Mastering New Testament Greek Textbook Ted Hildebrandt Baker Academic



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Translation Examples

kai> e@balen ei]j th>n gh?n.

And he threw [it] to the earth (Rev. 8:5).


e]n t&? ko o[ koHe was in the world, and the world was made by him (Jn. 1:10).


kai> ei#pen o[ ]Ihsou?j, Ei]j kri ei]j to>n koAnd Jesus said, “For judgment I came into this world” (Jn. 9:39).



Vocabulary


ai$ma, -matoj, to<

blood (97)

ai@rw

I raise, take up (101)

dida

I teach (97)

i@dioj, -a, -on

one’s own (114)

kalo

good (100)

me

I am about to, intend (109)

o[do

way (101)

polu

much, many (416)

sw?ma, -matoj, to<

body(142)

yuxh<, -h?j, h[


soul, life (103)

Memory Verse: Mat. 6:10a-c


e]lqe

h[

basilei

sou:

Let come

the

kingdom

your













genhqh

to>

qe

sou,

let happen

the

will

your




w[j

e]n

ou]ran&?

kai>

e]pi>

gh?j:

as

in

heaven

so also

on

earth;

15

First Aorist Verbs

You will be able to—

1. recognize and write the first aorist paradigm,

2. write the first aorist stems of the verbs learned in previous lessons,

3. translate the first aorist indicative form,

4. gain more practice in translating and working with Greek,

5. master ten more high-frequency vocabulary words, and

6. memorize Mat. 6:11 in Greek.

Introduction


In English we have two ways of forming the past tense:
1. Add the “ed” suffix to the word:

I laugh at Elliott’s jokes (present).

I laughed at Elliott’s jokes (past).

2. Change the form of the verb:

Zach runs down the court (present).

Zach ran down the court (past).


Comparison with Greek


Like the English, Greek forms the Aorist in two ways. The first aorist is formed off the present stem, with an augment and a suffixed sa. The second aorist is built from a different aorist stem that adds endings identical to the imperfect.

The aorist is used for when the action is viewed as a whole and complete (e.g., “he loosed”). The aorist is the most frequent tense form and is used as a background tense by writers as opposed to the present tense form which is used to foreground material. The imperfect is used to portray action in progress or “dwelled upon” (aspect), and can be used of action that is continuous/durative/iterative (Aktionsart). The actual time or tense of the action is triggered more by temporal pointers like adverbs, prepositional phrases and conjunctions than the aorist tense form itself. The aorist can be used for actions which are past, present, omnitemporal or timeless. Thus the aorist is extremely flexible.Both the first and second aorists are usually translated as a simple past (e.g., “he came”). However, they may sometimes be translated by the English perfect (e.g., “has spoken” or “he speaks”). The imperfect is used to portary action as developing, unfolding or “dwelled upon” (e.g. “he was loosing”).


First Aorist Form

The first aorist is built from the first aorist verb stem. It is preceded by an e augment and followed by secondary endings like the imperfect. The future was constructed by inserting a s between the stem and ending. So the first aorist is formed by inserting a sa between the stem and secondary pronominal endings.



Augment

Verb stem

Tense formative

Secondary endings

You loosed

e +

lu +

sa +

j =

e@lusaj

Aug

Stem

Tense connective

Ending





Aorist Active Indicative of lu




Singular

Plural

1.

e@lusa

I loosed

e]lu

We loosed

2.

e@lusaj

You loosed

e]lu

You loosed

3.

e@luse(n)

He/she/it loosed

e@lusan

They loosed

Note: The -, s, e, men, te, n endings are the same as the imperfects except that in the first person singular the n is dropped.

Aorist Middle Indicative of lu




Singular

Plural

1.

e]lusa

I loosed
(for myself)

e]lusa

We loosed
(for ourselves)

2.

e]lu

You loosed
(for yourself)

e]lu

You loosed
(for yourselves)

3.

e]lu

He/she/it loosed
(for himself/herself/itself)

e]lu

They loosed
(for themselves)

Note: The mhn, w, to, meqa, sqe, nto endings are the same as the imperfects except in the second person singular, where the ou shifts to w.


Augments


By now you know how the augment is added (see chaps. 12 and 14). Sorry for the repetition, but just to refresh your memory. The augment is added in four ways:
1. before consonants it is “e.”

2. before vowels the augment contracts with the vowel according to the following rules:





Vowels

Diphthongs

e + a = h

e + ai = ^


e + e = h

e + ei = ^

e + h = h

e + oi = &

e + i = i

e + au = hu

e + o = w

e + eu = hu

e + u = u



Four patterns:

(1) a and e lengthen to h.

(2) o lengthens to w.

(3) i ending becomes a diphthong subscript.

(4) u ending of a diphthong stays strong.


3. Compound verbs with prepositions ending in a consonant: Insert the augment between the prepositional prefix and the verb stem. e]ndu4. Compound verbs with prepositions ending in a vowel: The final vowel of the preposition is dropped and the e augment is inserted in its place. a]polu

Ending Transformations—Sigma Addition


The sigma ending is added in basically the same way as the sigma was added for future tense verbs with the similar transformations (see chap. 10).
Velars: (k, g, or x) + s becomes c.

dida

Labials: (p, b, or f) + s becomes y.

ble


Dentals: (t, d, or q) + s drops the dental.

pei
With liquids (l and r) and nasals (m and n), “lemoners,” often the sigma is dropped and the preceding vowel in the stem is changed.
mea]poste

If the stem ends in a sibilant (s, z), the sibilant is dropped and the sigma of the ending is kept.

s&These transformations are not always predictable. Thus it is necessary to be able to recognize the aorist for each verb.

Aorist Stems of Verbs


Here is a list of first aorist active indicative forms of verbs already learned.


Present

First Aorist




a]kou

h@kousa

I heard

a]poste

a]pe

I sent

ble

e@bleya

I saw

gra

e@graya

I wrote

dida

e]di

I taught

pisteu

e]pi

I believed

qe

h]qe

I wished

me

e@meina

I remained

kri

e@krina

I judged

s&

e@swsa

I saved

Chant: First Aorist

e@lusa (I loosed) (-- pronounce noise sound “aahh”)

--, -j, -e, -men, -te, -n


e]lusa-mhn, -w, -to, -meqa, -asqe, -anto



Translation Examples


kai> h@kousan fwnh?j megaAnd they heard a loud voice from heaven (Rev. 11:12).


e]gw> pa e]n t&? i[er&?.

I always taught in synagogue and in the temple (Jn. 18:20).


@Egraya u[mi?n e]n t^? e]pistol^?.

I wrote to you in the letter (1 Cor. 5:9).


Vocabulary


a@lloj, -h, -o

other (155)

a@rtoj, -ou, o[

bread (97)

dei?

it is necessary (101)

e]cousi

authority (100)

e!teroj, -a, -on

different (98)

e@ti

yet, still (93)

o]fqalmo

eye (100)

te

child (99)

to


place (94)

fw?j, fwto

light (73)

Review


Mat. 6:9:

Pa




a[giasqh o@noma< sou:

Mat. 6:10

e]lqe




genhqh qe




w[j e]n ou]ran&? kai> e]pi> gh?j:

Memory Verse: Mat. 6:11


to>n

a@rton

h[mw?n

to>n

e]piou

the

bread

our

the

daily portion




do>j

h[mi?n

sh

Give

us


today;

16

Aorist and Future Passive Verbs

You will be able to—


1. recognize and write the aorist and future passive indicative paradigms,

2. know the passive stem forms of some of the major verbs learned in previous lessons,

3. translate aorist and future passive indicative forms,

4. gain more practice in translating and working with Greek,

5. master ten more high-frequency vocabulary words, and

6. memorize Mat. 6:12a in Greek.


Introduction


Passive verbs indicate subjects are acted on by the action of the verbs. In English, we form the past passive indicative by using a helping verb (e.g., I was struck by the foul ball). Similarly, the future passive indicative is formed with the helping “will be” (e.g., I will be flown to Indianapolis) indicating expectation.

Comparison with Greek


Rather than using a helping verb, Greek uses a different ending to indicate the passive indicative for aorist and future tenses.

In the lexicon this stem will be the sixth (last) principal part (aorist passive). We have already worked with the first three (present, future, aorist; vid Appendix 4 which lists the principal parts of the major verbs).




Present

Future

Aorist

Perfect

Perf Mid/Pass.

Aorist Pass.

ba

balw?


e@balon

be

be

e]blh

The Greek aorist and future passive forms are built from the sixth principal part of the verb. They are easily recognized because of the characteristic q just before the ending. Like other aorist tense verb forms, aorist passives take the augment.


Aorist and Future Passive Forms


The aorist passives are formed by adding qh before the ending:

e] +

lu +

qh +

n =

e]lu

Aug

Stem

Passive

connective



Secondary Active Ending

I was loosed

The future passives add qhs before the ending and drop the augment.




lu +

qhs +

omai =

luqh

Stem

Passive

connective



Primary Mid/Pass Ending

I will be loosed

Passive Connective Transformations

When a stem ends in a consonant the following changes take place when the qh is added.

Velars: k or g becomes x

diwk + qh = e]diw

Labials: p or b becomes f

lei


f causes the q to drop out

graf + qh = e]gra

Dentals: t, d, or q becomes s

peiq + qh = e]pei

Sibilant: z, becomes s

docaz + qh = e]doca
Consonant Shifts

Velars:

k, g

+ q =

xq

Labials:

p, b

+ q =

fq [f+q=f]

Dentals:

t, d, q

+ q =

sq

Sibilants:

z

+ q =

sq

A simple way to remember this is single consonantal velars (k, g) go to the double lettered (ch) palatal (x). Single consonantal labials (p, b) go to double lettered (ph) labial (f). The dentals (t, d, q) and sibilant (z) both reduce to a sigma (s).


First Aorist Passive Indicative of lu




Singular

Plural

1.

e]lu


I was loosed

e]lu

We were loosed

2.

e]lu

You were loosed

e]lu

You were loosed

3.

e]lu

He/she/it was loosed

e]lu

They were loosed

Note the active secondary endings: n, j, –, men, te, san. The third singular and plural are different than what we’ve already learned, but the rest is exactly the same.


Future Passive Indicative of lu




Singular

Plural

1.

luqh

I will be loosed

luqhso

We will be loosed

2.

luqh

You will be loosed

luqh

You will be loosed

3.

luqh

He/she/it will be loosed

luqh

They will be loosed

Note the passive primary endings: omai, ^, etai, omeqa, esqe, ontai. You already know these.

Middles/“Deponent”


Some verbs that are middle/deponent in the present will use a passive form in the aorist (e.g., a]pekriAorist Passive Stems

Present Active

Aorist Passive

Future Passive

a]poste

a]pesta



ba

e]blh

blhqh

gi

e]genh



ginw

e]gnw

gnwsqh

dida

e]dida



du

h]dunh



e]gei

h]ge

e]gerqh

eu[ri

eu[re

eu[reqh

qe


h]qelh



kri

e]kri

kriqh

lamba

e]lh



le

e]rre



o[ra

w@fqhn

o]fqh

pisteu

e]pisteu



poreu

e]poreu



s&

e]sw

swqh

e@rxomai does not have an aorist/future passive stem form (relax!).


Second Aorist Passive Indicative of gra




Singular

Plural

1.

e]gra

I was written

e]gra

We were written

2.

e]gra

You were written

e]gra


You were written

3.

e]gra

He/she/it was written

e]gra

They were written

The second aorist passive has no theta in the tense stem, but the endings are the same as the first aorist passive.


Chant for the Aorist Passive Indicative (API) Verb


(I was loosed) (-- pronounce noise sound “aahh”)
e]luChant for the Future Passive Indicative (FPI) Verb

(I will be loosed)


luqh

Translation Examples


]Apekri ei#pan au]t&?, [O path>r h[mw?n ]AbraaThey answered and said to him, “Our father is Abraham” (Jn. 8:39).


Kai> o!te ei#den o[ dran gh?n

And when the dragon saw that he was cast to the earth (Rev. 12:13)


Ou$toj h]ge tw?n nekrw?n.

This is John the Baptist; he was raised from [among] the dead (Mat. 14:2).


Vocabulary


ai]w

age, eternity (122)

a]llh

one another (100)

a]rxiereu

high priest (122)


gunh<, -aiko

woman (215)

du

I can, am able (210)

e@qnoj, -ouj, to<

nation (162)

o!soj, -h, -on

as great as (110)

po

city (162)

te<

and, and so (215)

xei

hand (177)

Review


Mat. 6:9:

Pa




a[giasqh o@noma< sou:

Mat. 6:10:

e]lqe




genhqh qe




w[j e]n ou]ran&? kai> e]pi> gh?j:

Mat. 6:11:

to>n a@rton h[mw?n to>n e]piou




do>j h[mi?n sh

Memory Verse: Mat. 6:12a


kai>

a@fej

h[mi?n

ta>

o]feilh

h[mw?n,

and

forgive

for us

the

debts

our


17

Contract Verbs

You will be able to—


1. identify contract verb formations,

2. implement the rules of vowel contraction,

3. recognize and write the paradigms of key contract verbs,

4. translate contract verb forms,

5. gain more practice in translating and working with Greek,

6. master ten more high-frequency vocabulary words, and

7. memorize Mat. 6:12b in Greek.

Introduction


Verbs with stems ending in a, e, or o are known as contract verbs. For example, in the verb a]gapa

Contractions take place in the present and imperfect tenses.


a]gap + a< + o + men = a]gapw?men

In the aorist
and future, where the suffix s is used, the final stem vowel lengthens.

a]gap + a< + s + omen = a]gaph

Rules of Contraction (FOLDS)


Rule 1: Likes go long. Two like vowels combine into their common long vowel.


a + a = a

e + h = h

o + w = w

Example: plhro + w = plhrw?
Two exceptions:

e + e = ei

o + o = ou

Example: poie + ete = poiei?te

Rule 2: O overcomes. An o or w will overcome an a, e, or h, becoming w.


o + a = w

e + w = w

Example: a]gapa< + w = a]gapw?
Exception:

e + o = ou

o + e = ou

Example: poie< + omen = poiou?men
Rule 3: First overcomes. When an a, e, or h come together, whichever comes first becomes its own matching long vowel.


a + e or a + h = long a

e + a = h

Example: a]gapa< + ete = a]gapa?te

Rule 4: Same vowel with diphthong drops. A vowel similar to the first vowel of a diphthong drops out.



o + ou = ou

e + ei = ei

Example: poie + eij = poiei?j
Rule 5: Dissimilar vowel with diphthong contracts. A vowel dissimilar to the diphthong that follows it will contract, using the preceding rules—
a. unless the third vowel is an upsilon, in which case the upsilon drops out.

b. unless the third vowel is an iota, in which case the iota becomes an iota subscript.


Exceptions:

o + ei = oi

e + oi = oi

o + ^ = oi

Contraction Charts (for reference only)


When a vowel in the left row is combined with a vowel or dipthong in the top line, the resulting contraction appears where the coordinates meet.

Vowel and Vowel Contraction




a

e

h

i

u

o

w

a

a

a

a

ai

au

w

w


e

h

ei

h

ei

eu

ou

w

o

w

ou

w

oi

ou

ou

w


Vowel and Diphthong Contraction




ei

^

ou

oi

a

%

%

w

&

e

ei

^

ou

oi

o

oi

oi

ou

oi

Paradigms

Three typical contract verb paradigms will be presented. These represent a, e, and o type verbs. As you look through the paradigms, you should reflect on the contract rules that are being used in the contraction process. Do not memorize these. Learn to figure them out by using the rules.

Present Active Indicative of a]gapa




Singular

Plural

1.

a]gapw? (aw)

I love

a]gapw?men (aomen)

We love

2.

a]gap%?j (aeij)

You love

a]gapa?te (aete)

You love

3.

a]gap%? (aei)

He/she/it loves

a]gapw?si(n) (aousi)

They love


Present Active Indicative of poie




Singular

Plural

1.

poiw? (ew)

I do

poiou?men (eomen)

We do

2.

poiei?j (eeij)

You do

poiei?te (eete)

You do

3.

poiei? (eei)


He/she/it does

poiou?si(n) (eousi)

They do


Present Active Indicative of plhro




Singular

Plural

1.

plhrw? (ow)

I fill

plhrou?men (oomen)

We fill

2.

plhroi?j (oeij)

You fill

plhrou?te (oete)

You fill

3.

plhroi? (oei)

He/she/it fills

plhrou?si(n) (oousi)

They fill

Liquid/Nasal Verbs


Liquid verbs have stems ending in l, m, n, or r (Lemoners). l and r are liquids, and n and m are nasals, but verbs ending in any of these four consonants are grouped together because they form their futures in the same way. In the future active and middle indicative, the tense suffix s is replaced with an e, which contracts according to the normal contraction rules. Thus the future of kri

Translation Examples


Ti< de< me kalei?te, Ku ou] poiei?te a! leAnd why do you call me, “Lord, Lord,” and do not do what I say? (Lk. 6:46).

kai> o[ path pro>j au]to>n e]leusoAnd my father will love him, and we will come to him (Jn. 14:23).

a]lla> lalou?men qeou? sofiBut we speak God’s wisdom in a mystery (1 Cor. 2:7).


Vocabulary


ei]

if, that (504)

e]sqi

I eat (158)

za

I live (140)

zhte

I seek (117)

h@

or, either (343)

kale

I call (148)

lale

I speak, say (296)

parakale

I urge, exhort (109)

plhro

I complete, fill (86)

poie

I do, make (568)

Review


Mat. 6:9:

Pa



a[giasqh o@noma< sou:

Mat. 6:10:

e]lqe




genhqh qe




w[j e]n ou]ran&? kai> e]pi> gh?j:

Mat. 6:11:

to>n a@rton h[mw?n to>n e]piou




do>j h[mi?n sh

Mat. 6:12a:

kai> a@fej h[mi?n ta> o]feilh

Memory Verse: Mat. 6:12b


w[j

kai>

h[mei?j

a]fh

toi?j

o]feile

h[mw?n:

as

also

we

we forgave

the

debtors

our;


18

Perfect Verbs

You will be able to—

1. recognize and write the perfect active indicative paradigms,

2. recognize pluperfect active indicative paradigms,

3. know the perfect stem forms of some of the major verbs learned in previous lessons,

4. translate perfect and pluperfect indicative forms,

5. gain more practice in translating and working with Greek,

6. master ten more high-frequency vocabulary words, and


7. memorize Mat. 6:13a in Greek.

Introduction and Translation


The perfect tense form is used by an author to portray an action as a state of being often frontgrounding the action, singling out the action for special attention. Porter points out that the perfect may refer to past events and be translated like an aorist (e.g. Jn. 12:40 “he blinded their eyes”), a present (Jn. 12:23 “the hour is come”) and rarely even as a future (1 Jn. 2:5 “the love of God will be completed”). There are also omnitemporal/gnomic and timeless uses as well (1 Jn. 4:12 “no one has ever seen God”) and iterative uses (Jn. 16:23 “these things I have repeatedly spoken to you”) (Porter, Idioms, 40f). The diversity of meanings will be narrowed down based on the lexical meaning of a particular verb or by contextual indicators. For now we will translate it with the simple helping verb “have” but realize that its base meaning is frontgrounding a state of affairs.

Perfect Formation


The perfect is the last Greek tense to be learned. It is formed by attaching both a prefix and a suffix to the perfect active stem. The perfect suffix is ka, while the perfect prefix is derived by reduplication of the initial consonant.


Reduplication

Stem

Perfect connective

Pronominal ending

Perfect tense form

le +

lu +

ka +

te =

lelu

Reduplication Patterns


Consonantal reduplication: When a verb begins with a consonant, the consonant is doubled and attached to the front of a word with a connecting epsilon (le + luka).
Exceptions: f, x, or q
If the initial consonant of the verb is f, x, or q, the reduplicated consonant will be p (for f), k (for x), or t (for q). See Mounce, Basics, 222.


fanero

becomes

pefane

(I have shown)

xari

becomes

kexa

(I have given freely)

qerapeu

becomes

teqera

( I have been healed)


Vocalic reduplication: When a verb begins with a vowel or diphthong, the vowel is lengthened: e]lpi
Doubled consonant or
r: If a word begins with two consonants or a rho, an epsilon is usually added instead of reduplication: ginw
Compound verbs: The reduplicated form comes between the verb and the initial preposition: a]poste

Adding Perfect Kappa

Contract verbs lengthen their final stem vowel preceding the perfect k ending: a]gapaIf a verb stem ends in t, d, or q, the consonant is dropped when the perfect k is added: e]lpi

The middle/passives reduplicate on the front end but do not add the ka suffix on the back end.

Perfect Active Indicative of lu




Singular




Plural




1.

le

I have loosed

lelu

We have loosed

2.

le

You have loosed

lelu

You have loosed

3.

le

He/she/it has loosed

lelu

They have loosed

Note that the active endings are used: –, j, e, men, te, si(n). The first singular drops the n, and the third plural goes to si(n).


Perfect Middle/Passive Indicative of lu




Singular

Plural

1.

le

I have been loosed

lelu

We have been loosed

2.


le

You have been loosed

le

You have been loosed

3.

le

He/she/it has been loosed

le

They have been loosed

Translate perfect middle/passives as passive unless the particular verb or context dictates otherwise. Middles will, as normal, be understood as emphasizing the subject’s participation in the action of the verb and translated active or for the subject’s benefit (have loosed [for himself]). There is no ka suffix. Primary endings are added directly, with no theme vowel (e, o) and “lemoners” drop their consonant as the ending is added. The contract verbs will lengthen their stem vowel and other consonantal ending verbs will make various consonantal shifts:


mai, sai, tai, meqa, sqe, ntai

se

ke

pefi

ge

Second Perfect


A few verbs do not take the ka perfect tense marker but still follow the reduplication pattern. Mounce (Basics, 224) notes four common second perfect verbs, to which a fifth can be added:


a]kou

becomes

a]kh

gi

becomes

ge

gra


becomes

ge

e@rxomai

becomes

e]lh

lamba

becomes

ei@lhfa

Second Perfect Middle/Passive add the endings directly onto the base form without an intervening ka (Stevens, New Testament Greek, 255).


e@gnwsmai, e@gnwsai, e@gnwstai . . . = I have been known (ginw

Oi#da


oi#da is an odd verb that is a perfect but translated as a present. You should be aware of its irregular form. Mathewson insightfully proffers that it retains its perfect aspect.


1.

oi#da

I know

oi@damen

we know

2.

oi#daj

you know

oi@date

you know

3.

oi#de(n)

he/she/it knows

oi@dasi(n)

they know

Pluperfect Paradigm—Augmented Perfect

Pluperfect tense is rare and expresses action completed in the past with a terminated effect some time in the past. The pluperfect is formed by adding an augment to the perfect form and using the suffixes illustrated below. Some pluperfects, however, do not add an augment (Mk. 14:44).



1.

e]lelu

I had loosed

e]lelu

we had loosed

2.

e]lelu

you had loosed

e]lelu

you had loosed

3.

e]lelu

he/she/it had loosed

e]lelu

they had loosed

In its form, you can think of the pluperfect as an augmented perfect. The ei connecting diphthong also can trigger you to think of the pluperfect.


Principal Parts


For Greek verbs there are six principal parts from which the paradigms are built. You now know how all the parts function. When you look verbs up in the lexicon, these six principal parts will be listed:


Present

Future

Aorist Active

a]gapa

a]gaph

h]ga




Perfect Active

Perfect Mid/Pass


Aorist Passive

h]ga

h]ga

h]gaph


Chant Perfect Active Indicative (RAI) Verb
le Chant Perfect Middle/Passive Indicative (RM/PI) Verb
le
Perfect Indicative Verb Stems

Present Active

Perfect Active

Perfect Mid/Pass




a]gapa

h]ga

h]ga

I love

a]kou

a]kh



I hear

a]poste

a]pe

a]pe

I send

ba

be

be

I throw

gi

ge

gege

I become

ginw

e@gnwka

e@gnwsmai

I know

gra


ge

ge

I write

e@rxomai

e]lh



I come

eu[ri

eu!rhka



I find

e@xw

e@sxhka



I have

kale

ke

ke

I call

kri

ke

ke

I judge

lale

lela

lela

I speak

lamba

ei@lhfa



I take, receive

le

ei@rhka

ei@rhmai

I say

me

meme



I remain

o[ra

e[w


I see


pisteu

pepi

pepi

I believe

poie

pepoi

pepoi

I do, make

poreu



pepo

I go

s&

se

se

I save



Translation Examples


!O h#n a]p ] a]rxh?j, o! a]khkoWhat was from the beginning, which we have heard, which we have seen (1 Jn. 1:1)


le, ku pepi ei# o[ XristoShe said to him, “Yes, Lord, I have believed that you are the Christ” (Jn. 11:27).


(The perfects here refer to present states and may be translated present: “I believe”)
kai> h[mei?j pepisteu e]gnwAnd we have believed and have known that you are the holy one of God (Jn. 6:69).


(Likewise these refer to present states so may be translated present: “We believe and know that...”)

Vocabulary


genna

I beget (97)

dikaiosu

righteousness (92)


e]a

if, when (351)

ei]rh

peace (92)

oi#da

I know (318)

oi]ki

house (93)

o[ra

I see (454)

peripate

I walk, live (95)

pw?j

how (103)

fobe

I fear (95)

Memory Verse: Mat. 6:12b-13a


w[j

kai>

h[mei?j

a]fh

toi?j

o]feile

h[mw?n:

as

also

we

we forgave

the

debtors

our;


kai>

mh>

ei]sene

h[ma?j

ei]j

peirasmo

and

not

(you) lead

us

into

temptation,

19

Present Participles

You will be able to—


1. understand how the participle works in English and Greek as a verbal adjective, substantive, and adverb;

2. recognize and write the participle forms in the present active indicative paradigms;

3. translate present participle forms,

4. gain more practice in translating and working with Greek;

5. master ten more high-frequency vocabulary words; and

6. memorize Mat. 6:13b in Greek.


Introduction


In Greek, participles are used in much the same way as they are in English. Present participles are formed in English by adding “-ing” to the verbal form (e.g., walking). A participle is a verbal adjective.

The participle is a critical part of the Greek language. Care must be taken to recognize its forms. One must also know the diverse ways it is translated, whether as an adjective or as an adverb.


Verbal Adjective

A participle has both verbal and adjectival qualities. Participles are like verbs in that they are formed from several Greek tenses (present, aorist, perfect, and a few futures) and have voice (active, middle, passive). They can take direct objects like verbs and may be modified by an adverb or prepositional phrase (e.g., She found the child lying in bed).

Participles are like adjectives in that they have gender, number, and case. They may be used as an adjectival modifier or as a substantive.

Adjective or Adverb


A Greek participle may be translated adverbially or adjectivally. As an adverb the participle tells when, how, why, or in what circumstances the verb is functioning. The adverbial present participle points to and modifies the verb by using words like “while” or “when” (e.g., While surfing the web, he found that site).

A participle can also function as an attributive adjective. Connecting words like “who” or “which” will often be used to translate these types of participles (e.g., The man who is sitting is the chief). The participle here is translated like a relative clause (who/which + is . . .).

A participle can also function like a substantive adjective (The one who is sitting there is the organizer).




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