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give away his beloved daughter to one of them. At this moment the old man is full of pride — the pride of a king and a father. He decides to test his daughters: the greatest share will be given to the daughter who will best express her love for him. Goneril and Regan declare that they love him more than their honour, beauty and health. The King is pleased and gives them each one third of the kingdom. Cordelia is ashamed to repeat these words of flattery, for she loves truth and honesty. Her answer is different:

Good, my Lord,

You have begot me, bred me, lov'd me: I

Return those duties back as are right fit',

Obey you, love you, and most honour you.

Why have my sisters husbands, if they say

They love you all? Happily, when I shall wed,

That lord whose hand must take my plight2 shall carry

Half my love with him, half my care and duty:

Sure I shall never marry like my sisters,

To love my father all.

The King spoilt by flattery is hurt and disowns her. No one dares to defend the unhappy Cordelia except the King's coun­sellor Kent, and the King of France who asks her to go with him to France.

Now Lear will live in turn with Goneril and Regan. His two elder daughters insult him, shut their doors on him and let him out in a thunderstorm. Lear is surprised to see that their attitude to him has changed. From this moment on his heart has no peace. He is only a poor, old, weak and despised man. The family respected and obeyed him only because he was in power. With Lear's degradation the poet shows that the feudal order is break­ing up. His two eldest daughters represent the new class. They are selfish, cruel, false, vulgar, full of plots. Their hearts are hard­ened.

1 as are right fit — as ought to be done.

2 plight — engagement, promise to marry.

The King's mind has clouded over, but under hard trials in suffering and pain he goes through a moral evolution and be­comes humane. He understands the injustice of the order he once represented. He understands his mistake.

Shakespeare is a great master of plot. In King Lear we find a double plot. On the one hand author reveals the family tragedy of King Lear, on the other hand he shows the fate of the Earl of Gloucester ['grosta].

Gloucester has two sons Edgar and Edmund. The latter is his illegitimate son. The consciousness of having no rights has made Edmund a cynical man. His aim is to get his brother's lands and power. By a treacherous letter he succeeds in setting his father against Edgar, whom Gloucester disinherits. Edgar has a coura­geous heart, but he has to run away to escape danger.

In the meantime Cordelia has sent troops to England to win back her father's kingdom. She finds her father in the field near Dover. Old Gloucester helped his master to reach this plade be­cause he knew of Cordelia's intention. Edmund told Cornwall this secret, and Gloucester's eyes were plucked out. Edgar, dis­guised has a beggar, helped him to reach Dover where Glouces­ter died. The British troops under Edmund's command win the French army, and Edmund orders Cordelia to be hanged.

Goneril and Regan are in love with Edmund. In a fit of jealousy Goneril poisons her sister Regan, she herself commits suicide when her husband learns about her plot. Wishing to revenge his father Edgar kills Edmond. So the evil forces do not triumph, but light comes too late. King Lear finds Cordelia, but she is dead. King Lear dies over her lifeless body. Edgar and the Duke of Al­bany are with him at this moment.

The story of King Lear with its horrors, cruelty and crime, as used by Shakespeare, showed the despotism of the age.


commit [ka'mit] v совершать to commit suicide ['sjuisaid] совер­шить самоубийство consciousness ['krjnfssnis] л сознание

ambition [sem'bijbn] л честолюбие attitude ['aetitju:d] n отношение background ['bskgraund] n фон clash [klaef] л столкновение


illegitimate [jli'cfeitimit] а незаконно­рожденный

insult [m'sAlt] v оскорблять

plot [plot] л заговор

represent [^repn'zent] v представлять

righteousness [ 'raitfasnis] л правед­ность; справедливость

share [[еэ] л доля

succeed [sak'sM] сдобиться

trial [traial] л испытание

counsellor ['kaunsgls] л советник dare [dea] л сметь, отважиться despise [dis'paiz] v презирать disguise [dis'gaiz] v переодеться disown [dis'sun] v не признавать, от­рекаться evolution Li:va'lu:j3n] n развитие, рост fit [fit] л припадок flattery ['flstgn] л лесть humane [hju:'mem] а человечный

The Third Period ^


During the third period of his literary career Shakespeare wrote the following plays:

Cymberline [ 'simbili:n] (1610), The Winter's Tale (1610), The Tempest (1611), Henry VIII (1613).

These plays are called romantic dramas. There are no great problems and strong conflicts in them. Shakespeare has entered into the beautiful world of fantasy and allegory. Still, all the plays are masterly written, and they express his belief in the future hap­piness of mankind.

Nature occupies an important place in Shakespeare's works. His own attitude to it changes as the author himself changes. In the early comedies his heroes find happiness and peace of mind in nature, in the tragedies nature turns against them, and in the ro­mantic dramas one feels that man can conquer nature.

Questions and Tasks

  1. What plays was written by Shakespeare in the second period?

  2. What problems does he present in the tragedies?

  3. Compare the plays written in the second period with those written in the first. Comment on the change of mood in the second period.

  4. What is the plot of Hamlet?

  5. What makes Hamlet one of the greatest of Shakespeare's masterpieces?

  6. What accounts for Hamlet's melancholy and irresolution?


  1. What does Hamlet feel he was born for?

  2. How does Hamlet want to set the world aright?

9. What does Hamlet meditate over and where are his meditations reflected?

  1. Read the soliloquy and be ready to translate and paraphrase any part of it.

  2. What is the central idea of the soliloquy?

  3. Pick out the lines whose idea reminds you of sonnet 66.

  4. In what plays does Shakespeare deal with social problems?

  5. What was the tragedy of Lear?

  6. Does Shakespeare, by describing the family tragedy of King Lear, show the relations of man to man in society?

I 16. Comment on the development of Lear's character. 17. Describe the third period of Shakespeare's work.

Shakespeare's Contribution to the World Literature

To sum up we can say that during his life-time Shakespeare creat­ed a variety of plays and characters. The ideas set out by the Renais­sance, the struggle for happiness and freedom, are expressed by him I in the most realistic forms. Shakespeare's plays have become so pop-£ ular in the world because of his great humanist ideas and his realistic characters. Shakespeare did not idealize the people he portrayed. I He painted them as they were in his time. He created characters of J,' great depth and unusual intellects. We see a philosopher in Hamlet, a ! learned man in Horatio, a cunning diplomat in Claudius.

Many scholars have studied Shakespeare. These are the cen-; tral themes Shakespeare dealt with in his plays:

1. The idea of freedom for peoples. This is felt in his tragedies

(and historical plays. 2. Humanism. The love for mankind is seen in every play. 3. Freedom for the individual. 4. The idea of patriotism. 5. National unity under one strong king. The last two themes are stressed in King Lear. 6. Social relations between people. 7. The masses as a political force.

8. The themes of love and friendship which are developed in his sonnets as well as in his plays.

9.The struggle against cruel medieval blood-feuds (in Romeo and Juliet).


Shakespeare achieved great skill in speech individualization of his characters through the choice of words, and the use of folk­lore — popular songs, ballads and sayings. That is why the plays are written in the living language of the epoch.

There are some phrases that have become part of the every­day language of Englishmen. They have become sayings:

  • All's well that ends well.

  • All that glisters is not gold.

  • A sea of troubles.

  • Brevity is the soul of wit.

  • To be or not to be, that is the question.

  • Conscience doth1 make cowards of us all.

  • Love's labour's (is) lost.

  • Much ado about nothing.

  • There is no darkness but ignorance.

  • ...best men are moulded out of faults.

Shakespeare's ideas of love, freedom, humanism and national unity are still very popular. Shakespeare is far from us only in time. When he speaks in his plays, we feel that he speaks for us and to us. His plays are staged by all the world's theatres and in Russia as well. Fourteen operas were composed on the theme of Romeo and Juliet. Verdi, Rossini, Berlioz wrote-operas on Othello and Macbeth. There are many symphonic works — Tchaikovsky's Tempest, Liszt's Ham­let. The whole world knows Prokofiev's beautiful ballet music to Romeo and Juliet. Shastokovich composed beautiful music to the sonnets. Almost all Shakespeare's comedies and tragedies have ap­peared in the cinema. One of the best productions is Hamlet.

Questions and Tasks

  1. Why have Shakespeare's plays become so popular in the world?

  2. What characters did Shakespeare create?

  3. What central themes did he deal with in his plays?

  4. How did Shakespeare achieve great skill in speech individualization of his characters?

  5. Talk about the language of Shakespeare's plays.

  6. Name the most important phrases which have become part of the every­day language of Englishmen.

  7. Prove that Shakespeare's plays are very popular.

  8. Comment on Shakespeare's contribution to world literature.


brevity ['breviti] n краткость glister ['glista] v блестеть

conscience ['krjnjans] n совесть ignorance ['ignarens] n невежество

coward ['kauad] n трус mould [msuld] v создавать

depth ['depG] n глубина phrase [freiz] л фраза

fault [fo:lt] n вина variety [va'rawti] n разнообразие

1 doth [d\9] — doe;



r'll/-^'|,|n[l»'irfiiT',Wltf''-Wlu:u^'"'-r"'»'Mi'aWil^"j'*i'^ №Jjif«;/\,

не о l о а /

км, щ$щ\ pffw- iwffww





English Literature in the 1/th—18th Centuries


The 17th century was one, of the most stormy periods of English history. The political situation in the country was complicated. The growing contradictions between the new class, the bourgeoisie, and the old forces of feudalism brought about the English Bour­geois Revolution in the 1640s. As a result of the revolution, the king was dethroned and beheaded and England was proclaimed a re­public. Though very soon monarchy was restored, the position of the bourgeoisie had changed.

The 18th century saw Great Britain rapidly growing into a capi­talist country. It was an age of intensive industrial development. New machinery was invented that turned Britain into the first capitalist power of the1 world. The 18th century was also remarkable for the development of science and culture. It was in this period that Eng­lish painting began to develop too.

In spite of the progress of industry and culture in England the majority of :he English people were still very ignorant. That is


why one of the most important problems that faced the country was the problem of education.

The 17th and 18th centuries are known in the history of Europe­an culture as the period of Enlightenment. The Enlightenment de­fended the interest of the common people — craftsmen, tradesmen, peasants. The central problem of the Enlightenment ideology was that of man and his nature.

The Enlighteners believed in reason as well as in man's inborn goodness. Vice in people, they thought, was due to the miserable living conditions which could be changed by force of reason. They considered it their duty to enlighten people, to help them see the roots of evil. The Enlighteners also believed in the power­ful educational value of art.

The English Enlighteners were not unanimous in their views. Some of them spoke in defence of the existing order, considering



that a few reforms were enough to improve it. These were: Daniel Defoe ['deenjal da'fau], Alexander Pope [,aelig'zamda рэир] and Samuel Richardson1 ['ssemjusl ' rrtjadsn].

The other group included the writers who openly protested against the social order. They defended the interests of the ex­ploited masses. They were: Jonathan Swift ['йуопэвэп swift], Henry Fielding2 ['henn Ti:ldin]r Oliver Goldsmith3 ['nlrva 'gsuldsmiG], Richard Sheridan4 [ 'ntjbd 'Jendn], Robert Burns [ 'robat 'Ьэ:пг].

  1. Talk about the political situation in England in the 17th century.

  2. Describe the situation in Great Britain in the 18th century.

  3. Talk about the Enlightenment and its main problem.

  4. Who were the two groups among the English Enlighteners?

  5. Mention the most outstanding representatives of the Enlightenment.

1 Samuel Richardson (1689- 1761) — Самюэл Ричардсон, англ. писатель.

2 Henry Fielding (1707 - 1754) — Генри Филдинг, англ. писатель, драматург.
3Oliver Goldsmith (1728-1774) — Оливер Голдсмит, англ. писатель, драма­

4 Richard Sheridan (1751 - 1816) — Ричард Шеридан, англ. драматург


complicated ['komphkeitid] a сложный contradiction [,krmtra'dikf3n] n проти­воречие craftsman fkraftsman] n ремесленник dethrone [df Oram] v свергать с престола enlighten [m'laitn] v просвещать enlightener [m'laitns] n просветитель enlightenment [m'laitnmsnt]n просве­щение ideology [,aidi'rjl3d3i] n идеология, ми­ровоззрение

Questions and Tasks

inborn ['m'bo:n] а врожденный intensive [m'tensiv] а интенсивный majority [тэ'фопи] п большинство miserable ['mizsrablja несчастный proclaim [ргэ'Ыеип] v провозглашать restore [ns'ta] v восстанавливать stormy fsto:mi] а бурный unanimous [ju:'nsenimas] а единодуш­ный

Alexander Po (1688-1744)

Alexander Pope [.aelig'zcmda'paup] was born in London in 1688. His father, a prosperous linen-draper, was a ca­tholic, and because of his religion Pope was expelled from the public schools and universities. He picked up most of his knowledge from books, and though he read much he never be­came an accurate scholar.

Alexander Pope

Pope's poetic career began with Four Pastorals published in 1709. These were short poems on spring, summer, autumn and winter, closely fashioned on Virgil1. His Essay on Criti­cism contained Pope's aesthetic views.

A mock-heroic poem The Rape of the Lock which appeared in 1712 enjoyed instant success. It was founded on an incident which occurred at that time. A certain Lord Petre cut a lock of hair from the head of young beauty named Arabella Fermor (the Belinda of the poem). This practical joke led to a quarrel between the two families. Pope seized on the occasion and wrote a long poem in which the society is pictured in detail and satirized with great wit.

Pope's next work was the translation of the Illiad, which brought his fame and established financial positions. Pope trans­lated Homer2 in the elegant artificial language of his own age jand gave the reading public what it wanted — a readable ver­sion of the Greek poem in accordance with the taste of time.

After the Illiad Pope translated the Odyssey ['odisi]. After the publication of his Homer, as the two poems are together popularly called, Pope wrote satiric poetry. In 1728 he published a long

1 Virgil [ 'V3:d3il] (70- 19 до н. э.) — Вергилий, рим. поэт

2 Homer [ 'пэитэ] (9 в. до н. э.) — Гомер, греч. поэт.



satire on the "dunces" — the bad poets — called The Dunciad. In The Dunciad Pope ridiculed his literary opponents. The theme of the poem is the most important theme of the Enlightenment — the fight of the reason against ignorance and barbarity. It is the fiercest and the finest of Pope's satires.

One of the best known and most quoted of his works is The Essay on Man. The purpose of the essay is to justify the existing state of things.

In his Moral Essays and Essays on Criticism Pope expressed simi­lar views. Yet he was not blind to the vices of bourgeois society, which

he often criticized.

Pope expressed his ideas in wonderfully quotable verse. After Shakespeare he is the most quoted of English poets.

These and many other quotations from Pope have found their way into common speech:

  • "A little learning is a dangerous thing."

  • "And fools rush in, where angels fear to tread."

  • "The proper study of mankind is man."

  • "To err is human, to forgive divine."

In his lifetime Pope was immensely popular. Many foreign writers as well as the majority of English poets, looked to him as their model. But later at the end of the 18th century young ro­mantic poets, especially Wordsworth1 and Coleridge2 criticized Pope's poetry for its rationalism and lack of imagination.


aesthetic [i:s'0etik] о эстетический fashion ['fsejbn] п придавать вид

angel ['emcfeal] n ангел *. instant ['instant] а немедленный

artificial [^oiti'fifol] а искусственный justify [' tfeAstrfai] v оправдывать

barbarity [bcu'bsenti] n жестокость lack [laek] n отсутствие

divine [di'vam] а божественный lock [Ink] n локон

dunce [cUns] n тупица mock-heroic ['токгн'гтдк] а героикоми-

err [з:] v ошибаться ческий

expel [iks'pel] v исключать occasion [э'кегзэп] л случай

2Wordsworth [ 'W3:dzw3:9], William (1770— 1850) —Уильям Вордсворт, англ. поэт-романтик «озерной школы».

3 Coleridge [ 'кэгЛпаз], Samuel Taylor (1772-1834) — Сэмюэл Тэйлор Кол-ридж, англ. поэт-романтик «озерной школы».


quotation [kwsu'taijan] л цитата quote [kwsut] v цитировать similar ['simita] о похожий

occur [э'кз:] v происходить proper ['ргорэ] о надлежащий, должный quotable ['kwoutabl] о пригодный для цитирования

Questions and Tasks

! 1. Where was Alexander Pope born?

  1. Why was he expelled from the public schools and universities?

  2. How did he pick up most of his knowledge?

  3. What work did his poetic career begin with?

  4. Characterize Pope's main works.

  5. What quotations from Pope do you know?

Daniel Defoe (1661-1731)

Daniel Defoe [ 'daenjd da'fau] is re­garded as the founder of realistic novel in English and European literature.

Daniel Defoe's life was complicated and adventurous. He was the son of a wealthy London butcher and received a good education. His father, being a puritan, wanted his son to become a priest. He preferred, however, the life of a merchant. He travelled in Spain, Germany, France and Italy on busi­ness. He spoke half a dozen languages

! and was a man of wide learning. From

Daniel Defoe

. 1694 Defoe took an active part in pub­lic affairs. His energy enabled him to combine the life of a man of action with that of a writer. He was the earliest literary journalist in England. He wrote political pamphlets

[on any subject and every event. He was a man of an active and original mind, an independent and courageous thinker who dealt

i with social questions.


persecute ['p3:sikju:t] v преследовать pillory ['pibn] n позорный столб protestant ['protistsnt] n протестант puritan ['pjuantmi] n пуританин regard [n'ga:d] v рассматривать savings-bank ['servirjz'baenk) n сбере

гательный банк sentence ['sentsnsj n приговор series ['sisri'.z] n ряд sphere ['sfis] n сфера support [ss'pol] n поддержка thinker 1'6ц)кэ] п мыслитель

In his interesting Essay on Projects (1698) Daniel Defoe sug­gested all kinds of reforms in different spheres of social life: to establish savings-banks, to construct railways, to give higher ed­ucation to women, to protect seamen etc.

In 1702 Defoe published a satirical pamphlet written in support of the protestants, or dissenters persecuted by the government and the Church. In the pamphlet The Shortest Way Mrith the Dissenters he defended the freedom of religious belief. He was punished for this and had to stand for three days in the pillory. The pillory sen­tence turned to his triumph. People brought him flowers and sang his Hymn to the Pillory (1703) in which he criticized the law.

After producing political pamphlets Defoe turned to writing novels. He came to it when he was nearly sixty. His first book of fiction was Robinson Crusoe [ 'robmsn 'km:sau] (1719). Its success encouraged Defoe. There followed a series of other novels: Captain Singleton [ 'kaeptin'sinltan] (1720), Moll Flanders ['nrol 'flcundaz] (1722),Coione7Jacqrue['k3:nl 'd3eik] (1722) andRoxana [rok'saem) (1724). Daniel Defoe died in London in 1731 in poverty.

He left behind him more than three hundred published works, and the reputation of being the "First English Journalist".

Also, with his imaginative account of the adventures of Robin­son Crusoe, he has become regarded as the forerunner of the great English novelists.


account [a'kaunt] n рассказ butcher ['butjb] n торговец мясом combine [ksm'bam] v сочетать courageous [ks'reidjas] n смелый dissenter [di'senta] n сектант enable [1'neibl] v давать возможность essay ['esei] n очерк forerunner [fb.'r/Ana] n предшественник imaginative [f maecfemgtrv] а яркий independent [,mdi'pendant] а незави­симый pamphlet ['paemflit] n памфлет

Robinson Crusoe

Robinson Crusoe is the story of an Englishman who travels abroad. He is trying to increase his wealth by trade. He is born in a well-to-do family and receives a good education. His father wants him to be­come a lawyer, but Robinson "would be satisfied with nothing but going to sea". He runs away from home, and his adventures begin: he is shipwrecked several times, escapes out of slavery, works with great success on his plantation in Brazil until on his way to Guinea [' gmi] for Negro slaves he is shipwrecked and finds himself on a desert island.

Robinson settles there and carries money and a lot of various goods from the wreck to the island. He learns to tame wild goats, grow corn and make bread. One day he saves a man from cannibals and calls him Friday. Friday turns out to be a clever man. He learns English and becomes a devoted servant and companion to his master. After many years Robinson and Friday help the captain of an English ship to defeat the crew who wants to leave their captain on the desert island. The ship takes Robinson to England.

The novel was suggested to Defoe by the story of Alexander Sel­kirk [' selk3:k], a Scotch sailor. He had left England for a voyage to the Southern Seas in 1704. The ship was not seaworthy, and Selkirk who had quarrelled with his captain insisted on going ashore. He was put ashore on a desert island where he lived quite alone for 5 years.

In 1709 he was picked up by a passing vessel.

Defoe's hero, Robinson Crusoe, spends 28 years on a desert island, and the most famous part of the book concerns this time in his life. Robinson is both an individual outside society and a typical businessman. He makes use of the equipment which he takes from the ship: tools, pistols, money and other things. His behaviour is practical. He builds a house and fortifies it, he cul­tivates the ground, he tames animals. His religion is also busi­ness like: God helps those who help themselves.

Alone and defenceless Crusoe tried to be reasonable in order to master his despondency (loss of hope and courage).

He knew that he must not give way to self-pity or fear, or to lose himself in mourning for his lost companions.

Robinson Crusoe's most characteristic trait is his optimism. His guiding principle in life became "never say die". Sometimes of



course, especially during earthquakes or when he was ill, panic and anxiety overtook him, but never for long. He had confidence in himself and in man and believed it was within the power of man to overcome all difficulties and hardships.

Another of Crusoe's good qualities which saved him from de­spair was his ability to put his whole heart1 into everything he did. He was an enthusiastic worker and always hoped for the best.

The other central character of the book is Friday. Defoe makes the reader sympathize with Friday. Friday is intelligent, brave, generous, and skilful. He performs all tasks well.

It is to Defoe's credit that he portrays the Negro as an able, pleas­ant human being at a time when coloured people were treated very


The second part of the book shows Robinson Crusoe as an old man who is still fond of the sea. He sets on a new series of adven­tures. He visits his island, China, Siberia and other places and returns home at the age of 72.

The novel glorifies energy and practicalness. It is a praise to human labour and the triumph of man over nature. The book is still considered one of the masterpieces of English prose. It is read by both children and grown-ups throughout the world.


shipwreck ['Jiprek] v потерпеть корабле­крушение solitaire [^scli'tea] n отшельник state [steit] n состояние; v определять sympathize fsimpaBaiz] v одобрительно

относиться tame [teim] v приручать trait [trei] n черта, особенность violence ['vaisbns] n ярость within [wi'6m] n в пределах wreck [rek] n обломки корабля

master ['maists] v справляться

mourn [тэ:п] v оплакивать

praise [preiz] n хвала

quality ['kwohti] n качество

reasonable ['itzsnsbl] а благоразумный

reduce [n'dju:s] v доводить

seaworthy fsi:w3:di] а годный для пла­вания

self-pity fself'piti] n жалость к самому себе

separate ['separeit] v отделять

Questions and Tasks

  1. Relate briefly the story of Defoe's life.

  2. Speak on Defoe's pamphlets. What themes did he touch upon in his articles and pamphlets?

  3. What novels did Defoe write?

  4. Discuss Robinson Crusoe according to the following plan:

  1. the origin of the plot;

  2. Crusoe — the main character of the book;

  3. the educational value of the novel.

5. What characterizes Defoe as an Enlightener?

■' 7. Say something about Friday, the other central character of the book.

  1. What do you know about the second part of the book?

  2. What does the novel glorify?

able ['eibl] a способный afford [3'fo:d] v предоставлять anxiety [aerjg'zaiati] n тревога, беспо­койство banish ['bsenifj v изгонять cannibal ['ksembsl] n людоед cast [ka:st] v выбрасывать confidence ['krjnfidsns] n доверие credit J'kredit] n заслуга creditor ['kredits] n кредитор crew [kra:] n команда cultivate ['kvltiveit] v обрабатывать debtor ['deta] n должник

deliver [ds'liva] v избавить desolate ['desaht] а необитаемый despair [dis'pea] n отчаяние despondency [dis'ptmdsnsi] л упадок

духа earthquake ['a:0kweik] n землетрясение enable [i'neibl] а возможность equipment [f kwipmsnt] n принадлеж­ности fortify ['fo:tifai] v укреплять glorify ['glonfai] v прославлять guiding ['gaidin] о руководящий Guinea ['gmi] n Гвинея

Jonathan Swift (1667-1745)

The greatest of the prose satirists of the age of the Enlightenment was Jonathan Swift ['изгтэбэп 'swift]. His bitter satire.was aimed at the policy of the English bourgeoisie towards Ireland. That's why Irish people considered Swift their champion in the struggle for the welfare and freedom of their country.

Jonathan Swift was born in Dublin, but he came from an Eng­lish family. His father died before he was born. The boy saw little of his mother's care: she had to go back to her native town.

to put his whole heart — полностью отдаваться



He was supported by his uncle and from his very boyhood he learned how miserable it was to be depended on the charity of relatives. He was edu­cated at Kilkenny school and Dublin University, Trinity College, to become a clergyman. At school he was fond of history, literature and languages.

After graduating from the college he went to London and became pri­vate secretary to Sir William Tem­ple who was a retired statesman and writer. Jonathan Swift improved his education at Sir William's library and in 1692 he took his Master of Arts degree1 at Oxford. He got a place of vicar in Ireland and worked there for a year and a half. He wrote much and burned most of what he wrote. Soon he grew tired of the lonely life in Ireland and was glad to accept Sir William Temple's proposal for his return to him. Swift lived and worked there until Temple's death in 1699.

The satire The Battle of the Books (1697) marked the begin­ning of Swift's literary career. It depicts a war between books of modern and ancient authors. The book is an allegory and reflects the literary discussion of the time.

Swift's first success was A Tale of a Tub (1704), a biting satire on religion. In the introduction to A Tale of a Tub the author tells of a curious custom of seamen. When a ship is attacked by a whale the seamen throw an empty tub into the sea to distract the whale's at­tention. The meaning of the allegory was quite clear to the readers of that time. The tub was religion which the state (for a ship has always been the emblem of a state) threw to its people to distract them from any struggle.

The satire is written in the form of a story about three brothers symbolizing the three main religions in England: Peter (the Catholic

1 Master of Arts degree — степень магистра гуманитарных наук 94

Church), Martin (the Anglican Church) and Jack (puritanism). It carries such ruthless attacks on religions that even now it remains one of the books, forbidden by the Pope of Rome.

In 1713 Swift was made Dean of St Patric's Cathedral in Dub­lin. Living in Dublin Swift became actively involved in the strug­gle of the Irish people for their rights and interests against Eng­lish op_p_ression_ and poetry.

Swift's literary work was also closely connected with his po­litical activity. In the numerous political pamphlets Swift ridi­culed different spheres of life of bourgeois society: law, wars, politics etc.

In 1726 Swift's masterpiece Gulliver's Travels appeared. All Swift's inventive genius and savage satire were at their best in this work. This novel brought him fame and immorality. Swift died on the 19th of October, 1745, in Dublin.


oppression [э'рге/эп] л угнетение proposal [ргэ'рзигэ1] п предложение retired [n'taisd] о удалившийся от дел ridicule ['ndikju:l] v высмеивать ruthless ['ru:91is] а безжалостный savage ['saevicfe] а жестокий symbolize [ 'simbalaiz] v изображать

символически tub [Ub] n бочка

vicar ['vikaj n приходский священник welfare ['welfea] n благосостояние

charity ['tfaenti] n благотворительность;

милосердие dean [di:n] n настоятель собора distract [dis'traekt] v отвлекать forbid [fs'bid] v (forbade; forbidden)

запрещать forbidden [fa'bidn] p. p. от forbid introduction I intra d\kjbn] n предисловие inventive [m'ventrv] о изобретательный involve [m'vrjlv] v вовлекать miserable ['тггэгэЫ] а печальный

Gulliver's Travels

Swift's novel Gulliver's Travels [ 'gAlrvaz 'traevalz] made him one of the greatest English prose writers of the 18th century.

It has been translated into many languages. It is popular as a :hildren's book, but it was meant for adults.

In the book Swift attacks his contemporary world and the social md political system of England.


The book describes the adventures of Lemuel Gulliver, a ship's surgeon. It has four parts: Gulliver's voyages to 1) Lilliput ['Ыгрлг], 2) Brobdingnag [ 'brobdinnseg], 3) Laputa [b'pjuita], 4) the country of the Houyhnhnms ['huihnamz] and Yahoos [ja'huiz].


Originally the novel was to be the story of an imaginary world voyage by a certain Martin Scriblerus. Swift began to work on it in 1711 but it was not published till 1726, and in the interval the hero had changed his name to Lemuel Gulliver. He was not a ship's surgeon, but a farmer. People called him Big Doughty [' dauti] as he was of colossal size and had the strength of a Hercules f h3:kjuli:z]. Swift made his acquaintance in Ireland, in the country of Cavan, where the writer used to pass his summer holidays. Big Doughty loved to show off his skill. Once he rescued a fellow-farmer from the persecution of a tax-collector by hiding him under the skirts of his overcoat. On another occasion he lifted a poor widow's cow

out of pound where it had been imprisoned for straying and delivered it safely to its mistress. The highlight of this show of strength was to carry a horse from one field to another across the fence. This impressed Swift tremendously. That is how Gulliver originated.

On the first voyage Gulliver is shipwrecked and finds himself in Lilliput. To his surprise, people are only "six inches high" there but they have the same vices and faults as the English ^shallow interests, corrupted laws and evil customs. Their two struggling parties, the Big-Endians and Little-Endians, distinguish themselves only by the high and low heels on their shoes. They drive the country into war over the question of whether an egg should be broken on its big or its little end. The statesmen obtain posts by dancing on a tight rope. Whoever jumps the highest before the king gets the highest post. In this Swift satirizes the English court and aristocracy. Swift hated the English state system and looked for a better one. He believed in an ideal enlightened monarch. Gulliver meets such a king on his second voyage to Brobdingnag.

This is a country where giants live. Gulliver appears as ridiculous to these people of enormous size as the Lilliputians [.luTpjuijjanz] seemed to him. The country of the giants is governed by common sense, reason and justice which is not the case in England. But even a clever king cannot do much for his people.

When Gulliver's box is carried off by an eagle and dropped into the sea he is rescued by an English ship. It takes Gulliver a long time to get used to the littleness of the houses, trees and the people once back in England. As far as the people are concerned it is their moral littleness that surprises Gulliver.

In the third part the author takes Gulliver to Laputa and the Academy in Lagado. In this part Swift laughs at every kind of impractical science and philosophy. The Laputans [1э 'pjuitanz] had ill-built houses without one right angle.

They are odd, clumsy and unhandy people in their common actions and behaviour. Laputa is a flying island. It may be put in a position that it can take away the lands underneath "of the benefit of the sun and the rain and afflict the inhabitants with death and diseases". The flying island helps the king to exploit his people.


corrupt [ka'rApt] v искажать disgust [dis'gASt] v внушать отвращение enlighten [m'laitsn] v просвещать enormous [I'noimas] а огромный enviousi ['enviss] а завистливый fence ['fens] n забор

In the description of the Academy Swift satirizes all kinds of inventors for their attempts to improve everything. They want to extract sunbeams from cucumbers, to soften marble for pillows, to simplify the language by abolishing words, etc. The Academy of Lagado is Swift's parody on projectors whose "science" has nothing to do with real life.

It is in Book IV that Swift's satire is the bitterest. Gulliver finds him­self in a land ruled by Houyhnhnms, intelligent and virtuous horses who are ignorant of such vices as stealing, lying, love of money. The rest of the population is made up of Yahoos, ugly creatures that look like human beings in appearance and possess all the human vices. They are greedy, envious and malicious. Gulliver admires the simple modest way of life of the Houyhnhnms and is disgusted with the Ya­hoos who remind him so much of his countrymen that he hates.

Swift used his favourite weapon — laughter — to mock at bourgeois reality. He criticized it and his criticism was hidden away in a whole lot of allegorical pictures.

Thackeray, an outstanding English writer, described Jonathan Swift: "As fierce a beak and talon as ever stuck, as strong a wing as ever beat, belonged to Swift"1.

Swift's art had a great effect on the further development of English and European literature.

Swift's democratic ideas expressed in the book had a great influence on the English writers who came after Swift.


abolish [a'bnhj] v уничтожать

afflict [s'flikt] v сокрушать

angle ['aerjgl] n угол

beak [bi:k] л клюв

benefit ['benaftt] n польза, благо

clumsy ['cUmzi] а неуклюжий

' ("Свифт обладал самым сильным клювом и когтями, какие когда-либо на­носили удар, самыми сильными крыльями, которые когда-либо рассекали воздух," — так Теккерей образно охарактеризовал обличительную силу произведений Свифта).

shallow ['Jsebu] а мелкий

simplify ['simphfai] vупрощать

stray [strei] v заблудиться

sunbeam ['sAnbi:m] n солнечный луч

stick [stik] v (stuck) втыкать,вонзать

surgeon ['s3:cfc3n] n хирург

talon ['taetan] n коготь

tax-collector [ 'taekska lekta] n сбор­щик налогов

tight [tait] а туго-натянутый

tremendously [tn'mendasli] adv очень, чрезвычайно

unhandy [лгГпэегки] а неловкий

virtuous ['v3:tjras] а добродетельный

heel [hi:l] л каблук lying ['laiirj] n лживость malicious [ms'lifas] а злой obtain [ab'tem] v получать odd [cd] а странный originally [s'ndjnali] adv первоначально originate [s'rKfcmeit] v создавать parody ['paeradi] n пародия persecution [,p3:si'kju:Jan] n преследо­вание pillow ['pilau] n подушка pound [paund] n загон для скота projector [pra'djjekta] n проектировщик rescue ['reskju:] v спасать

Questions and Tasks

  1. Where was Jonathan Swift born?

  2. Where did he get his education?

  1. Speak about his first notable work The Battle of the Books.

  2. What biting satire was Swift's first success?

  3. Speak on the pamphlets written in defence of Ireland.

  4. When did Swift's masterpiece Gulliver's Travels appear?

  5. How many parts does the novel Gulliver's Travels consist of?

  6. What did Swift mock at in the part devoted to Lilliputs?

  7. Speak on Swift's world outlook as shown in the second part of the book.

  1. What did Swift ridicule in Gulliver's third travel?

  2. Comment on Swift's attitude to science. What kind of science does he criticize?

  3. Speak on the meaning on the last part of the book.

  4. What did Thackeray say about Jonathan Swift?

  5. What is the origin of the novel Gulliver's Travels?

Robert Burns (1759-1796)

The greatest poet of the 17th century was Robert Burns [' robat 'b3:nz]. His popularity in Scotland is very great. The Scottish bard was born in a clay cottage in the village of Alloway [ ' aelawei]. His father was a poor farmer, but a man who valued knowledge. It was from his father that Robert received his learning and his love for books. His mother had a beautiful voice and taught Robert



old Scottish songs and ballads which he later turned into his best poems.

Robert Burns

Robert Burns had no regular schooling. But when Robert was seven, his father en­gaged a teacher to educate him and his broth­er Gilbert. John Murdoch [' ni3:dt>k], an eigh­teen year-old scholar, was a very enthusias­tic teacher. He taught Robert, who was his favourite, many subjects, French and litera­ture among them. However, Robert could not afford much time for his studies. His fa­ther wanted to try his hand at farming and Robert had to help him on the farm. At the age of thirteen he had to take over from his father most of the work on the farm as his father was growing old.

Those were hard times for Robert, and he had to leave school. Nearly all life Robert Burns worked on his small piece of land. At fifteen he did most of the work on the farm, his father's health being very poor. And as Bums followed the plough he whistled and sang. He made up his own words to the old folk tunes of Scotland that he knew so well. In his songs he spoke of what he saw—of the woods and fields and valleys, of the deer and the skylark and the small field-mouse, of the farmer's poor cottage.

Burns wrote his first verses when he was fifteen. Very soon his poems became popular among his friends and acquaintances. In 1785 he met a girl, who became the great love of all his life and inspirer of his numerous lyrical verses. Jean had a wonderful voice and knew a lot of old melodies to which Burns composed his songs.

In 1786 Bums published his first book under the title of Poems, Chiefly in the Scottish Dialect. The book was a great success. He was invited to Edinburgh. He conquered the Edinburgh society by his wit and manners as much as by poetry. In Edinburgh he was often advised to write in standard English on noble themes, but he refused. He wanted to write poetry about the people and for the people. While in Edinburgh Burns got acquainted with some en­thusiasts of Scottish songs and ballads and became engaged in collecting the treasures of the Scottish folklore. He travelled about

Burn's Cottage in Ayrshire

Scotland collecting popular songs. After his father's death he did not give up farming and worked hard to earn his living. In 1791 Burns got the post of excise officer and moved to Dumfries [dAm 'fits]. The last years of his life were very hard. The hard daily work on the farm, the constant starvation and privations finally undermined Burns's health. On July 21, 1796, at the age of 37, Bums died. His body rests in a Mau­soleum in Dumfries. The house in

Alloway, where he was born, has now been restored. Every year thousands of people from all over the world come there to pay hom­age to the great poet.


mausoleum [^moiss'lrsm] n мавзолей plough [plan] n плуг privation [prai'veijan] n лишение restore [ns'to:] v реставрировать skylark ['skaila:k] n жаворонок undermine ['лгкЬтат] v подорвать whistle ['wisl] v насвистывать

afford [a'fo:d] v позволить себе clay [klei] n глина engage [in'geidy v нанимать enthusiastic [m,9ju:zf sestik] а полный

энтузиазма excise [ek'sais] л акцизный сбор

excise officer акцизный чиновник homage f ггшгкй п почтение, уважение

to pay homage воздавать должное

Questions and Tasks

  1. Where was Robert Bums bom?

  2. What can you say about his mother and father?

  3. Where was he educated?

  4. Why couldn't he afford much time for his studies?

  5. Why did he have to leave school?

  6. How did Bums make up his songs?

  7. When did he write the first verses?
  8. Who was his inspirer of the numerous lyrical verses?



9. What was the title of his first book?

  1. Where was Burns invited?

  2. How was he met by the Edinburgh society?

  3. When did Burns get the post of excise officer in Dumfries?

  4. When did he die?

  5. Where does his body rest?

  6. Relate the main facts of Burn's life.

Burns's Literary Work

Robert Burns's poetry was inspired by his deep love for his moth­erland, for its history and folklore. His beautiful poem My Heart's in the Highlands, full of vivid colourful descriptions, is a hymn to the beauty of Scotland's nature and to its glorious past. He admires the green valleys, "mountains high cover'd with snow, and wild hanging woods". He calls his country: "The birthplace of valour, the country of worth."

My Heart's in the Highlands

My heart's in the Highlands, my heart is not here, My heart's in the Highlands a-chasing the deer, A-chasing the wild deer and following the roe — My heart's in the Highlands, wherever I go!

Farewell to the Highlands, farewell to the North, The birthplace of valour, the country of worth! Wherever I wander, wherever I rove, The hills of the Highlands for ever I love.

My heart's in the Highlands, etc.

Farewell to the mountains high cover'd with snow, Farewell to the straths and green valleys below, Farewell to the forests and wild-hanging woods, Farewell to the torrents and loud — pouring floods!

My heart's in the Highlands, etc.


Adieu for a while, I can never forget thee,1 The land of my fathers, the soil of the free, I sigh for the hour that shall bid me retrace The path of my childhood, my own native place.

My heart's in the Highlands, etc.

In Burns's poems nature forms a part of people's life, though he does not personify it.

Burns is inspired by deep love for Scotland, its history and folklore. Address to Edinburgh is a hymn to the common Scottish people:

The sons, Edina2, social, kind, With open arms the strangers hail; Their views enlarg'd their lib'ral3 mind. Above the narrow rural vale; Attentive still to sorrow's wail, Or modest merit's silent claim: And never may their sources fail! And never envy blot their name!"

Burns's poetry is closely connected with the national struggle of the Scottish people for their liberation from English oppression, the struggle that had been going on in Scotland for many centuries. His favourite national hero is William Wallace [' wdIis] (1270 — 1305), the leader of the uprising against the English oppressors. The Scottish people led by Wallace and Robert Bruce (1274- 1329), King of Scot­land, overthrew the English army in the battle at Bannockburn in 1314 and secured Scottish independence.

Bruce at Bannockburn is one of the best poem by Burns. It is the poet's call to his people to keep up the freedom-loving spirit of their fathers.

Scots, who have with Wallace bled, Scots, whom Bruce has often led,

1 thee — you

2 Edina — Endinburgh

3 enlarg'd... lib'ral — enlarged... liberal


Welcome to your gory bed, Or to victory!

By oppression's woes and pains! By your sons in servile chains! We will drain our dearest veins, But they shall be free!

Lay the proud usurpers low! Tyrants fall in every foe! Liberty's in every blow! — Let us do, or die!

Robert Bums is a true son of the Scottish peasantry. His poems express their thoughts and hopes, their human dignity, and their love of freedom and hatred for all oppressors. In his poem A Man's A Man ForA'That Burns says that it is not wealth and titles, but the excellent qualities of man's heart that make "a man for a' that".

The poet praises the healthy, happy, wise Scottish peasant, who in his shabby clothes is worth a score of lords, however fine.

A Man's A Man ForA'That

Is there for honest Poverty That hangs his head, and all that: The Coward slave, we pass him by, We dare be poor for all that! For all that, and all that, Our toil's obscure and all that; The rank is but the guinea-stamp. The Man's the gold for all that.

Then let us pray that come it may — (As come it will for all that) — That Sense and Worth over all the Earth, Shall bear the gree1, and all that.

gree — have the first place

For all that, and all that. It's coming yet for all that, That man to man, the world over, Shall brothers be for all that!

Titles and riches are not enough to make people happy.

Many verses of the poet were inspired by the French Revolution which he supported with all his heart.

• In his poem The Tree of Liberty Burns praised the French revolutionaries who planted "The Tree of Liberty" in their country. In this poem Bums expresses his belief that the time will come when all people will be equal and happy.

Like brothers in a common cause We'd on each other smile, man; And equal rights and equal laws World gladden every isle, man.

In spite of his poverty, hunger and never-ceasing toil, Burns was an optimist. He enjoyed life as few of his contemporaries did. The poem John Barleycorn expresses Burns's optimism. It tells of the way people prepare whiskey. The poem is symbolic in its meaning. John Barleycorn personifies the strength of the common people which is immortal and cannot be done away with. Three kings wanted to kill John Barleycorn.

John Barleycorn

The were three kings into the east,

Three kings both great and high, And they had sworn a solemn oath

John Barleycorn should die.

They took a plough and ploughed him down,

Put clods upon his head, And they had sworn a solemn oath

John Barleycorn was dead.

But the cheerful spring came kindly on, And showers began to fall;



John Barleycorn, got up again, And sore surpris'd them all.

However, all their efforts were in vain. John Barleycorn was not dead, as his joyful spirit was alive in those who had a chance "to taste his blood".

John Barleycorn was a hero bold,

Of noble enterprise, For if you do but taste his blood,

It will make your courage rise.

It will make a man forget his woe;

It will heighten all his joy: It will make the widow's heart to sing,

Though the tear were in her eye.

Then let us toast John Barleycorn,

Each man a glass in hand; And may his great posterity1

Ne'er2 fail in old Scotland.

Burns was a remarkable lyric poet. His lyrical poems are known for their beauty, truthfulness, freshness, depth of feelings and their lovely melody. Among his best lyrics is Oil, My Love is Like a Red, Red Rose.

О my Love's like a red, red rose That's newly sprung in June; О my Love's like the melody That's sweetly played in tune.

As fair art thou, my bonnie lass3, So deep in love am I; And I will love thee still, my dear, Till all the seas go dry.

Till all the seas go dry my dear, And the rocks melt with the sun; ОI will love thee still, my dear, While the sands of life shall run.

And fare thee well, my only Love! And fare thee well a while! And I will come again, my Love, Though it were ten thousand mile!

Many of Burns's lyrical poems have been put to music and are sung by all English-speaking people. One of them is Auld Lang Syne f o:kf ten' sain], a beautiful song of brotherhood and friendship.

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Английская и американская литература: Курс лекций для школьников старших классов и студентов / Тексты, примеч. Н. Л. Утевской. — СПб.: Учитель и ученик КОРОНА принт, 2002. — 384 с.

ISBN 5-7931-0176-4

Книга представляет собой лекции по программе, утвержденной для школ с углубленным изучением английского языка. Лекции включают краткий и емкий обзор различных литературных направлений, стилей, школ, а также жизнеописание и анализ творчества писателей и поэтов за последние де­сять веков. Пособие окажет неоценимую помощь учащимся и преподавате­лям школ и вузов, а также всем изучающим английский язык.


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