Hamnet. A few years later after his marriage, about the year 1587, Shakespeare left his native town for London.

At this time the drama was gaining rapidly in popularity through the work of the University Wits. Shakespeare soon turned to the stage and became first an actor, and then a "play patcher", be­cause he altered and improved the existing dramas. Thus he gained a practical knowledge of the art of play writing. Soon he began to write plays of his own, first comedies and then historical plays. New plays by William Shakespeare appeared almost every year be­tween 1590 and 1613, in some years one play, more often two.




Shakespeare's birthplace


)

In 1593 and 1594 he published two long poems — Venus and Adonis ['vi:nas and a 'dauniz] and Lucrece [ 'lu:kri:s]. Both poems were dedicated to the young Earl of Southampton f sauQ' aemptan], a great admirer of Shakespeare's plays. Until Shakespeare print­ed his poems the public had no idea he was a poet. He was known as an actor and a writer of plays. At that time playwrights wrote for a definite theatrical company, and the theatre became the owner of the play. Shakespeare's plays were very popular. Actors and writers


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respected him and admired his genius. As his popularity with the people grew, the aristocracy too became interested in his work. When Queen Elizabeth wanted to see a play, she usually ordered a performance at court.

In 1594 Shakespeare became a member of the Lord Chamber­lain's ['tfeimbalmz] company of actors. He wrote plays for the com­pany and acted in them. His early plays were performed in the play­houses known as "The Theatre" and "The Curtain". When the com­pany built the "Globe" theatre most of his greatest plays were performed there. By that time Shakespeare was acknowledged to be the greatest of English dramatists. His career as a dramatist lasted for nearly twenty-one years. His financial position also improved. He was a shareholder of the "Globe" theatre and he purchased property in Stratford and in London. But the years which brought prosperity also brought sorrows. He lost his only son, his brother and parents.

In spite of prosperity he must have left lonely among the people surrounding him. In 1612 he returned to Stratford-on-Avon for good. The last years of his life Shakespeare spent in Stratford. He died on the 23rd of April 1616. He is buried in his native town Strat-ford-on-Avon. In 1616 a month before his death he wrote his will.

On his tomb there are,four lines which are said to have been written by William Shakespeare:

Good friend, for Jesus' sale forbear To dig the dust enclosed here; Blessed be he that spares these stones, And cursed be he that moves my bones.

These lines prevented the removal of his remains to West­minster Abbey; only a monument was erected to his memory in Poets' Corner.

Vocabulary

acknowledge [sk'rrohcfc] v признавать alter ['э:кэ] v переделывать

admirer [ad'maiara] n поклонник bailiff ['beilif] n судебный пристав

alderman ['э:Шэтэп] п олдермен, член bless [bles] v благословлять

муниципалитета brush up [ЬглГ] v заниматься



lively ['laivli] а живой patcher ['paet/э] n работник, произво­дящий мелкий ремонт prevent [pn 'vent] v мешать, не до­пускать property [ 'propati] n собственность,

имущество prosperous fprosparas] а состоятельный prosperity [pros'panti] n процветание,

успех purchase ['p3:tjbs] v покупать remains [ri'memz] n останки, прах removal [n'murvsl] n перемещение research [n's3:tf] n исследование, изу­чение shareholder ['/еэ,пэиЫэ] п акционер sonnetise ['snnatarz] v сочинять сонеты spare [spea] v сберегать tomb [tu:m] n надгробный памятник well-to-do ['welts'du:] а состоятельный


certainty ['s3:tnti] л уверенность common ['кшттэп] а обычный company [ 'клтрэш] п театральная

труппа confer [кэпТз:] a title давать титул curse [k3:s] v проклинать debt [det] n долг dedicate ['dedikeit] v посвящать definite ['defmit] а определенный disposition [^disps'zifgn] n характер epoch ['i:pDk] n эпоха erect [1'rekt] v воздвигать financial [fai'nasnfsl] а финансовый forbear [fo:'bes] v (forbore; forborne)

воздерживаться gain [gem] v добиться genius ['cfemjss] n гений illiterate [r'litarit] а неграмотный immortal [i'mo:tl] а бессмертный Jesus ['djfczss] n Иисус

Questions and Tasks



  1. What titles have the English people conferred on William Shakespeare?

  2. Where was Shakespeare born?

  3. When was he born?

  4. What did his father, John Shakespeare, do?

  5. How many children did John and Mary Shakespeare have?

  6. What kind of boy was William?
  7. What do we know of Shakespeare's education?


  8. What must have influenced powerfully to the poet's imagination?

  9. What happened when William was about fourteen years old?




  1. When did his poems begin to appear?

  2. When did he marry Anne Hathaway?

  3. How many children did they have?

  4. Talk about the first period of Shakespeare's life in London.

  5. What poems did he publish in 1593 and 1594?

  6. To whom were these poems dedicated?

  7. When did he become a member of the Lord Chamberlain's company of actors?

  8. Where were most of Shakespeare's plays performed?

  9. Prove that his financial position improved.

  10. When did Shakespeare return to Stratford-on-Avon?

  11. When did he die?


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Shakespeare's Literary Work

William Shakespeare is one of those rare geniuses of mankind who have become landmarks in the history of world culture.

Poet and playwright William Shakespeare was one of the great­est titans of Renaissance.

A phenomenally prolific writer, William Shakespeare wrote 37 plays, 154 sonnets and two narrative poems. Shakespeare's plays belong to different dramatic genres. They are histories (chronicle plays), tragedies, comedies and tragic-comedies.

Shakespeare's literary work is usually divided into three pe­riods:


  • The first period — from 1590 to 1601 — when he wrote his­tories, comedies and sonnets.
  • The second period — from 1601 to 1608 — was the period of tragedies.


  • The third period — from 1608 to 1612 — when he wrote mostly tragic-comedies.

These three periods are sometimes called optimistic, pessimis­tic and romantic.

Vocabulary

landmark ['laendma:k] n веха prolific [prs'lifik] а плодовитый

narrative ['nseratrv] а повествовательный rare [геэ] а редкий

phenomenally [fi'rrommli] adv необык- titan ['taitgn] n титан
новенно

The First Period Comedies

The first period is marked by youthful optimism, great imagi­nation and extravagance of language. In these years Shake­speare created a brilliant cycle of comedies. They are all written in his playful manner. The gay and witty heroes and heroines of

The Globe

comedies come into conflict with unfavourable circumstances and wicked people. But their love and friendship, intellect and faithfulness always take the upper hand1.

The comedies are written in the bright spirit of the Renaissance. The heroes are the creators of their own fate, that is to say they rely on their cleverness to achieve happiness. Shakespeare trusted man's virtues and believed that virtue could bring happiness to mankind. Shakespeare was optimistic, therefore love of life is the main feature of his comedies, notable for their wit, comic charac­ters and situations, for the smoothly flowing language and harmo­nious composition. Shakespeare's comedies were written to take the spectator away from everyday troubles. In them people lived for merriment, pleasure and love.

The best comedies of that period are:



Love's Labour's Lost1590,

The Comedy of Errors 1591,

The Two Gentlemen of Verona [уГгэипэ] — 1592,

A Midsummer Night's Dream 1594,

1 take the upper hand — побеждают


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The Merchant of Venice ['vems] — 1595,

The Taming of the Shrew [fru:] — 1596,

Much Ado About Nothing 1599,

The Merry Wives of Windsor ['wmza] — 1599,

As You Like It 1600,

Twelfth Night 1600.

Twelfth Night

Twelfth Night is one of the most charming and perfect of Shakespeare's plays. It was the last of his merry comedies. After­wards he wrote mainly tragedies. The play was written to say good-bye to the Christmas holidays which were celebrated with great pomp and lasted for twelve days. Twelfth Night was the end of merry-making. Hence the title of the comedy.

The plot of the play is centred round Viola ( vaiab]. She is a clever, intelligent and noble-hearted woman. Making a sea voyage she and her twin brother Sebastian [si 'baestjan] are shipwrecked on the coast of Illyria governed by Duke Orsino [of si:rau]. The captain of the ship


brings Viola safe to shore. Her brother has apparently drowned. The captain tells Viola that Duke Orsino is in love with Countess Olivia [t> '1тэ] whose father and brother have recently died. For the love of them she avoids people. Viola wishes to serve this lady, but Olivia admits no person into her house. Then she makes up her mind to serve Orsino as a page under the name of Cesario [si 'zemau]. She puts on her brother's clothes, and looks exactly like him. Strange errors happen as the twins are mistaken for each other.

The Duke is fond of Cesario and tells him about his love for Olivia and sends him to her house to talk to her about his love. Viola goes there unwillingly because she herself loves Orsino.

On seeing Cesario Olivia falls in love with him, "I love thee1 so, that, in spite of your pride, nor wit nor reason can my passion hide". ; In vain, Cesario's resolution is "never to love any woman". In the meantime Sebastian comes to Olivia's house, she mistakes him for Cesario and proposes they should marry. Sebastian agrees. Soon Cesario — Viola enters. Everybody wonders at seeing two persons with the same face and voice. When all the errors are cleared up, they laugh at Olivia for falling in love with a woman. Orsino, seeing that Cesario would look beautiful in a woman's clothes, says to him that for the faithful service Viola has done for him so much be­neath her soft and tender breeding, and since she has called him master so long, she should now be her master's mistress, and Orsino's true duchess. The twin brother and sister are wedded on the same day: Viola becomes the wife of Orsino, the Duke of Illyria, Sebastian — the husband of the rich and noble Countess Olivia.

In the character of Viola Shakespeare embodied the new ideal of a woman, which was very different from that of feudal times. The woman described in the literature of the Middle Ages, espe­cially in the romances, were shown as passive objects of love.

Shakespeare shows that women have the right to equality and independence. Viola defends her right to happiness and love.



The stage where "Tweifth Night" was performed

1 thee — you


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Vocabulary

admit [ad'mit] v допускать

apparently [s'peeranth] adv очевидно; по-видимому

avoid [a'void] v избегать

breeding ['bri:dirj] n воспитание

countess ['kauntis] n графиня

cycle ['saikl] n цикл

drown [draun] v тонуть

duchess ['d\tjis] n герцогиня

embody [im'bndi] v воплощать

error ['era] n ошибка

extravagance [iks'trsevigans] n экстра­вагантность

feature ['fi:tfa] л черта

harmonious [hafmaunjas] а гармоничный



Sonnets

hence ['hens] adv отсюда merriment ['menmant] n веселье notable ['nautabl] а известный, выда­ющийся pomp [primp] n помпа, пышность propose [ргэ 'pauz] v делать предло­жение (о браке) rely [n'lai] v полагаться, доверять smoothly ['smvxdh] adv плавно tender ['tends] а нежный, заботливый twin [twin] n близнец unfavourable [лп 'feivarabl] а небла­гоприятный wicked ['wikid] а злой witty ['witi] а остроумный


Sonnet 66

Tired with all these, for restful death I cry, As, to behold1 Desert a beggar born, And needy Nothing trimm'd in jolity2 And purest Faith unhappily forsworn,3

And golded Honour shamefully misplaced, And maiden Virtue rudely strumpeted4 And right Perfection wrongfully disgraced, And Strength by limping Sway5 disabled,

And Art made tongue — tied by Authority, And Folly doctor-like6 controlling Skill, And simple Truth miscall'd Simplicity,7 And captive Good attending captain 111.8

Tired with all these, from these would I be gone, Save9 that, to die, I leave my love alone.



The sonnet is a poetical form that appeared in Italy in the 14th century. It was introduced into English literature during the first period of the Renaissance. Shakespeare's sonnet has 14 lines. It is divided into three stanzas of four lines with a final rhyming couplet ['k/vpht].

The sonnets of Shakespeare were published in 1609, but were probably written between 1597— 1600. The first 126 are ad­dressed to a man. A certain "W. H." whose identity remains un­known. He is the author's friend, and the sonnets are addressed to him. Shakespeare complains of his hard life in which his love for his friend is the only comfort (sonnets 26 — 29), but his friend often forgets him (sonnet 33).

Beginning with sonnet 127 a new person appears — The Dark Lady. The authors and his friend are in love with her. The authors both loves her and hates her for making him and his friend suffer (sonnet 133). Thus the sonnets are connected by their common theme — love and friendship. But this is not the only theme of the sonnets. In one of his best sonnets, 66, Shakespeare expresses his indignation with the state of things around him.

Sonnet 91

Some glory in their birth, some in their skill, Some in their wealth, some in their body10 forth; Some in their garments11, though new-fangled12 ill; Some in their hawks and hounds13, some in their horse;



1 behold see

2 trimm'd in jollity — dressed gaily

3 to forswear — to swear falsely

4 strumpeted — violated

5 sway — motion; rule


6 doctor-like — pretending to know much

7 simplicity here stupidity

8 captive Good attending captain 111 — Virtue, a prisoner, serving Evil

9 save — except

10 body1body's

11 garments — clothes

12 new-fangled — fond of novelty

13 hounds — dogs for chase, hunting




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Английская и американская литература: Курс лекций для школьников старших классов и студентов / Тексты, примеч. Н. Л. Утевской. — СПб.: Учитель и ученик КОРОНА принт, 2002. — 384 с.

ISBN 5-7931-0176-4

Книга представляет собой лекции по программе, утвержденной для школ с углубленным изучением английского языка. Лекции включают краткий и емкий обзор различных литературных направлений, стилей, школ, а также жизнеописание и анализ творчества писателей и поэтов за последние де­сять веков. Пособие окажет неоценимую помощь учащимся и преподавате­лям школ и вузов, а также всем изучающим английский язык.

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