Mastering New Testament Greek Textbook Ted Hildebrandt Baker Academic



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Form

The second aorist is built from the second aorist verb stem. It is preceded by an e augment and followed by secondary endings, like the imperfect.


Augment

Verb stem

Connecting vowel

Secondary endings

I took

e +

lab +

o +

n =

e@labon

Aug

Stem

CV

Ending



The connecting vowel is o before m and n, and e elsewhere.


Second Aorist Active Indicative of lamba




Singular

Plural

1.

e@labon

I took

e]la

We took

2.

e@labej

You took

e]la

You took

3.


e@labe(n)

He/she/it took

e@labon

They took

Note: The n, s, e, men, te, n endings are the same as for the imperfects.

Note: Sometimes the third person plural ending will be -an, as in ei#pan (they said), rather than the expected ei#pon (they said).
Second Aorist Middle Indicative of gi




Singular

Plural

1.

e]geno

I became

e]geno

We became

2.

e]ge

You became

e]ge

You became

3.

e]ge

He/she/it became

e]ge

They became

Note: The mhn, ou, to, meqa, sqe, nto endings are the same as for the imperfects.

The aorist and future passives will be formed from a different stem and learned later. Note that this aorist paradigm is deponent. Middles are “I brought (for myself).”

Augments

Aorist Augments = Imperfect Augments

The augment is added in four ways:

1. Before consonants it is e.

2. Before vowels the augment contracts with the vowel according to the following rules:




Vowels

Diphthongs

e + a = h

e + ai = ^

e + e = h

e + ei = ^

e + h = h

e + oi = &

e + i = i

e + au = hu

e + o = w

e + eu = hu

e + u = u



Four patterns:

(1) a and e lengthen to h.

(2) o lengthens to w.

(3) i ending becomes a diphthong subscript.

(4) u ending of a diphthong stays strong.


3. Compound verbs with prepositions ending in a consonant: insert the augment between the prepositional prefix and the verb stem. e]kba4. Compound verbs with prepositions ending in a vowel: The final vowel of the preposition is dropped and the e augment is inserted in its place. a]poktei
Aorist augments work the same way as these imperfects you have already learned. When you see an augment, think secondary tense (aorist or imperfect).

Aorist Stems of Verbs


Here is a list of second aorist forms of verbs already learned. Master these forms.

Present


Second Aorist




a]pe<

a]ph?lqon

I departed

a]poqn^

a]pe

I died

ba

e@balon

I threw

o[ra

ei#don

I saw (cf. ble

gi

e]geno

I became

ginw

e@gnwn

I knew

ei]se

ei]sh?lqon

I entered

e]ce

e]ch?lqon

I went out

e@rxomai

h#lqon

I came, went

eu[ri

eu$ron

I found

e@xw

e@sxon

I had

lamba

e@labon

I took


le

ei#pon

I said



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