Life of Swatantryaveer Vinayak Damodar Savarkar



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Savarkar’s India

In short under the set of circumstances prevailing in India and in the context of the present world set-up, the following ideal is to be realized in the immediate future.


  1. In Savarkar’s India all citizens would have equal rights and obligations irrespective of caste, creed, race or religion provided they avow and owe an exclusive and devoted allegiance to the State.

  2. All minorities would be given effective safeguards to protect their language, religion, culture, etc. but none of them would be allowed to create a State within a State or to encroach upon the legitimate rights of the majority.

  3. The fundamental rights of freedom of speech, freedom of conscience, of worship, of association, etc. would be enjoyed by all citizens a like; whatever restrictions would be imposed on them in the interest of the public peace and order or national emergency would not be based on any religious or racial considerations alone but common national grounds.

  4. One man one vote would be the general rule irrespective of caste, creed, race, or religion.

  5. There would be joint electorates.

  6. Services would go by merit alone.

  7. Primary Education will be free and compulsory.

  8. Every minority would have separate schools to train their children in their own tongue; their religious and cultural institutions would receive Government help also for these, but always in proportion to the taxes they pay into the common exchequer.

  9. The residuary powers would be vested in the Central Government.

  10. Nagari would be the national script, Hindi, the lingua franca and Sanskrit, the Devabhasha of India.

TWO




  1. People would first of all welcome the machine age. The handicrafts would, of course, have their place and encouragement. But national production would be on the biggest possible machine scale.


  2. As the peasantry and the working classes form literally the chief source of national wealth, health, and strength, every effort would be made to reinvigorate them and the village, which is their cradle. Peasants and laborers would be enabled to have their share in the distribution of wealth to such an extent as would enable them not only to live with a bare margin of existence, but with the average scale of a comfortable life free from wants. Nevertheless, it would be remembered that they being a part and parcel of the nation as a whole, would share common obligations and responsibilities and therefore would only receive their share in such a way as would be consistent with the general development and security of national industry, manufacture and wealth in general.

  3. As the national capital is under the present circumstances mainly individual and indispensable for the development of national industries and manufactures, it would also receive due encouragement and recompense.

  4. The interests of both the capital and labor would be subordinated to the requirements of the nation as a whole.

  5. If an industry is flourishing, the profits would be shared in a large portion by the laborers. But on the contrary, if it is a losing concern, not only the capitalist, but to a certain extent even the laborers would have to remain satisfied with diminishing returns so that the National Industry as such would not altogether be undermined by the over-bearing attitude of the selfish class interests of either the capitalists or the workers.

  6. Every step would be taken by the State to protect national industries against foreign competition.
  7. The key industries or manufactures and such other items would be altogether nationalized if the National Government could afford to do so and could conduct them more efficiently than private enterprise.


  8. The same principle would apply to agriculture. Government would take over the land and introduce State cultivation if it could serve to train up the peasant class as a whole with the use of big machines and would cultivate on a large and scientific scale.

  9. All strikes and lockouts which are obviously meant or inevitably tend to undermine and cripple national industries or production in general or are calculated to weaken the economic strength of the nation as a whole would be referred to State arbitration and settled or in serious cases quelled.

  10. Private property would be in general held inviolate. In no case there would be on the part of the State any expropriation of such property without reasonable recompense.

Thus Savarkar’s India would be a democratic State in which the countrymen belonging to different religions, sets or races would be treated with perfect equality and none would be allowed to dominate others or would be deprived of his just and equal rights of free citizenship, so long as every one discharges the common obligation which one owes to the State as a whole.


Hindustan, the Motherland and Holyland of the Hindus, from the Indus to the Seas, would be an organic undivided State. The appellations of this Bharat Bhoomi would remain as Bharat or Hindustan. In Savarkar’s India none would dare convert Hindus by fraud or force. Everywhere the Indians would be respected as citizens of a great nation. In that India relative non-violence would be regarded as a virtue.

The Hindus would be a casteless society a consolidated, modernized and up-to-date nation their marriage customs would be secularized and voluntary inter-caste marriages would be freely performed. Hindu corpses would be burnt in electric crematorium. In Savarkar’s India science would lead all material progress and things and would annihilate superstitions. There would be a total liquidation of landlordism. All the land would belong to the State by and by. All key industries would be nationalized. Agriculture would be mechanized. India would be self-sufficient in respect of food, clothes, shelter, and defence.

Savarkar’s India would have unbounded faith in a World Commonwealth as his political philosophy conceives that the Earth is the Common Motherland and humanism the patriotism of man, but his India would not go under during the process which leads to the welding of humanity into a World Common wealth. In international politics Savarkar’s India would help to build world peace and prosperity.
Savarkar’s philosophy finds full expression in the Flag he has designed for the Hindus. It bears the symbol of Kundalini with the Omkar and Kripan. Hindus have perfected the science of yoga. According to Savarkar’s it is highest blessing on human life; it is the contribution of the Hindus to mankind. This yoga means full development of man’s internal powers. The symbol of that power is Kundalini. To attain the wonderfully supersensuous joy through the awakened Kundalini is, Savarkar opines the highest ideal of men, be he a Hindu or a non-Hindu. In short, the Kundalini * represents all the ultimate aspirations, feelings and powers of mankind. The Kundalini represents yoga, the highest spiritual attainment while the Kripan represents Bhoga, Abhyudaya, and the worldly advancement. The red-orchard colour of the Flag indicates renunciation-Tyaga. And there is no renunciation without Yoga and Kshema-protection. Therefore the Kripan is for the Yoga Kshema.

The Omkar is the sacred symbol of the great One with Whom the liberated souls become one in the highest state of Nihshreyas-spiritual bliss. It seems Savarkar was, with the exception of Aurobindo Ghose, the only first rate Indian leader who had experienced this super-sensuous joy. He had practiced this Yoga while in the Cellular Jail of the Andamans. So Savarkar was the only political philosopher who chose Kundalini on the Flag. The Swastik was added to the Flag later on by the Hindu Mahasabha when it accepted the Flag. Originally it was not there.

Attacks Gandhi and Jinnah Chapter 15
S’s main appeal to the Hindus was that they should elect only those Hindus who could boldly acts as advocates of a Hindu nation. The Congress had one policy i.e. of trampling Hindu sentiment to please the Muslims. The more the Congress bent the more fanatic the Muslims became. Congress leaders, mostly, did not have understanding of the Muslim mind, was held to be one of the reasons for Partition. Unfortunately leaders of post independent India have failed to learn from the mistakes made earlier.
Two guiding principles inspired S through out his career; they were the Independence and Indivisibility of India. He sensed India’s independence but was scared of the Congress’s servile, deceptive attitude. A foretold by S, the Muslim League came out with a demand for dividing Bharat. Said its Lahore Resolution of 1940 “The areas in which Muslims are numerically are majority as in the North-Western and Eastern zones of India should be grouped to constitute Independent states in which they shall be autonomous and sovereign”. When S criticized the Congress they discredited him for having suspected the patriotism of their holy fathers, I would say when you have no argument to defend yourself you use these words.

S never tolerated any unjust or unpatriotic political demands made by Indian minorities. He wanted patriots not minorities who demanded their pound of flesh for agreeing to something. When Rajaji offered the League Pakistan if they agreed to join the National Govt, S said it was a typical Congress conception of national unity that such as assurance should be given to the League before even the Brits had done so. What infuriated S was an article by Gandhi in the Harijan in October 1940 which stated that in case the Brits were overthrown as a result of the war and internal anarchy set in, “the strongest power in the land will hold sway over India and this may be Hyderabad for aught I know. All other chiefs will succumb to the strongest power of the Nizam who will be the emperor of India”. Why Gandhi was so madly infatuated with the Muslims baffles me. S replied that Gandhi knew as little of history as of Hebru and stated that if the rule of an Aurangzeb was domestic rule, the Hindus detested it as veritable hell. Gandhi’s disciple, Patel, by attacking Hyderabad 8 years later, vindicated S’s stand.

Whirlwind propaganda made S’s health deteriorate. Yet he attended the annual session of the Mahasabha in 1940 where he was elected President. In March 1941, Liberal circles held a non-party conference in Mumbai. Its convener was Tej Bahadur Sapru. The conference was about to break up since some of the leaders were nervous about its representation. At this crucial moment Sapru requested S to address the meet. He asserted his belief in India’s right to complete independence, but although some of them present there did not agree with him fully, they should travel together so long as they had a common journey. Sapru openly thanked S for saving the conference. Liberal leaders present were impressed with S’s intellectual and persuasive powers, rationalistic and realistic approach to the political problem. Jinnah as usual said the conference was engineered by the agents of the Congress and Mahasabha.

The Congress adopted a strange policy towards the Census. S believed that for the next 10 yrs, the census would determine all constitutional progress and matters wrt public services, representations in legislatures. The numerical strength between Hindus and Muslims as recorded in the census was going to affect the political discussions in India as had the census of 1931 affected the act of 1935. S appealed to all Hindus, Arya samajists, lingayats, sardars, jains to show their religion as Vedic, Hindu. The Congress boycotted it since to them it was a communal question. S said that if it were indeed communal why had, the Congress had agreed to communal electorates, they gave recognition to the numerical strengths while deciding the political questions of India. As a result Bengal was incorrectly declared a Muslim majority province. It was the same Congress who had boycotted the Census of 1931 but took the figures of the Muslim population as correct while determining the question of communal weightages in 1931. Later the negotiations between Jinnah and the Brit Cabinet Mission for determining the issue of Pakistan were taken on the basis of these census figures. Where had the Congressmen left their intellect?

Jinnah denounced the Mahasabha and warned the Brits that if they failed to create Pakistan, others would come and do it. S retorted that if the state of Croats was an ideal of his Pakistan, he asked Jinnah to read history and know the fate of Croats, Serbs and Slavs who had been victims of larger states. He said that the Hindu-Buddhist alliance from Jammu to Japan would be resisting a Pan-Islamic alliance. He ended by saying, “History avers to the ever-abiding truth that in India, Pakistanis may come and go but Hindustan goes on forever. If the Muslim insisted on partition, he said the Hindus are determined to continue the good fight for the freedom and integrity of Hindustan”.
It was the belief of S that no nation in World War II was actuated by moral considerations. To underline this truth he sent a cable to American President D. Roosevelt on 20/8/1941 urging him to declare whether the Atlantic Charter announced by him and Churchill covered the case of India or not and whether Amercial guaranteed the full political freedom of India within a year of the war. The cable was broadcast through out the world esp in Germany, Britain, Amercia etc and fully exploited by Hitler to expose the Allies profession of love and democracy. The point S drove home that India need not base her hopes on the professed war aims of the Allies.
S toured Assam in 1941 where received a grand ovation. He was told that Nehru’s attention was drawn into the Muslim influx into Assam he said that natures hates vacuum to which S commented that Nehru did not know that nature abhors poisonous gas. He kept on with his social movement but not without the same revolutionary fervor. He encouraged the R.S.S. patronized them. Future events confirmed his doubts.
Cripps Mission Chapter 16

Since this matter has been dealt with in the essay on Sardar Patel (section-great men of India) I will be as brief as possible. The popularity of the Sabha was on the rise. S was now much sought after by the media for his views.

With the fall of Singapore to the Japanese, it seemed that the Japs would smash the allied forces in the East. A this critical moment S issued a statement excerpts “Nothing can rouse the Indian people with a war like spirit, but a bold and unambiguous declaration that India is guaranteed forth with a co-partnership in an Indo-British Commonwealth with other self-governing constituents like Britain. If Japan is allowed to reach the borders of India such her immediate aim is to free India, such a Proclamation on their part cannot but catch the imagination of the Indian people by storm and usher in incalculable political complications”. Meanwhile in March 1942 Rajaji declared the Muslim demand for Pakistani states as just and fair share in real power. S condemned Rajaji.
Apprehensive after the fall of Singapore and with a view to impressing the American people with the genuine sincerity of British aims about India, Churchill announced on 11/3/1942 the Cripps Mission. The scheme put forward by Stafford Cripps envisaged the creation of a new Indian Union, which would constitute a Dominion, associated with the United Kingdom immediately after the cessation of hostilities. Secondly the scheme granted the right to any province that was not prepared to accept the new Constitution framed by the constitution making body, to retain its status, provision being made for its subsequent accession, if it so desired. Cripps had an interview with S – read below.

To support his arguments Cripps said that the right of self-determination was not new in politics, as given to every unit in Canada before the formation of her federation. S then turned those arguments against Cripps by telling him the Canadian states were separate entities before they were called together to say whether they liked to form themselves into an organic state. But India was already one welded Central unit. To this Cripps replied that India was never a Unitarian nation. S said “To the Hindus, it is an article of faith that India, their motherland and holyland, is a cultural and national unit undivided and indivisible. Also the British gvt calls it as one administrative unit with one army, navy and airforce”. Cripps had to keep silent. The Mahasabha was the first political organization that rejected the Cabinet proposal entirely. The Congress was willing to accept the scheme but was unhappy that the Defence portfolio would remain with the Brits during the war, eventually rejected the scheme. S’s stock rose further.

Mesmerized by the false notions of its president Maulana Azad, the Congress Working Committee passed a resolution in April 1942 “That the Congress could not think in terms of compelling the people of any territorial unit to join the Indian Union against their declared and established will”. If it were not acceptance of Pakistan by the Congress! However, Babu Jagat Narayan moved his Akhand Bharat Resolution in May 1942 and got it passed at the AICC session. It was clear that the Congress wanted to divide India.
Mahasabha Marches on Chapter 17
The Akhand Hindustan Movement was gradually gaining ground. The Hindu Mahasabha was defeating the Congress in municipal, local and district local board elections. It upset the Congress applecart in Bengal, Assam, Maharashtra. The Sabha observed 10/5/1942 as anti-Pakistan day. While Muslim League leaders were allowed to propagate the cause of Pakistan, the Sabhaites were arrested at many places. It continues to happen even in India in 2001. AbuAzmi, a Samajwadi party, Muslim leader exhorted Muslims to kill atleast one Hindu for every Muslim in the next riots, his statement was reported by a Marathi paper. Its editor was arrested for spreading communal disharmony while the guy who made the speech went scot-free. Only in India is the majority community treated like this.

History will record that S was the only great leader to raise his voice against the division of India. Gandhi said, “Let the Hindus say to the Muslims, have as big a share of the spoils as you want, we will be content to serve you”. What does one tell a Saint! He later said “Vivisect me before you vivisect India” but the Muslims never listened to him! Lastly he said, “I would be ruled by them, for it would still be Indian Rule”. In 1942 Nehru said “There is now a demand on the part of some Muslims for partition of India, and it must be remembered that this demand is only four years old”. Nehru knew History!

In May 1942, John Paton Davis, second secretary of the U.S. Embassy came to interview S. Then an American Negro leader came and told him how of the disabilities the Negroes were undergoing in the U.S. Then came journalist Lois Fischer. He asked S, why don’t you concede Pakistan? To which S asked why don’t you grant Negrostan? Lois said that would be anti-national. So is the case with Pakistan shot back S. Lois tried to corner S but the fiery S armed with irrefutable arguments hot back. What Louis did not know that he was crossing swords with one of the greatest intellectual giants of Maharashtra? A group of Chinese Muslims visited Nellore and promised help to their Indian counterparts. S warned that if China did not check their activities, separatist’s tendencies would rise there too. How correct was S.
On special request of the Arya Samaj, Hindu Sikh Nava Javan Sabha etc he visited Jammu & K in July 1942. He was given a warm welcome, presided over the Hindu-Sikh conference in Jammu. Stopping at Rawalpindi he told the Press that Rajaji was making two fundamental errors, Pakistan would usher ever lasting Hindu-Muslim unity and the outcome of a united demand for freedom would lead to the withdrawal of British power. How true was S! Even after 50 years Pakistan continues to harass us, Hindu Muslim unity is a mirage. The Brits left India because of the debacle of World War II and Bose’s uprising rather than a united demand.

Unable to take the physical strain any longer S resigned from the Presidentship of the Hindu Mahasabha in July 1942. The Sabha was paid compliments by many but the best was reserved for Jinnah, he said “The Hindu Mahasbha is an absolutely incorrigible and hopeless body, and I can have nothing to do with it”. Unlike the Congress, which had many stalwarts, S was its tallest leader with little back up.

Having failed with the Individual Disobedience Movement Gandhi was all set for the Quit India Movement. S promised to cooperate with the Congress provided it stood by the integrity of India. Gandhi declined the offer. Appeasement was the corner stone of his policy, he wrote to Jinnah excerpts, “Congress will have no objection to the Brits transferring all the power to the Muslim League on behalf on behalf of the whole of India. The Congress may even join such Government”.
S believed that in terms of in respect of tactical questions, the timing, the ways, means and methods of revolution, effectiveness depends on some sane calculations but in the Congress there was no planning at all. S wanted a pre-planned revolution, which would attempt to gain military support because no revolution can succeed without their support.
Gandhi was set to launch his Struggle but he was arrested the same night. Yet the marked feature of the struggle that it was predominantly Hindu with the Muslims standing aloof? After the August revolution, S views were heard with more concern and interests. The reputation of the Hindu Mahasabha was at its highest ever.
Writing on the Wall Chapter 18
The Congress tried to take over the Sabha because S decided not to resign from its presidentship in 1942. S said then that he was against self-determination but not provincial re distribution. He said that P would be militarily dangerous and hence it would be suicidal to hand over the frontiers to a hostile group. The Pakistani Muslim would pounce upon neighboring Hindu territory with fire fanaticism. How true was he! He also said that banishing untouchability was to win a major war for the nation.

After the failure of the Quit India Movement, Gandhi was arrested. To secure his release G went on a 21 day fasts. While the Mahasabha prayed for his well being they warned that the fast not be exploited for bringing about constitutional changes to end the deadlock. S correctly senses that if done so it would threaten the integrity of India. It was a historic reading of G’s mind. A year later India was stunned when Rajaji came out his formula and declared that Gandhi had fathered it during his fast. Oh bhagwan what must I do to be blessed with S’s power to read into events, actions. Resignations in the Executive Council did cheer Gandhi a bit but the League!

It was pushing the Pakistan proposal ahead. Its Sind League ministry passed the Pakistan resolution inside the resolution. The writing was on the wall. The Liberals sought S’s help to speak to the Viceroy on Gandhi’s release. However, S could not attend their conference the next day due to a toothache and a previous meeting with William Phillips, President Roosevelt’s personal envoy. The interview was on a wide range of topics from the situation in India to future relations between India and the U.S. Meanwhile the Liberals issued a statement that S had signed an appeal for Gandhi’s release, which S contradicted.
On May 28, 1943 S’s 60th birthday was celebrated with lots of love and enthusiasm. At Pune he was presented with a purse of Rs 1,25,000/. At Mumbai, Amaravati, Nagpur, Ahmedabad S was felicitated too. Except Tilak no leader was similarly honored in Maharashtra and the services of no Indian leader except Gandhi upto that day were publicly appreciated on such a large scale.
About this time Jinnah desired to capture power in the Muslim majority provinces. So he sought the cooperation of the Hindu ministers. While the Congress wanted these ministers to rein the Hindu Mahasabha said do not. So Dr Wadhwani refused to reign from the Sind Cabinet but form Coalitions without committing themselves to anything detrimental to the integrity of India. Jinnah now expressed a desire to meet S. Meanwhile Jinnah had seen the Viceroy and secured his approval for the formation of Coalition govts. He had given up his demand for 50 % representation in Ministries but agreed to form them on population basis as suggested by S. Jinnah kept on delaying meeting S.

S resigned from the Sabha in July 1943 but his resignation was not accepted. In June 1943, the Sind govt had banned Chapter XIV of Swami Dayanand Saraswati’s magna opus Satyarth Prakash. While the Congress kept quiet, S appealed to the Viceroy. Then came the famine of Bengal. The Muslims tried to utilize the time to convert starving women and children. S attacked these nefarious designs of the Muslims. S urged Hindu leaders and organizations to come forward and help. Said the official Vatican Organ around that time “The Christian light shines already in the subcontinent of India. We hope it will blaze someday in great splendor”. S criticized the Vatican.

He attended the celebrations second millenium celebrations of Vikramaditya the great. Come December he was elected the president of the Hindu Mahasabha for the 7th time.
In March 1944, Congressmen fresh out of jail begun to realize the frustration of their boycott of the Central Assembly. They joined the assembly and outvoted the Finance Bill in collaboration with the Muslim League. The League used this to browbeat the Viceroy. Sensing the League game plan, the Sabha MLA’s did not support this unholy alliance. The Congress criticized the Sabha but its stand was vindicated with a vengeance by the disclosure of the Bhulabhai-Liaqat Ali Khan pact which was mooted by this alliance. In June 1944 S again had an interview with the personal representative of the American President Roosevelt on the future of Indo U.S. relations. By now Bose’s I.N.A. had made some progress. Its leaders were grateful to S, their inspirer.
Fight for a United India Chapter 19

Rajaji had by now released to the press his correspondence with Jinnah on the offer that was fathered by Gandhi during his jail stay. Rajaji said, “I stand for Pakistan because I do not want that State where Hindus and Muslims are not honored. Let the Muslims have Pakistan. If we agree our country will be saved. Gandhi approved of my proposals and authorized me to approach you (Jinnah) on that basis”. Jinnah said, “Gandhi is offering a shadow, a husk, a maimed, mutilated and moth-eaten Pakistan and thus trying to pass off as having met the Muslim demand”. All this happened in April 1943. Was not S’s reading of Gandhi’s mind correct?

Rajaji’s new offer had these terms. That the league should endorse the Indian demand for independence and co-operate with the Congress in the formation of a provincial Interim govt and conceded that if the Muslim majority provinces of the West and East decided a plebiscite in favor an independent state the decision should be given effect to, a mutual agreement should be entered into for safeguarding defense, commerce and communication. In the meantime Gandhi asked Jinnah for an interview – 1944.

S disagreed with these proposals; his views were much sought after by the American papers. Meetings supporting Rajaji’s proposals were disrupted. Gandhi was greeted with black flags enroute from Wardha to Mumbai. S warned the people against the impeding danger. Gandhi
Jinnah talks lasted for about three weeks in September 1944, the underlying theme was that the British govt should be ousted first and then the right of self-determination be given to the Muslims. Jinnah wanted the opposite. Gandhi said, “The League will, however, be free to remain out of any direct action to which the Congress may resort and in which the League may not be willing to participate”. Thus the Muslim participation in the freedom struggle was not guaranteed but the partition of India was.
Gandhi paid 19 visits to Jinnah’s house without success. S’s mind was torn with anxiety, his anguish was imaginable. S organized, as a mark of protest, the Akhand Hindustan Leaders Conference in October 1944. It was attended by Master Tara Singh, Sri Shankaracharya of Puri amongst others. It was the greatest demonstration of the nationalist opposition to the scheme of Pakistan during that period. Owing to a hectic lifestyle, hardships at Andamans was no longer able to withstand the strain of an active political life. Then in May 1945, S’s elder brother, counsel, compatriot and heroic brother Babarao Savarkar passed away. Condolences poured in from across the world.

In early 1945, Bhulabhai Desai with the approval of Gandhi came out with a formula that was worse than Rajaji’s. The Congress agreed to a 50-50 Hindu Muslim representation Muslims. The parity of the Congress and League was now a reality. The Brits welcomed the proposal while S opposed it. Lord Wavell returned from London with a Wavell Plan. The Plan was to form a new Executive Council with him with equal representation of caste-Hindus and Muslims. There was no reference to the Indian states, not to speak of Indian independence. The Plan, however, presupposed full cooperation against Japan by the leaders. Quit India prisoners were released. The Congress leaders were now ready the Japanese and even Bose’s I.N.A. A conference was held at Simla where the Mahasabha was not invited but all other parties were invited. It failed but it increased the stature of Jinnah and the League, political parity got transformed into communal parity.

Countrywide protests by the Mahasabha and others kept growing daily. The Mahasabha intended to launch direct action but unfortunately Dr S.P. Mookerjee was not backed in doing so. Had the Mahasabha done this it would rise in the eyes of the public. It must be admitted that S failed in his promise to resort to direct action at the opportune time. It was here that the ruddership of the Mahasabha broke down and it was swept along with the new captain into the trough of the popular estimation in the election held thereafter.
During this period the Labor won a landslide victory in the Brit elections, around then the Japanese sunk under the atomic bomb attack. The govt announced General Elections in Sept 1945 to test the strength of political parties, to hammer out a constitution. The Congress plunged into the elections head-on; the League said Pakistan or Perish. The Mahasabha campaign was low key due to lack of funds, more importantly it missed the dynamic leadership of S, for he unwell and made no move. There was no organizer to build up and consolidate the party. Nor did he show any anxiety about it. Also the Congress changed its strategy. Patel inspired confidence in the Hindu electorates by his anti-Pakistan outbursts and anti-League speeches. Congress was gaining and the Mahasabha loosing.

The most unfortunate aspect of this election for the Mahasabha was that its President Dr Mookherjee lost his grit and confidence in the nick of time. There was a sudden break down in his health. Patel and Nehru who had never inquired about S’s health, now, rushed to the side of Dr Mookherjee and inquired about his health. He withdrew his candidature and gave up the struggle even before he joined it. When the trials of Bose’s I.N.A. men came up, the Congress which had earlier condemned the I.N.A. as rice soldiers took their side and stole a march over the Hindu Mahasabha to their advantage.

So during the 1945 elections the Congress changed its positioning with the Indian public, echoing the Hindu Mahasabha’s views as its own, it did not want competition for the Hindu vote. The interest by the Congress in the IN.A. Trials too were guided by the forthcoming elections. The Hindu Mahasabha was now wiped out from the political landscape of India; the Congress met its waterloo in the fields held by Muslim candidates. The victory of the Pakistani forces was complete.
During this election the Hindu Mahasabha was the only Hindu organization that stood by its pledges to the Hindu nation. What were the R.S.S. and the Arya Samajis doing? Meanwhile S’s health deteriorated further, he was moved to Walchandnagar on 1/1/1946. He had a heart attack on 20/01/1946.
From Parity to Pakistan Chapter 20

The year 1946 opened with the general elections to the Provincial Legislatures all over India. Congressmen used the same old tactics and reiterated the pledge to a united India. On 14/1/1946, Patel said at Ahmedabad, “Granting Pakistan is not the hands of the British govt. if Partition is to be achieved Hindus and Muslims would have to fight. There will be a civil war”. Such fiery speeches of the Congress were similar to those of the Hindu Mahasabha. It overran the Hindu Mahasabha in the elections. Ironically the party Congress which had sowed the seeds of Pakistan starting with the Khilafat Movement and its many one-sided humiliating overtures to Jinnah now talked of a United India. (There are other factors responsible for Partition too, inherent in the nature of Islam and the Aligarh Movement but they are beyond the scope of this article). Public Memory in India is short then and even fifty-five years later we live in an idealistic world.

Meanwhile anti-Brit feelings reached a climax. Even the army was feeling the pangs of freedom. On 15/3/1946, PM Attlee, declared India’s right to full independence within or without the British Commonwealth and said, “We cannot allow a minority to place their veto on the advance of the majority”. The British Cabinet mission reached Delhi on March 24. Nehru thundered on April 5, “The Congress is not going to agree to the Muslim demand for Pakistan under any circumstances, even if the Brits agree to it”. Well the emotional Nehru had to eat his words sooner than later. See how the Congress in the early to mid forties kept on wooing the League with various offers strengthening its demand for partition and now in 1946 talked against Partition. The Muslims like Suhwardy and Firoz Noon warned the country with dire consequences if their demands were not met. It characterizes Muslim attitude even today, they take to violence easily.

S had returned to Pune. Along with Dr Mookherjee submitted a memorandum before the Mission that


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