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Auld Lang Syne1

Should auld2 acquaintance be forgot,

And never brought to mind ?

Should auld acquaintance be forgot,

And days of lang syne!

Chorus


For auld lang syne, my dear,

For auld lang syne,

We'll take a cup of kindness yet

For auld lang syne!

We two have wandered in the brook From morning sun till dine3, But seas between us broad have roared Since auld lang syne.

And there's a hand, my trusty friend, And give us a hand of thine4; And we'll take a right hearty drink. For auld lang syne.




1 posterity — future generation

2 Ne'er — Never

3 bonnie lass — pretty girl

1 Auld Lang Syne — the days of long ago

2 auld — old

3 dine — dinner

4 thine — yours


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Burns's wit, humour, contempt for falsehood and hypocrisy are best revealed in his epigrams — short four line satirical verses in which he attacks lords, churchmen, persons of rank. The biting satire of his epigrams was greatly admired by the common people. Here are the three epigrams in which Robert Burns shows the ignorance of the nobility, the falsehood of the priests and his hatred of the rich.

Epigrams

.

The Book-Warms

Once Burns was invited by a nobleman to see his magnificent library. Observing a splendidly bound, but uncut and worm-eaten copy of Shakespeare on the table, the poet left the following lines in the volume:

Through and through the inspired leaves, Ye1 maggots, make your windings; But, oh! respect his lordship's taste, And spare the golden bindings.


The Parson's Looks

Someone remarked that he had seen falsehood in the very look of a certain priest. The poet replied:

That there is falsehood in his looks I must and will deny; They say their master is a knave — And sure they do not lie.

Pinned to a Lady's Coach

The following lines were addressed to the coach of a very rich lady.



1 ye — you

If you rattle along like your mistress's tongue, Your speed will outrival the dart; But a fly for your load, you'll break down on the road, If your stuff be as rotten's her heart.

The name of Burns is very dear to all English-speaking nations because the source of his poetry was the folklore and the songs of his people whose true son he was.

In our country Robert Burns is widely known, loved and sung. One of the best translators of Burns's poetry was Samuel Marshak who successfully preserved the music of the original Scottish dia­lect.

Burns's songs are the soul of music and it is not surprising that Beethoven fbeithauvn], Schumann, Mendelsohn, and others com­posed music to the poet's verses. Russian composers have also set many of Burns's verses to music. Among the best is the cycle of songs by Georgi Sviridov. Tunes to Burns's songs have been successfully written also by Dmitri Shostakovich, Nikolai Myaskovsky and others.

Burns's verses are a constant everliving source of inspiration for composers in all countries.

Now Robert Burns is considered the national poet of Scotland, and January 25 — the date of his birth — is always celebrated by Scotchmen.

Vocabulary


drain [drem] v осушать falsehood ['foMrud] n ложь farewell ['feswel] int
прощай! foe [fau] n враг

gory ['go:n] а покрытый кровью hail [heil] v приветствовать ignorance ['ignarens] n невежество immortal [i'mo:tl] а бессмертный inspire [m'spaia] v внушать knave [nerv] n мошенник maggot ['maegat] n личинка outrival [aut'rarval] v превзойти


adieu [a'dju:] int
прощай!

bid [bid] v (bade; bidden) приказывать

bind [bamd] v (bound) переплетать

blot [bint] v бесчестить

bound [baund] past и р. р. от bind

brook [bruk] n ручей

cease [sis] v прекращать

claim [kleim] n требование

clod [kind] n глыба (земли)

contempt [кэп/tempt] n презрение

dart [da:t] n дротик

dignity ['digniti] л достоинство




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Questions and Tasks

  1. What are the main themes of Burns's poetry?

  2. What poem is a hymn to the beauty of Scotland's nature?

3. What poem is closely connected with the national struggle of the Scottish
people for their liberation from English oppression?

  1. What is the main idea of the poem Is There for Honest Poverty?

  2. In what poem does Burns develop the revolutionary theme?

  3. What is the idea of the poem John Barleycorn?

  4. What are Burns's lyric poems?

  5. Point out the similes used in the poem A Red, Red Rose.

  6. Comment of Burns's epigrams.




  1. Who was one of the best translators of Burns's poetry in Russia?

  2. What composers set many of Burns's verses to music?

path [pa:0] п тропинка

personify [p3:'smiifai] v олицетворять

pin [pm] v прикрепить

posterity [pDSt'enti] n последующие по­коления

preserve [pn'z3:v] v сохранять

rattle ['rati] у трещать; грохотать

retrace [n'treis] v возвращаться

roe [гэи] n косуля

rotten [ 'rotn] а нравственно испор­ченный

rove [reuv] v скитаться

score [sko:] n два десятка

secure [si'kjua] v обеспечивать

servile ['s3:vail] а рабский

shabby ['Jaebi] а поношенный

sigh [sai] v тосковать soil [soil] n земля

solemn t'sobm] а торжественный source [sd:s] n источник strath [straeG] n широкая горная доли­на с протекающей по ней рекой swear [swes] v (swore; sworn) клясться toast [taust] v провозглашать тост toil [toil] n тяжелый труд torrent ['trjrent] n стремительный поток usurper [ju:'z3:p3] n захватчик vale [veil] n долина valour ['vaela] n доблесть wail [well] n вопль woe [wsu] n rope, скорбь worm [W3:m] n червь

English Literature in the Second Half of the 18th Century


| PRE-ROMANTICISM

Another trend in the English literature of the second half of the 18th century was the so-called pre-romanticism. It originat­ed among the conservative groups of men of letters' as a reaction against Enlightenment.

The mysterious element plays a great role in the works of pre-romanticists. One of pre-romanticists was William Blake (1757 — 1827), who in spite of his mysticism, wrote poems full of human feelings and sympathy for the oppressed people. Blake's effec­tiveness comes from the poetic "contrasts" and simple rhythms.


Vocabulary

conservative [kan's3:v3tiv] a консер­вативный

effectiveness [i 'fektrvnis] n эффектив­ность

metre ['mi:ta] n стих, размер mysticism ['mistisizm] л мистицизм originate [s'ncfemeit] v возникать rhythm ['пбэт] п ритм речи




1 men of letters — писатели

Ш


William Blake (1757-1827)



William Blake was born in London into the family of trades people. The family was neither rich nor poor. Blake did not receive any formal education but he demonstrated good knowledge of English literature, particularly Mil­ton'. At the age of 14 he became an apprentice engraver, and is as well known for his engravings as for his po­etry.

William Blake

Blake has always been seen as a strange character, largely because of his childhood experience of seeing vi­sions.

He was a very religious man, but he rejected the established church, declaring that personal ex­perience, the inner-light, should direct and guide man.

William Blake had a veYy individual view of the world. His religious philosophy is seen through his works Songs of Inno­cence (1789), The Marriage of Heaven and Hell (1790) and Songs of Experience (1794). His poems are simple but symbolic. For example, in his poems The Tiger and The Lamb, the tiger is the symbol of mystery, the lamb — the symbol of innocence.


The Tyger is a mystical poem that, rather than describes a ti­ger, an animal that Blake had never seen, is a perception of the Universal Energy, a power beyond good and evil. In the poem the nature of universal energy becomes clear through a series of questions, which the reader is forced to answer. This makes the reader enter into the poem, becoming part of the poetic experience.

During the poem, the reader passes from a state of ignorance to a state of understanding. In this way the poem becomes an "expe­rience" for the reader as well as a picture of an experience felt by the poet.

From Songs of Experience The Tyger

Tyger! Tyger! burning bright In the forests of the night, What immortal hand or eye Could frame thy1 fearful symmetry?

In what distant deeps or skies Burnt the fire of thine2 eyes ? On what wings dare he aspire? What the hand dare seize the fire?

And what shoulder, and what art, Could twist the sinews of the heart? And when the heart began to beat, What dread hand? And what dread feet?

What the hammer? What the chain? In what furnace was they brain? What the anvil? What dread grasp Dave its deadly terrors clasp?

When the stars threw down their spears, And water'd heaven with their tears, Did he smile his work to see? Did he made the Lamb make thee?




1 Milton John (1608 — 1674) — Джон Мильтон, англ. поэт и публицист. 112

1 thy [6ai] — your

2 thine [6am] — your

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Tyger! Tyger! Burning bright In the forests of the night, What immortal1 hand or eye Dare frame2 thy fearful symmetry3 ?

Blake's later poems are very complex symbolic texts but his voice in the early 1790s is the conscience of the Romantic age. He shows a contrast between a world of nature and childhood inno­cence and a world of social control. Blake saw the dangers of an industrial society in which individuals were lost, and in his famous poem London he calls the systems of society "mind forged mana­cles" . For Blake, London is a city in which the mind of everyone is in chains and all individuals are imprisoned.

Even the River Thames has been given a royal charter (char­ter'd = given rights) so that it can be used for commerce and trade.

From Songs of Experience London

I wander thro'4 each charter'd street. Near where the charter'd Thames does flow, And mark5 ifl every face I meet Marks of weakness, marks of woe6.

In every cry of every Man, In every Infant's7 cry of fear, In every voice, every ban8 The mind forg'd manacles91 hear.


1 immortal — godlike

2 frame — arrange; invent

3 symmetry — frightening balance or perfection

4 thro'[9ru:] — through

5 mark — notice

6 woe [wau] — sadness

7 Infant's — very small child's

8 ban — law to stop something

9 the mind forg'd manacles—chains around the hands, which are made in the brain

William Blake thought that childhood was the perfect peri­od of sensibility and experience, and he fought against injustic­es against children. In his poem The Chimney Sweeper he shows how the modern world, the world of chimney sweepers, corrupts and "dirties" children. Using the symbolic technique of a "dream", Blake presents a heavenly view of children who are clean, naked, innocent, and happy, and contrasts it with the reality of the sweep's life, which is dirty, cold, corrupted and unhappy.

The poem refers to the terrible social conditions of the sweep. These children were sold by their parents when they were very young. They got up early in the morning and worked all day in awful conditions, suffering from the cold. In Tom's dream, happi­ness and delight become reality. The poem is simple and senti­mental. Blake avoids in it the more complex aspects of his mystical symbols.

William Blake's poetry was not immediately recognized during his lifetime, because of its mysticism. His etchings were more im­mediately popular and, like his poetry, reflect his great power of imagination.

Vocabulary

innocence ['mgsns] n невинность

manacle ['maenakl] n pi наручники

naked ['neikid] а голый

perception [ps'sepjbn] n способность восприятия

sensibility Lsensi'biliti] л чувствитель­ность

sinew ['smju:] n жила

symbolic [sim'bohk] а символический

technique [,tek'ni:k] n техника

vision [,vi3sn] n видение


anvil ['senuil] n наковальня aspect ['aespekt] n сторона aspire [as'paia] v подниматься charter ['tfats] n право conscience ['krmfsns] n совесть corrupt [kg'rApt] о испорченный; /пор­тить, развращать dread [dred] а ужасный engraver [m'grerva] n гравер engraving [m'greivm] n гравюра etching ['etfrrj] n офорт forge ['fo:d3l v ковать


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Questions and Tasks

1. How was the trend in the English literature of the second half of the 18th

century called?


  1. What is the reason of its origination^

  2. Characterize the works of the pre-romanticists.

  3. Tell the main facts of William Blake s lite. 5' Give a brief account of his literary career.

English Literature in the Beginning of the 19th Century

ROMANTICISM

The period of Romanticism covers approximately 30 years, beginning from the last decade of the 18th century and continuing up to the 1830s. Romanticism as a literary current can be regarded as a result of two great historical events: 1) the Industrial Revolution in England and 2} the French Bourgeois Revolution of 1789. The Industrial Revolution began with the invention of a weavring-machine which could do the work of 17 people. The weavers that were left without work thought that the machines were to blame for their misery. They began to destroy these machines, or frames as they were called. The frame-breaking movement was called the Luddite movement, because the name of the first man to break a frame was Ned Ludd.

The reactionary ruling class of England was against any progres­sive thought influenced by the French Revolution. The last decade of the 18th century became known as the "white terror". Progres­sive-minded people were persecuted and forced into exile.

The Industrial Revolution in England, as well as the French Bourgeois Revolution, had a great influence on the cultural life of the

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country. Romanticists were dissatisfied with the present state of things in their country. Some of the writers were revolutionary: they denied the existing order, called upon the people to struggle for a better future, shared the people's desire for liberty and objected to colonial oppression. They supported the national liberation wars on the continent against feudal reaction. Such writers were George Gordon Byron [ 'd3o:d3 'go:dn 'Ьаюгэп] and Percy Bysshe Shelley ['p3:si 'bif 'Jell] •

Others, though they had welcomed the French Revolution and the slogan of liberty, fraternity and eguality, later abandoned revolutionary ideas. They turned their attention to nature and to the simple problems of life. They turned to the ideas of the feudal past by way of protest of capitalist reality. Among these writers were the poets William Wordsworth [ 'w3:dzw90], Samuel Taylor Coleridge fsaemjual 'tens 'ksulncfc], Robert Southey1 fsaixk], who formed the "Lake School", called so because they all lived for a time in the beautiful Lake District in the north-west of England. They dedicated much what they wrote to Nature. Legends, tales, songs and ballads became part of the creative method of the romanticists. The romanticists were talented poets and their contribution to English literature was very important.

Vocabulary

abandon [э'Ьзегк!эп] v оставлять dissatisfied [ 'dis 'saetisfaid] а неудо-


approximately [s'proksimitli] aaV при- влетворенный

близительно fraternity [fre't3:niti] n братство

blame [bleim] n причина object [3b'd3ekt] v возражать, проте-

decade [di'keid] n десятилетие стовать

dedicate ['dedikeit] v посвящать persecute ['p3:sikju:t] v преследовать

deny [di'nai] v отвергать terror [Чегэ] п ужас

Questions and Tasks


  1. When did romanticism come into being?

  2. What historical events did this new literary current coincide with?

1 Robert Southey [ sauoi] (1774—1843) —Роберт Cayra, англ. поэт «озернойшколы».


  1. Why did romanticism come into being?

  2. What were romanticists dissatisfied with?

  3. Comment on the differences between the revolutionary romanticism of England and the poets of the "take School".

  4. What are the representatives of revolutionary romanticism?

  5. What writers belonged to the "Lake School"?

  6. What themes did the poets of the "Lake School" choose for their verses?

William Wordsworth (1770-1850)

William Wordsworth

William Wordsworth f W3:dzwa0] was the greatest representative of the Lake School Poets. He was born in a lawyer's family and grew up in the Lake District, a place of moun­tains and lakes. Soon after mother's death in 1788 he was sent to Hawkshead fruxkfsd] Grammar School, situated in a lovely village near Lake Windermere [ 'windamia]. The boy was allowed plenty of leisure: to go boat­ing and fishing on the lake and studying wild life in the woods. There William came to know and love the world of nature. His fa­ther died leaving him an orphan at the age of thirteen. His two uncles sent him to Cam­bridge University. During his college days William took a walking tour in France, Switzerland and Italy. After graduating he toured Wales and France and became deeply in­volved in the cause of the French Revolution in which he saw a great movement for human freedom. Later he was greatly disappointed at the outcome of the Revolution. He thought that it had brought only cruelty and bloodshed. William withdrew into the quiet of the country.

In about 1795 William Wordsworth met the poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge, who became one of his closest friends. In 1797 he two poets published their best work Lyrical Ballads.

William Wordsworth wrote sonnets and ballads. The most haracteristic themes of Wordsworth's poetry were the defence of



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Vocabulary




George Gordon Byron
the common country people, their feelings and beliefs, the beauty of nature. Every object in nature was in his eyes a source of poetry. His fame grew worldwide.

When he died he was buried in the little church at Grasmere ['grasmia] in the Lake District.

The Daffodils

I wandered lonely as a cloud

That floats on high o'er1 vales and hills,

When all at once I saw a crowd,

Ahost of golden daffodils,

Beside the lake, beneath the trees,

Fluttering and dancing in the breeze.

Continuous as the stars that shine And twinkle on the Milky Way They stretched in never-ending line Along the margin of the bay; Ten thousand saw I at a glance, Tossing their heads in sprightly dance.

The waves beside them danced, but they

Outdid the sparkling waves in glee;

A poet could not but be gay

In such a jocund company.

I gazed — and gazed — but little thought

What wealth the show to me had brought.

For oft'2, when on my couch I lie In vacant or in pensive mood, They flash upon that inward eye Which is the bliss of solutude And then my heart with pleasure fills, And dances with the daffodils.

o'er — over 1 off — often



bliss [blis] n блаженство cause [ko:z] л дело couch [kautf] n кушетка daffodil ['dasfsdil] n нарцисс defence [di'fens] n защита flutter ['fkts] v трепетать glee [gli:] n веселье host [hgust] n множество involve [m'vrjlv] v вовлекать


jocund ['фэкэгкГ] а веселый margin ['та:фп] п край outcome ['autkAiri] n результат pensive ['pensiv] а грустный solitude fsolitju:d] n уединение sprightly ['spraith] а веселый toss [tDs] v вскидывать; качать vacant ['veikant] а бездумный

Questions and Tasks

| 1. Give a brief account of Wordsworth's life.


  1. Name his first notable work.

  2. What did Wordsworth write?

  3. What were the most characteristic themes of Wordsworth's poetry?

  4. What was every object in nature in his eyes?

  5. Express the idea of the poem The Daffodils in some sentences.

George Byron (1788-1824)

George Gordon Byron ['Ьаюгэп], the great romantic poet, has often been called a poet of "world sorrow". In almost all his poetry there is a current of gloom and pessimism. The reason for this gloom and sorrow may be found in the social and political events of his day which influenced him so deeply.

"To solve the mystery of the gloomy poetry of so immense, colossal a poet as Byron, we must first search for the secret oftheepochit expresses", Belinsky wrote.

During his childhood the First Bour­geois Revolution took place in France.




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At the same time the Industrial Revolution developed in England and the invention of new machines, which supplanted workers, brought misery to thousands of labourers. Wars, political oppres­sion of the masses, all these facts observed by the poet, gave rise to his discontent with the social and political life of his time and that's why his poetry was full of gloom and sonow. But Byron was not inclined to accept the then existing conditions passively. He raised his voice to condemn them, and to call men to active struggle against the social evils of his time. That's why he may be rightly called a revolutionary romanticist. Byron's heroes, like the poet himself, are strong individuals who are disillusioned in life and fight single-handed against the injustice and cruelty of society.

The poet was born on January 22, 1788 in an ancient aristocratic family in London. His father, an army captain, died when the boy was three years old. The boy spent his childhood in Aberdeen, Scot­land, together with his mother. His mother, Catherine Gordon, was a Scottish lady of honourable birth and respectable fortune. Byron was lame and felt distressed about it all his life, yet, thanks to his strong will and regular training, he became an excellent rider, a champion swimmer and a boxer and took part in athletic activities.

When George lived in Aberdeen he attended grammar school. In 1798 George's grandurifcle died and the boy inherited the title of lord and the Byron's family estate, Newstead Abbey ['njuistid]. It was situated near Nottingham, close to the famous Sherwood Forest. Together with his mother the boy moved to Newstead Abbey from where he was sent to Harrow School. At the seven­teen he entered Cambridge University. He was very handsome. He had a beautiful manly profile. His contemporary young men tried to imitate his clothes, his manners and even his limping gait. He seemed proud, tragic and melancholic. But he could also be very cheerful and witty.

Byron's literary career began while he was at Cambridge. His first volume of verse entitled Hours of Idleness (1807) contained a number of lyrics dealing with love, regret and parting. There were also some fragments of translation from Latin and Greek poetry. His poems were severely criticized by the Edinburgh Review, the leading literary magazine of that time. The poet answered with a

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biting satire in verse, English Bards and Scotch Reviewers (1809), in which he attacked the reactionary critics and the three Lake School Poets, Wordsworth, Coleridge and Southey.


St John's College, Cambridge

After graduating from Cambridge University in 1809 Byron start­ed on a tour through Portugal, Spain, Greece, Turkey and Albania. He returned home in 1811. By right of birth he was a member of the House of Lords. On February 27, 1812 Byron made his first speech in the House of Lords. He spoke passionately in defence of the Lud­dites1. He blamed the government for the unbearable conditions of workers' life. In his parliament speech Byron showed himself a staunch champion of the people's cause, and that made the reac­tionary circles hate him.

' Luddites were workers who expressed their protest against exploitation by breaking machines. Ned Ludd was the first to destroy frames.

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In 1812 the first two cantos of Childe Harold's1 Pilgrimage [ 'tfaild 'hasr9ldz'pilgnmid3] were published. They were received by his contemporaries with a burst of enthusiasm. He became one of the most popular men in London. He himself remarked, "I awoke one morning and found myself famous".

Between 1813 and 1816 Byron composed his Oriental Tales. The most famous of tales are The Giaour [ 'фаш], The Corsair [ 'кэзеэ] and Lara, all of which embody the poet's romantic individualism. The hero is a rebel against society, a man of strong will and passion. Proud and independent, he rises against tyranny and injustice to gain his personal freedom and happiness. His revolt, however, is too individualistic, and therefore it is doomed to failure.

In this period Byron began to write his political satires, the most outstanding of which is the Ode to Framers of the Frame Bill.

In 1815 Byron married Miss Isabella Milbanke, a religious woman, cold and pedantic. It was an unhappy match for the poet.

Though Byron was fond of their only child Augusta Ada, he and his wife parted. The scandal surrounding the divorse was great. Byron's enemies found their opportunity and used it against him. They began to persecute him. The great poet was accused of immorality and had to leave his native country.

In May 1816 Byron went to Switzerland where he made the acquaintance of Percy Bysshe Shelley [ 'p3:si 'bif 'Jell], and the two poets became close friends.

While in Switzerland Byron wrote Canto the Third of Childe Harold's Pilgrimage (1816), The Prisoner of Chillon ['pnzna av 'Jibn] (1816), a lyrical drama Manfred (1817) andanumber of lyrical poems.


The Prisoner of Chillon describes the tragic fate of the Swiss revolutionary Bonnivard who spent a number of years of his life in prison with his brothers.

Chillon is a castle on the shore of Lake Geneva, Switzerland. The story told by Byron had real historical foundation. Bonnivard was an active fighter for the liberation of his native city of Geneva



1 Childe — устар. благородный юноша, еще не посвященный в рыцари. Childe Harold — букв, юноша Гарольд

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from the control of Charles III, Duke of Savoy. Bonnivard was a republican, and the Duke of Savoy imprisoned him in the Castle of Chillon where he was kept from 1530 to 1536 without trial. In 1536 the citizens of Bern, Switzerland, captured the Castle of Chillon and released Bonnivard.

In 1816 Byron wrote his Song for the Luddites where he again raised his voice in defence of the oppressed workers, encouraging them to fight for freedom.

In 1817 Byron went to Italy, where he lived till 1823. At this time political conditions in Italy were such as to rouse his indig­nation. He wished to see the country one and undivided. Acting on this idea, the poet joined the secret organization of the Corba-nari which was engaged in the struggle against the Austrian op­pressors.

The Italian period (1817—1823), influenced by revolutionary ideas, is considered the summit of Byron's poetical career. Such works as Beppo (1818), and his greatest work Don Juan[" drm' d3U3n] (1819—1824) are the most realistic works written by the poet. It is a novel in verse, that was to contain 24 cantos, but death stopped his work and only 16 and a half cantos were written. Though the action in Don Juan takes place at the close of the 18th century, it is easy enough to understand that the author depicts the 19th century Europe and gives a broad panorama of contemporary life.

Other works of this period are: Canto the Fourth of Childe Harold's Pilgrimage (1817), The Prophecy of Dante [ 'proftsi] (1821), where speaking in the person of the great Italian poet Dante, Byron calls upon Italians to fight for their independence; the tragedy Cain (1821).

Once Byron wrote:

When a man hath no freedom to fight for at home, Let him combat for that of his neighbours.

The defeat of the Carbonari uprising (1823) was a great blow to Byron. The Greek war against Turkey attracted his attention. He went to Greece to take part in the struggle for national inde-

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pendence. His restless life ended there. Soon after his arrival he was seized with fever and died on April 18, 1824. He was thirty-six years old.

The poet's heart was buried in Greece, his body was taken to England and buried near Newstead. The government did not allow him to be buried in Westminster Abbey.

Only in 1969 the authorities finally allowed his remains to be buried in the Poets' Corner in Westminster Abbey.

His death was mourned by the progressive people throughout Europe. Pushkin called Byron a poet of freedom. Goethe spoke of him in his Faust, Belinsky called him "a giant of poetry".


Vocabulary

accuse [a'kju:z] v обвинять

athletic [se6'letik] a спортивный

authority [o:'0Dnti] п власть

blame [bleim] v обвинять

burst [b3:st] n взрыв

canto ['ksentsu] n песнь (часть поэмы)

capture ['kaeptfs] л захват

combat ['kombst] v бороться

contemporary [кэпЧетрэгэп] а совре­менный

discontent ['diskan'tent] n недоволь­ство

disillusion [,disi'lu33n] v разочаровы­вать

distress [dis'tres] умучить

to feel distressed мучиться; пере­живать

divorse [di'vo:s] n развод

encourage [т'клпаз] v воодушевлять

doom [du:m] v обрекать to be doomed быть обреченным

estate [is'teit] п поместье

failure [Teiljs] n неудача, провал

fever ['firv9] n лихорадка

foundation [faun'deijbn] n основание

frame [freim] n ткацкий станок

gait [geit] n походка

gloom [glu:m] n мрачность; уныние immense [I'mens] о огромный indignation [,mdig'neijgn] n негодова­ние inherit [m'hent] унаследовать, полу­чать в наследство lame [leim] а хромой limp [limp] v хромать match [maetf] n брак mourn [mo:n] v оплакивать observe [sb'z3:v] v наблюдать pedantic [pi'dsentiklo педантичный profile ['preufail] n профиль rebel [n'bel] n повстанец; бунтарь regret [n'gret] n сожаление release [rf lis] v освобождать revolt [n'vault] n восстание rouse [rauz] v возбуждать severely [si'vish] adv жестоко single-handed ['sirjgl'haendid] а в оди­ночку staunch [sto:ntf] n стойкий summit ['sAmit] n вершина supplant [sa'plaint] v занимать Swiss [swis] а швейцарский trial [traisl] n суд

unbearable [лп 'ЬеэгэЫ] а невыно­симый

Questions and Tasks


  1. Why has Byron often been called a poet of "world sorrow*?

  2. What was the reason for this gloom and sorrow?

  3. What were the political events of his time which influenced him so deeply?

  4. How did Byron accept the existing conditions?

  5. Why may he rightly be called a revolutionary romanticist?

  6. What are the characteristic features of Byron's heroes?

  7. Relate the main facts of Byron's childhood.

  8. Where did Byron get education?

  9. When did his literature career begin?




  1. How was his first volume of verse entitled?

  2. What was Byron's first speech in the House of Lords about?

  3. When did he become one of the most popular men in London?

  4. What period is Byron's creative work usually divided into?

  5. What works were written by Byron in the London period?

  6. Characterize the hero of his Oriental Tales.

  7. What are the titles of his works in the Swiss period?

  8. Speak on the origin of the plot of his poem The Prisoner of Chillon.

  9. What can you say about the Italian period of his work?

  10. Why did Byron go to Greece?

  11. When did he die?

Childe Harold's Pilgrimage

After two years of touring on the Continent Lord Byron wrote the first two cantos of the poem Childe Harold's Pilgrimage [ 'tfaild 'hseraldz 'pilgrim^]. The poem was written at different periods of Byron's life. The hero, Childe Harold, is very often absent from the poem, and in Canto the Fourth practically disappears.

Childe Harold came from an old aristocratic family. His ancestors were men of great courage and heroism. Harold's life was very diffe­rent from theirs, it is full of pleasure and entertainment. But now he only felt a great weariness and discontent. He lost faith in friendship and was disappointed in the world of lies in which he found himself. Hoping to find Good in other countries he left England. Childe Ha­rold is a sensitive, disillusioned and generous-minded wanderer.

When the poem first appeared in print, many people believed that Byron's own character was presented in the person of Childe Harold,




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but the author denied it: he justly considered himself to be an active fighter for freedom, while Harold was merely a passive onlooker.

Childe Harold leaves his country for Portugal and Spain; when the ship is far from the shores of England, he sings Good Night to his Motherland.

Good Night

(From Childe Harold's Pilgrimage)

Adieu! adieu1! My native shore

Fades2 o'er3 the waters blue;

The night-winds sigh, the breakers roar,

And shrieks the wild sea-mew.

Yon sun4 that sets upon the sea

We follow in his flight.

Farewell awhile to him and thee,

My native Land — Good Night!

A few short hours and he will rise

To give the morrow5 birth;

And I shall hail the main6 and skies,

But not my mother earth.

Deserted is my own good hall,7

Its hearth8 is desolate;

Wild weeds are growing on the wall,

My dog howls at the gate.

And now I'm the world alone, Upon the wide, wide sea, But why should I for others groan When none will sigh for me ?

Perchance1 my dog will whine in vain, Till fed by stranger hands; But long ere21 come back again He'd tear me where he stands.3

With thee, my bark, I'll swiftly go Athwart4 the foaming brine5; Nor care what land thou bearst6 me to, So not again to mine.7

Welcome, welcome, ye8 dark-blue waves! And when you fail my sight9, Welcome, ye deserts and ye caves, My native Land — Good Night!

Canto the First describes Portugal and Spain. Byron shows his sur­prise at the contrast between the splendour of the land, where "fruits of fragrance blush on every tree", and the poverty of the people.

In the Spanish scenes the poet shows the people's struggle against Napoleon's invasion which the poet witnessed during the stay in Spain in 1809— 1810. Byron sympathizes with those peo­ple fighting for their freedom and independence and blames the ruling classes who betray the interest of the country.

Canto the Second is devoted to Albania and Greece. Describing Harold's stay in Albania, Byron describes his own adventures in the country. He admires the Albanians for their kindness, generosity and hospitality, and praises the great men of the past.

The motif of disappointment sounds with great force when Ha­rold comes to Greece. The miserable state of the Greek people,



1 adieu [э' dju:] (фр.) — прощай

2 fades — здесь исчезает

3 o'er — over

4 yon sun — вот это солнце (yon = yonder — тот, там)

5 the morrow—tomorrow

6 the main — поэт, стихия, океан

7 hall — здесь дом, замок

8 hearth [Ишв] — домашний очаг

128


1 perchance [рэ tja:ns] — устар. может быть

2 ere [га] — устар. прежде чем

3 where he stands — на месте

4 athwart [эЭ' wo:t] — вопреки

5 the brine — соленая вода, море

6 thou [баи] bearst [beast] — ты несешь

7 so not again to mine — лишь бы не снова в мою страну (Англию)

8 уе — устар. you

9 and when you fail my sight — и когда вы скроетесь из виду

129






Questions and Tasks

  1. How many cantos is the poem Childe Harold's Pilgrimage composed of?

  2. When were these cantos written?

  3. Give a character sketch of Childe Harold.

  4. Is he like the great poet himself?

  5. What is the first canto about?

  6. Speak on the second and third cantos.

  7. Whom is the fourth canto devoted to?

  8. What is the merit of Child Harold's Pilgrimage'?

Don Juan



Don Juan1 fdrm 'фи:эп], Byron's greatest work, was written in the prime of his creative power, in the years 1818 — 1823.

It gives a broad critical pictures of the European life of the end of the 18th century. Byron's Don Juan is a young Spanish nobleman.



who suffer under the yoke of the Turks arouses Byron s indig­nation and makes him recall the glorious past of Greece.

Canto the Third begins and ends with a touching address by Byron to his daughter Ada, whom he was destined never to see again.

Is thy1 face like thy mother's my fair child!
Ada! sole daughter of my house and heart?
When last I saw thy young blue eyes they smiled,
And then we parted,

Stanza 1

From personal sorrows Byron passes to the sufferings of the peoples that groan under the yoke of oppression.

The greater part of canto describes the beautiful scenery of Switzerland. Pictures of nature —■ now calm and serene, now stormy as the feelings of the poet himself, alternate with philosophical reflections.

Canto the Fourth, dealing with Italy, is usually regarded as the finest. It describes the people and events of ancient history. Byron regrets the fall of the free states, their high culture and art.

Byron calls Italy the "Ivlother of Art" and admires the Italian people who have the world such men as Dante, Petrarch [ 'petra:k], Boccaccio [bau'kaitjiau] and other titans of art, science and literature.

A great part of Canto the Fourth is devoted to the theme of genius and immorality. Byron puts forth the idea that true glory is achieved through creative activity, and not by birth and power.

The merit of Childe Harold's Piligrimage is in its broad critical description of contemporary life and vivid pictures of nature.

Byron's bright characters, beautiful pictures of nature and brilliant satirical power, rich and melodious verse will be admired by many generations to come.

The poem established Byron as a major literary and romantic figure.

Vocabulary

address [a'dres] n обращение alternate [ol't3:neit] v чередоваться ancestor ['aensists] n предок betray [bi'trei] v изменять blush [bUf] v краснеть deny [di'nai] v отрицать; отвергать desolate ['desslit] а заброшенный destine ['destm] v предопределять disillusioned [^disi'lirpnd] а разоча­рованный foam [faum] v пениться fragrance ['freigrans] n благоухание groan [дгэип] v стонать hail [heil] v приветствовать howl [haul] v выть, завывать melodious [mi'lsudjss] а мелодичный

merely ['imsli] adv всего лишь motif [m3u'ti:f] n основная тема, лейт­мотив onlooker ['on Juks] n наблюдатель put forth [fo:8] v выдвинуть reflection [n'flekjbn] n размышление regret [n'gret] ^сожалеть sea-mew ['sirmju:] n чайка sensitive ['sensitiv] а чувствительный serene [si'ri:n] а спокойный shriek [fri:k] v пронзительно кричать sigh [sai] v вздыхать sole [ssul] а единственный splendour ['splenda] n великолепие weariness ['wrennis] n усталость yoke [jsuk] n ярмо



5 thy [6ai] — твое, твоей, твои

1 Don Juan — Дон Жуан (дон — по-испански господин)


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131

The poem opens with scenes from the hero's childhood which passes in an aristocratic Spanish family. Little Juan is described as:

A little curly-headed, good-for-nothing. And mischief-making monkey from his birth.

Juan, the youth, falls in love with Donna Julia, the beautiful wife of the old and respectable Don Alfonso. The young woman returns Juan's feelings, but his mother finds out about the love-affair and sends her son abroad "to mend his former morals".

The ship is caught in a storm and sinks several days after its departure. Juan escapes in a boat with thirty other passengers. The unfortunate are tossed about the boundless sea for days and days and, one by one, die of hunger and thirst. Juan alone survives and swims to the shore of an island where a famous smuggler and pirate Lambro ['laembrau] lives. Juan is found by the only daughter of Lambro — Haidee [hai'di:]. She takes care of him. The young people fall in love. Suddenly Lambro returns to the island. The lovers are discovered and forcibly separated. Juan is sold into slavery to Turkey and Haidee dies of a broken heart. Juan is bought in a slave market by the Turkish sultana. He is sent to the harem in the guise of a woman. He lives through many adventures there. At last he escapes from Turkey and gets to the Russian camp near Ismail [ лгта: 'i:l], a Turkish fortress sieged by land and water by Suvorov's armies. Byron gives realistic pictures of the storming of Ismail under the command of the great Suvorov.

On Ismail's surrender Juan is sent to St Petersburg with the news of the victory and is received at the court of Empress Catherine. Soon he leaves Russia, travels through Europe, and finally lands in England.

After staying in the country for some time, Juan understands that the policy of England does not follow the principles of true freedom. But many lines of the poem, on the other hand, show the author's love for his native country, for its people, nature and art.

In the last part of the poem Juan, accompanied by a group of guests, visits the country seat of a Lord Amundeville to take part in a foxhunt. Juan is a success with the ladies. Here the narrative breaks off. Canto the 17th of Don Juan remained unfinished. However in the letters

Byron spoke about the end of the poem. He wanted his hero to take part in the French Revolution and die fighting for freedom.

There are practically two heroes in the poem. One is the literary hero — Don Juan who lives and gains his knowledge of life within the framework of the plot. The other is the poet himself.

"Almost all Don Juan", Byron wrote in one of his letters, "is real life, either my own, or from people I knew".

As Juan's adventures cover a considerable part,of Europe it gives his author an opportunity to describe different countries, to comment on politics and relations between men and to give a satiric portrait of his contemporary society. The poem is marked not only for its criticism and realistic portrayal, but for its revolutionary ideas as well.

In the extract given here Byron addresses the free and happy peo­ple of the future living in the golden age of freedom, peace and happi­ness. The poet expresses his hatred of "tyrants" and "thrones" that must be overthrown in order to free mankind. Thrones, in the golden age of freedom and happiness, are objects of curiosity in museums.

To the Free People of the Future

(From Don Juan, Canto VIII)

... I will teach, if possible the stones

To rise against earth's tyrants. Never let it

Be said1 that we still truckle unto thrones2; —

But ye3 — our children's children! think how we

Showed what things were before the world was free!

That hour is not for us, but 'tis4 for you. And as, in the great joy of your millennium5, You hardly will believe such things were true As now occur, I thought that I would pen you'em6;


1 Never let it Be said — Пусть никто не скажет

2 still truckle unto thrones — все еще гнем шею перед тронами, т. е.
монархами

3 ye — you поэт.

4 'tis — it is поэт.

5 millennium [mi 'leniam] — золотой век счастья и свободы человечества
61 would pen you 'em (them) — я вам их опишу


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But may their very memory perish too!' —

Yet if perchance2 remembered, still disdain you'em3

More than you scorn the savages of yore4,

Who painted their bake limbs, but not with gore5.

Vocabulary

boundless ['baundhs] о беспредельный pirate ['paiant] n пират

empress ['empns] n императрица prime [praim] n расцвет

extract ['ekstrsekt] n отрывок separate ['separeit] v разлучать

forcibly f/fosabli] adv насильственно smuggler ['srrjAgta] n контрабандист

flamework ffreimw3:k] n структура, ком- sultana [ssl'tamg] n султанша

позиция surrender [sg' rends] n сдача

guise [gaiz] n одежда survive [sg'vaiv] v выжить, уцелеть

harem ['hesrem] n гарем toss [rns] v бросать, кидать
mischief-making fmistfifmeikir)] о озорной

Questions and Tasks



  1. When was Don Juan written?

  2. Give a brief summary of the contents of Don Juan.
  3. How many cantos of the poem were finished?


  4. How did Byron want to finish the poem?

  5. How many heroes are there irwthe poem? What are they?

  1. What gives Byron an opportunity to describe different countries, to com­ment on politics and relations between men?

  1. Speak on the main idea of the poem.

  2. Comment on the extract of the poem given here.

Political Poetry

The "luddite" theme is quite important in Byron's poetical work. In his speech on the framework bill (1812) in the House of Lords Byron opposed the government's reactionary policy and defended the

Luddites. He said, "You call these men a mob1, desperate, dangerous and ignorant; ... Are we aware of our obligations to a mob? It is the mob that labour in your fields and serve in your houses, — that man your navy, and recruit your army, — that have enabled you defy all the world, you can also defy you when neglect and calamity have driven them to despair! You may call the people a mob, but do not forget that a mob too often speaks the sentiments of the people."

Four days after his speech in Parliament anonymous Ode ap­peared in a morning newspaper. 'The title (Ode) was very ironic, because an Ode is supposed to be a poem, or a song, recited on formal occasions. Byron's Ode to the Framers of the Frame Bill was a combination of biting satire, revolutionary romanticism and demo­cratic thought.

In the Ode the anonymous poet gave a remedy against the rebel­lious weavers, who came to their masters to ask for help. He sug­gested the best thing to do was to hang them.

The poet stressed that men are cheaper than machinery; and if they were hanged around Sherwood Forest for breaking the machinery, it would improve the scenery.

Those who had heard Byron in Parliament had no difficulty in recognizing the author of the Ode, for in the verse Byron repeated most of the thoughts expressed in his speech.

In 1816 Byron wrote his famous Song for the Luddites in which he called upon the people to revolt against their tyrants. It is considered one of the first revolutionary songs in English classical poetry.





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Английская и американская литература: Курс лекций для школьников старших классов и студентов / Тексты, примеч. Н. Л. Утевской. — СПб.: Учитель и ученик КОРОНА принт, 2002. — 384 с.

ISBN 5-7931-0176-4

Книга представляет собой лекции по программе, утвержденной для школ с углубленным изучением английского языка. Лекции включают краткий и емкий обзор различных литературных направлений, стилей, школ, а также жизнеописание и анализ творчества писателей и поэтов за последние де­сять веков. Пособие окажет неоценимую помощь учащимся и преподавате­лям школ и вузов, а также всем изучающим английский язык.

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