Курс лекций для школьников старших классов и студентов Saint Petersburg corona print Uchitel & Uchenic



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Song for the Luddites

I

As the Liberty lads o'er the sea2



Bought their freedom, and cheaply, with blood,

So we, boys, we

Will die fighting, or live free.

And down with all kings but King Ludd!




1 may their very memory perish too — пусть самая память о них исчезнет

2 perchance [pa'tfains] — perhaps

3 still disdain you'em (them) — все же вы их презираете

4 of yore — минувших времен поэт.

5 gore — blood поэт.

134


1 a mob — a crowd

2 Liberty lads o'er (over) the sea—i.e. Americans who fought for the independence
of their country.

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A-

п

When the web that we weave is complete,

And the shuttle exchanged for the sword,

We will fling the winding sheet

O'er the despot at our feet,

And dye it deep in the gore he has pour'd.

Ill

Though black as his heart its hue,


Since his veins are corrupted to mud,

Yet this is the dew

Which the tree1 shall renew

Of Liberty, planted by Ludd!

The importance of Byron's poetic works, especially of his political poems, is very great. Translated by Russian poets, Byron's poetry has become a part of our national culture. In Russia, Pushkin and Lermontov were among his admirers. Pushkin called him the "ruler of people's thought". Belinsky called him the Prometheus [ргэ mi:Gju:s] of the century. Hertzen called his poetry "a word of fire". Maxim Gorky said that Byron was one of those writers "who were honest and severe in their exposure of the vices of the ruling classes" and "who had the ability and courage" to write, the truth.

Byron's influence on the minds of such great poets as Heine2 and Mitzkevitch3 was very great.

Byron remains one of the most popular English poets both at home and abroad.

Vocabulary

anonymous [o'lmrumss] о анонимный calamity [ka'laemiti] n несчастье

aware [a'wes] а знающий defy [di'fai] v бросать вызов; прези-

to be aware осознавать рать

1 The Tree of Liberty — daring the First Bourgeois Revolution in France

(1789 — 1793) a symbolic procedure [ргэ ' sv.d^s] was established by planting trees of Liberty. Byron refers to this custom.



2 Heine ['hama], Henrich (1794— 1856) —Генрих Гейне, нем. поэт

3 Mitzkevitch, Adam — Адам Мицкевич, польск. поэт

Prometheus [pra'mi:9ju:s] n Прометей rebellious [n'beljas] а восставший recruit [n'kruit] v
пополнять remedy ['remsdi] n средство sentiment f'sentimant] n мнение, отно­шение shuttle ['JXtl] n челнок tyrant ['taisrent] n деспот web [web] n ткань winding-sheet ['wamdmTkt] n саван
desperate ['despsnt] о доведенный до

отчаяния dew [dju:] п роса

exposure [lks'psigs] n разоблачение fling [flin] v (flung) бросить gore [go:] n кровь hue [hju:] n цвет man [mffin] v укомплектовывать neglect [ru'glekt] v пренебрегать obligation [ubli'geijbn] n обязательство oppose [a'psuz] v выступать против

Questions and Tasks



  1. Where does the "luddite" theme appear in Byron's works?

  2. Comment on the Ode to the Framers of the Frame Bill.

  3. Speak on the main idea of Song for the Luddites.

  4. Discuss Byron's place in English literature.

Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792-1822)


Percy Bysshe Shelley ['p3:si 'bif' feih] was the most progressive revolutionary romanticist in English literature.

Like Byron, he came of an aristocratic family and like Byron he broke with his class at an early age.


Percy Bysshe Shelley

He was born at Field Place, Sussex. His father was a baronet. Shelley was educat­ed at Eton public school and Oxford Uni­versity. There he wrote a pamphlet The Necessity of Atheism feiGnzam] for which he was expelled from the University. His father forbade him to come home. Shel­ley had an independent spirit, and he broke with his family and his class for ever. He travelled from one town to another, took an active part in the Irish liberation movement and at last left England for


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Italy in 1818. There he wrote his best poetry. Shelley's life was mainly spent in Italy and Switzerland, but he kept ties with Eng­land.

In 1822 the poet was drowned. When his body was washed ashore he was cremated by Byron and his other friends. His remains were buried in Rome. The inscription on his tomb reads:

Percy Bysshe Shelley Cor Cordium1

Like Byron, Shelley was devoted to the revolutionary ideas of liberty, equality and fraternity. He believed in the future of mankind. He never lost faith in the power of love and good will. He thought that if men were granted freedom and learned to love one another they could live together peacefully. This hope fills his first poems Queen Mab (1813), The Revolt of Islam ['izla:m] (1818) and his later poetic drama Prometheus Unbound [pra'mirGjas /vn'baund]

The plot of the poem Queen Mab is symbolic. Queen Mab, a fairy, shows the past, present and future of mankind to a beautiful girl. Queen Mab shows the ideal society of the future where men are equal, free and wise.


The Revolt of Islam is a romantic and abstract poem, but it is a revolutionary one. Shelley protested against the tyranny of religion and of the government, gave pictures of the revolutionary movement for freedom and foretold a happier future for the whole of mankind.

In Prometheus Unbound Shelley gives the Greek myth his own interpretation. He sings of the struggle against tyranny. The sharp conflict between Prometheus and Jupiter ['скдкрйэ] (the chief of the Roman gods) is in the centre of the drama. Prometheus is bound to a rock by Jupiter for stealing fire from the gods and giving it to mankind. The huge spirit Demogorgon f dimax/ дэ:дэп], representing the Creative Power, defeats Jupiter and casts him down. Prometheus is set free and reunited with his wife Asia (Nature). The fact that Jupiter is dethroned symbolizes change and revolution. Now the mind of man can look forward to a future which is "good, joyous, beautiful and free".


1 Cor Cordium — the heart of hearts

When Shelley got news that the workers of Manchester had been attacked by government troops, his indignation was aroused, and he immediately wrote the poems The Masque of Anarchy [' ma:sk 3v 'aenaki] and Song to the Men of England. In the first part of the poem The Masque of Anarchy the procession of horrible masks may be regarded as an allegorical picture of the then rulers of England. In the second part the poet sings the men of England, their strength and future victory. He calls on them to rise against their human leeches.

Rise, like lions after slumber In unvanquishable number!1 Shake your chains to earth, like dew Which in sleep had fall'n2 on you: Ye are many — they are few.

(The Masque of Anarchy, XCI)

In his great lyric Song to the Men of England Shelley calls upon the workers to take up arms in their own defence. This poem and other revolutionary poems of his became the popular songs of the workers.

Song to the Men of England

Men of England, wherefore plough For the lords who lay ye3 low? Wherefore weave with toil and care The rich robes your tyrants wear?

Wherefore feed, and clothe, and save, From the cradle, to the grave, Those ungrateful drones who would Drain your sweat — nay4, drink your blood?.


1 In unvanquishable number — непобедимыми рядами

2 fall'n поэт. — fallen

3 ye — you

4 nay — no


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Shelley lived a short life. He was only twenty-nine when he died. But the working people of England did not forget the poet who had been their champion and friend. Shelley's entire life and art were devoted to struggle against oppression and tyranny in every form.


  1. What family did Shelley come from?

  2. Where was he educated?

  3. Why was he expelled from the university?

  4. Why did Shelley break with his family?

  5. Where did he live after he had left England?

  6. When did he die?

  7. How did it happen?

  8. Why can we call Shelley the most progressive revolutionary romanticist?

  9. Name his first notable works. Relate briefly the plot of these works.




  1. On what occasion was the poem The Masque of Anarchy written?

  2. Comment on the poem Song to the Men of England.

  3. Describe Shelley's lyrical poems.

  4. Express the idea of the poem The Cloud in some sentences.

  5. What can you say about Shelley's place in English literature?

The seed ye sow, another reaps; The wealth ye find, another keeps; The robes ye weave, another wears; The arms ye forge, another bears.

Sow seed, — but let no tyrant reap; Find wealth, — let no impostor heap; Weave robes, let not the idle wear; Forge arms, — in your defence to bear.

Shelley is also known as the author of many lyrical poems devoted to nature and love. He was sure that the world and nature are ever changing, ever developing to higher forms. He was very fond of nature, he wrote of the clouds, and of the wind and of the high snow-covered mountains. Yet above all other things he loved the sea. Among his nature poems are The Cloud, To a Skylark, Ode to the West Wind, Winter and many others.

The Cloud

I bring fresh showers for the thirsting flowers,

From the seas and Streams;

I bear light shade for the leaves when laid

In their noonday dreams.

From my wings are shaken the dews that waken

The sweet buds every one,

When rocked to rest on their mother's breast,

As she dances about the sun.

I wield the flail of the lashing hail,

And whiten the green plains under,

And the again I dissolve it in rain,

And laugh as I pass in thunder.

Shelley's poetry is musical, deeply sincere, and original in form.

Vocabulary

bind [bamd] v (bound) привязать cast [ka:st] v (cast) бросать

to cast down свергать cradle ['kreid] n колыбель cremate [kn'meit] v кремировать dethrone [di'Greun] v свергать с престола dissolve [di'zolv] v заливать drain [drem] v выпускать drone [drsun] n тунеядец flail [fleil] n цеп

forbade [fa'beid] v past от forbid forbid [fs 'bid] v (forbade; forbidden)

запрещать foretell [for'tel] v (foretold) предска­зывать foretold [fofteuld] v past и р. р. от foretell forge [foxtj] v ковать grant [gra:nt] v даровать

Questions and Tasks

hail [heil] л град heap [hi:p] v богатеть idle [aidl] а ленивый impostor [im'psustg] n мошенник inscription [m'sknpjgn] n надпись interpretation [in,t3:pn'teijbn] n толко­вание lash [laef] v падать leech [li:tj] n пиявка liberation [Jiba'reifsn] n освобождение myth [miG] n миф reap [ri:p] ужать

represent [,repn'zent] v представлять robe [гэиЬ] п одежда slumber ['sUmbs] n сон sweat [swet] n пот tie [tai] n связь wield [wi:ld] v держать в руках



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Walter Scott (1771-1832)


Walter Scott ['wo:to'start], the father of the English historical novel, was born in the family of a lawyer. His mother was the daughter of a famous Edinburgh physician and professor. She was a woman of education and stirred her son's imagination by her stories of the past as a world of living heroes.

As Walter was lame and a sickly child he spent much of his boyhood on his grandfather's farm near the beauti­ful river Tweed. He entered into friend­ly relations with plain people and gained first-hand knowledge of the old Scot­tish traditions, legends and folk ballads.

At the age of eight Walter entered the Edinburgh High School. Later Walter Scott studied law at the University. Though he was employed in his father's profession he was more interested in literature than in law.

As a boy and man he was fond of spending time in the country in the Highlands and in the Border. He collected and studied the native ballads, legends, folk-songs and poems.

Walter Scott's literary career began in 1796 when he published translations of German ballads.

In 1802 he prepared a collection of ballads under the title of The Minstrelsy' of the Scottish Border.

In 1804 Walter Scott gave up the law entirely for literature.

His literary work began with the publication of The Lay of the Last Minstrel (1805), a poem which made him the most popular poet of the day. A series of poems followed which included


1 The Minstrelsy — the singing of minstrels. A minstrel — in the Middle Ages a singer of old ballads and songs.

Marmion [' maimjan] (1808) and The Lady of the Lake (1810). These poems brought fame to the author. They tell us about the brave Scottish people, their past and the beauty of their homeland.

Soon, however, Scott realized that he was not a poetic genius, and he turned to writing in prose.

Scott's first historical novel Waverley [ 'wervali] published in 1814 was a great success and he continued his work in this new field. Novel after novel came from his pen. His novels appearpd anonymously. Nobody knew he was a writer. From 1814 to 1830 he wrote 29 novels, many of which are about Scotland and the struggle of this country for independence. Such novels as Waverley, Guy Mannering (1815), The Antiquary [di'sentikwan] (1816), The Black Dwarf [dwo:f] (1816), Old Mortality (1816), Rob Roy (1818), The Heart of Midlothian [mid 'taixJjan] (1818) describe Scotland in the 18th century.

The Bride of Lammermoor ['laemsmua] (1819) and The Legend of Montrose (1819) have the 17th century background.

fvanhoe ['arvanhau] (1820) deals with the English history of the 12th century.



The Monastery (1820), The Abbot and Kenilworth [ 'kemlw3:0] (1821) describe the times of Mary Stuart and Queen Elizabeth.


Quentin Durward ['kwentin 'd3:wad] (1823) refers to the reign of Louis [' lui] XI in France.

It was only in 1827 that Walter Scott declared openly the authorship of his novels. He worked hard. The writer turned out, on an average, a novel and a half a year. His mind was so crowded with stories, characters and incidents that invention came without apparent effort.

Misfortune struck the great novel­
ist in 1825— 1826: the publishing firm,
where he had been partner went bank- Sir Waiter Scott was buried
rupt. Walter Scott had to pay a large in the Abbey of Dryburgh


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sum of money. This affected his health and he died on September 21, 1832 at his estate in Abbotsford.

Walter Scott was buried at Dryburgh Abbey.

Walter Scott was the creator of the historical novel in English literature. He realized that it was the ordinary people who were the makers of history and the past was not cut off from the present but influenced it. This romantic love of the past made him create rich historical canvases with landscape and nature descriptions, as well as picturesque details of past ages. His descriptions of the life, customs and habits of the people are realistic. We can agree with Belinsky that the reader of Scott's novels becomes, in a way, a contemporary of the epoch and a citizen of the country in which the events of the novel take place.

Walter Scott was the first to depict personalities typical of the period and the country described. His characters are vivid and expressive.

This makes Walter Scott one of the greatest masters of world literature. His influence can be seen in the historical novels of almost every nation.

Vocabulary

affect [a'fekt] v влиять canvas ['ksenvas] n картина

anonymously [a'nommgsli] оЛанонимно effort f'efst] n усилие

apparent [a'pasrent] а видимый entirely [m'taiali] adv всецело

background ['baskgraimd] л место дей- physician [fi'zijbn] n врач

ствия plain [plem] а простой

bankrupt f baerjkrapt] о обанкротившийся sickly ['sikli] а болезненный

to go bankrupt обанкротиться stir [st3:] v возбуждать

Questions and Tasks


  1. Give a brief account of Walter Scott's life.

  2. How did he acquire his vast knowledge of ballads, legends, folk-songs?

  3. What was the beginning of his literary career?

  4. What poems brought fame to the author?

  5. Why did he turn to writing in prose?

  6. What was Walter Scott's first historical novel?

  7. What was the main historical theme he wrote about in his first novels?

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  1. Name Walter Scott's novels which describe Scotland.

  2. What other themes did he touch upon in his novels?




  1. What novels did he write about England and France?

  2. How many novels did Walter Scott write from 1814 to 1830?

  3. What misfortune struck the great novelist in 1825-1826?

  4. Why was he obliged to work very hard?

  5. When did he die?

  6. What is the contribution of Walter Scott to the development of the historical novel in English literature?

Ivanhoe

Among the outstanding historical novels of Walter Scott Ivanhoe is one of the best. The events described in Ivanhoe take us back to the 12th century England. The scene of the novel is set in England during the reign of Richard I in about 1194. The power is in the hands of the Normans who oppress the conquered Anglo-Saxons.

King Richard I is engaged in the crusades. During his absence the country is ruled by his brother John who is very cruel to the people. The Anglo-Saxon nobility fights the Normans however they can. Cedric fsi:dnk] the Saxon also tries to keep the former privileges for his people. He has even disinherited his son Wil­fred Ivanhoe who upset his father's plans and later became a de­voted follower of the Norman King Richard.

When Richard I and Ivanhoe return to England, Ivanhoe, un­der the name of "Disinherited", takes part in a tournament. Cedric and his ward Lady Rowena [гэи 'i:na] recognize him. In the next days' sports he is wounded. An old Jew, Isaac farzak] of York, and his daughter Rebecca, whom Ivanhoe once helped, take care of him. On their way from the tournament Cedric and lady Rowena meet Isaac and the wounded Ivanhoe. All of them are seized by the Templars1, dressed as outlaws, and carried to the castle of a Nor­man feudal, Torquilstone. Under the command of Robin Hood and Richard I the castle is attacked and the prisoners set free. Cedric and Rowena return home, but Rebecca has disappeared. She has been carried off by Sir Brian ['braian], one of the Templars. When



1 the Templars — члены католического духовно-рыцарского ордена

145


the Grand Master of the Templars hears of the influence that Re­becca has over Sir Brian, he commands the knight to give her up as a witch. Ivanhoe fights in her defence.

The marriage of Ivanhoe and Rowena takes place shortly afterwards. Rebecca and her father leave England for Spain where they hope to find better protection than they received in England.

The central conflict of the novel lies in the struggle of the Anglo-Saxons against the Norman barons. The Anglo-Saxons have no right in their own land. There is no equality among themselves, either. Class interests give rise to a bitter struggle. The Norman conquerors also fight for power among themselves.

At the same time some of them want to subdue the Anglo-Saxons completely, while others are ready to co-operate with them.

Walter Scott shows that the second tendency is progressive because it leads to the birth of a new nation.

A great number of characters take part in the chief events of the novel. Some are historical people, e. g., King Richard I, his brother John and Robin Hood. Others are typical of the period, for instance, Cedric the Saxon and Isaac of York. There we meet also romantic heroes, such as Ivanhoe, Lady Rowena, Rebecca and Sir Brian.

Scott is not indifferent to the fate of the characters and to the historical events in which they take part. He was both romantic and realistic in his works. •

Walter Scott's style and language are very interesting. He was a master of dialogue, which helped him better describe his characters. His heroes spoke using expressions peculiar to their professions (the priests, the archers, the tradesmen).

He was fond of humour, and there are a lot of comic situations in his novels. This makes them still more interesting for the reader.

Walter Scott has always been loved and much read in this country.

Vocabulary

co-operate [kau'opsreit] vсотрудничать subdue [ssb'dju:] /полностью подчинять

feudal ['fju:dl] n феодал tournament [Чшпэтэш;] п турнир

former [Тэ:тэ] а бывший upset [A'pset] v нарушать

nobility [nau'bihti] n дворянство, знать ward [wo:d] n подопечный

peculiar Ipi'kjurlja] а присущий witch [witj] n ведьма

privilige ['pnvihdj] n привилегия, пре­
имущество

146


. _. __: _ ,. \

Questions and Tasks



lie?

/anhoe? ting?

  1. What century do the events described in Ivanhoe take us back to?

  2. Where is the scene of the novel set?

  3. What period of English history does Walter Scott describe in Ivanhoe'?

  4. Give a brief summary of the plot of Ivanhoe

  5. Where does the central conflict of the novel

  6. What can you say about the characters of Л

  7. What makes Walter Scott's language interes

Jane Austen (1775-1817)



Jane Austen ['rjstin] was born on De­cember 16, 1775, in the Hampshire vil­lage of Steventon, where her father, the Rev.1 George Austen, was rector. She was the second daughter and seventh child in the family of eight: six boys and two girls. Her closest companion was her elder sister.

Jane Austen

Her formal education began in about 1782, when the sisters were sent to be taught by Mrs Cawley at Oxford; and, in 1784, they moved to the Abbey School, Reading, where they remained until 1787. After that their education continued at home. This was no deprivation, as the household at the rectory was unusually gifted. Her father encouraged the love of learning in his children. Her mother was a woman of wit. Reading and writing were enjoyed as family activities. Samuel Richardson and Henry Fielding were favourite novelists. The great family amuse­ment was acting.


1 Rev. ['revarend] (сокр. от reverend) — (его) преподобие

147



Austen's earliest known writings date from 1787, and between then and 1795 she wrote a large body of material that was collect­ed in three manuscript notebooks: Volume the First, Volume the

Ш

Austen's house



Second, and Volume the Third. In all, these contain 21 items: plays, verses, short novels, and other prose.

In 1793— 1794 Jane Austen wrote a short novel-in-letters Lady Susan. Jane was a girl of seventeen. Some of the letters tell of her enjoyment of local parties and dances in Hampshire, of visits to London, Bath, Southampton [sauG'aemptsn], Kent and to seaside resorts in Devon [ 'devan] and Dorset.


Sense and Sensibilityv/as begun about 1795 as a novel-in-letters called Elinor and Marianne [ 'mean 'sen] after its heroines. She contrasted two sisters: Elinor who is rational and self-controlled, and Marianne who is more emotional. Between October 1796 and August 1797 she completed the first version of Pride and Prejudice. Northanger Abbey was written in about 1798- 1799.

In 1811 she began her novel Mansfield Park. Between January 1814 and March 1815 she wrote Emma.

148

In these novels she showed that it was important to know oneself in order to make the right choices in love and marriage. Although her endings are generally happy, her novels make readers feel that they have been made to think about themselves and their moral lives.


Jane Austen's novels are deeply concerned with love and marriage. The novels provide indisputable evidence that the author understood the experience of love and of love disappointed. This observation relates most obviously to her last novel, Persuasion [pa'swerpn] (1815- 1816). The years after 1811 seem to have been the most rewarding of her life. She had the satisfaction of seeing her work in print and well reviewed and of knowing that the novels were widely read. The reviewers praised the novels for their moral entertainment, admired the character drawing, and welcomed the homely realism. Although Jane Austen preserved her anonymity and avoided literary circles, she knew about the reception of her novels.

For the last 18 months of her life, she was busy writing. In 1817 she began her last work Sandition, but it was put aside on March 18. Her health had been in decline since early 1816. In April she made her will. On the morning of July 18 she died. She was buried in Winchester Cathedral.

Her authorship was announced to the world at large1 by her brother Henry, paying tribute to her sister's qualities of mind and character.

Jane Austin is different from other writers of her time, because her main interest is in the moral, social and psychological behaviour of her characters. She writes mainly about young heroines as they grow up and search for personal happiness. She does not write about the social and political issues, but her observations of people apply to human nature in general.

Modern critics are fascinated by the structure and organization of the novels, by the realistic description of unremarkable people in the unremarkable situations of everyday life.

1 to the world at large — всему миру

149






Questions and Tasks

  1. Where was Jane Austen bom?

  2. What family did she come from?

  3. Where was she educated?

  4. When did she write her first works?

  5. What was her first novel-in-letters?

  6. What did some of the letters tell of?

  7. Name Jane Austen's notable novels.

  8. What themes did she deal with in her books?

  9. What years seem to have been the most rewarding of her life? Why?




  1. What did the reviewers praise her novel for?

  2. When did she die?

  3. Why are modern critics fascinated by Austen's novels?

Vocabulary

anonymity Laena'mmiti] л анонимность apply [3'plai] ^относиться concern [k3n's3:fi] v касаться decline [di'klam] л ухудшение deprivation [^depn'veifan] л лишение evidence fevidans] л факт(ы) gifted ['giftid] а способный, одаренный heroine ['hereum] л героиня household fhaushsuld] л семья indisputable Lmdis'pjutabl] а бесспор­ный obviously ['Dbviasli] adv очевидно praise [preiz] v хвалить reception [n'sep/эп] n прием

rectory I'rektan] л дом приходского

священника relate [n'leit] v относиться resort [n'zo:t] л курорт review [n'vju:] v рецензировать reviewer [п'у)'и:э] п рецензент rewarding [n'wordm] а вознагражда­ющий satisfaction [^saetis'faekjbn] л удовлет­ворение tribute ['tnbju:t] n дань

to pay tribute платить дань will [wil] л завещание

English Literature in the 19th Century

CRITICAL REALISM

The critical realism of the 19th century flourished in the for­ties and at the beginning of the fifties.

The critical realists set themselves the task of criticizing capitalist society, exposing the crying social contradictions. Their strong point was their true reflection of life and their sharp criticism of existing injustice.

The merit of English realism lies in its profound humanism — its sympathy for the working people. The greatest English realist of the time was Charles Dickens ['tjklz 'dikmzj. With striking force and truthfulness he described the sufferings of common people.

Another critical realist was William Makepeace Thackeray ['wiljam 'meikpi:s 'вэекэп]. His novels mainly contain a satirical por­trayal of the upper strata of society. Here belong, of course, Charlotte Bronte ['Jcdat 'bronti], Emily Bronte, Elizabeth Gaskell ['ilizabaG 'gses kal], George Eliot ['с{зз:ф' eljat]. These writers showed a realistic pic­ture of their contemporary England.

All these novelists portrayed everyday life, with a little man as the - central character.

151


strata ['straits] pi от stratum stratum ['stra:t3m] n слой striking ['straikirj] о поразительный sympathy ['simpaGij n сочувствие upper ['лрэ] а высший

Charles Dickens




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Английская и американская литература: Курс лекций для школьников старших классов и студентов / Тексты, примеч. Н. Л. Утевской. — СПб.: Учитель и ученик КОРОНА принт, 2002. — 384 с.

ISBN 5-7931-0176-4

Книга представляет собой лекции по программе, утвержденной для школ с углубленным изучением английского языка. Лекции включают краткий и емкий обзор различных литературных направлений, стилей, школ, а также жизнеописание и анализ творчества писателей и поэтов за последние де­сять веков. Пособие окажет неоценимую помощь учащимся и преподавате­лям школ и вузов, а также всем изучающим английский язык.



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