Prepositions ending in a vowel often drop the final vowel when it comes before a word that begins with a vowel.
di ] e]mou? = through me (Jn. 14:6)
(dia< + e]mou?)
If there is a rough breathing mark on the next word, the final consonant may be shifted:
meq ] h[me(meta< + h[me
A proclitic is a word that has no accent because it is joined so closely with the accented word that follows it.
e]n, ei]j and e]k are proclitics.
They come before (pro) the word with the accent.
Enclitics are accentless words that follow the word with the accent. Personal pronouns are frequently enclitics.
Prepositions are often found compounded with a verb in Greek. Sometimes the meaning of the compound may be determined by combining the meaning of the preposition with the meaning of the verb. Other times, however, the preposition affects the meaning of the verb in other ways, most frequently intensifying it.
dia< + ble
a]po< (fingers pointing “out” both front arms extended out)
kata< (hands push against each other in front)
meta< (two arms extend around shoulders of invisible buddies--with)
It is difficult learning the prepositions as vocabulary items. They are short, but the cases must be learned with each definition. They also have many more meaning possibilities than “normal” words. In Greek, you need to pay particular attention to the small words. Take extra time to master these well. Learn each case of the word almost as a separate item for those that come in more than one case.