Mastering New Testament Greek Textbook Ted Hildebrandt Baker Academic



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Participle and Time

The time of the participle is relative to the time of the main verb. In aorist participles, the action often takes place before the action of the main verb: “After talking, he saw his friend.” The aorist may also describe attendant circumstances, with action taking place at the same time as the main verb. Writers use the aorist to portray complete/wholistic action in a backgrounding manner.

Translating Participles

The aorist adjectival participle will often be translated by using the English past tense verb rather than an “ing” English participle, adding “who,” “which,” or “the one who” (e.g., The one who spoke to me wrote the book,” or “The one who loosed me entered the temple). Adverbial participles will often be translated in a temporal clause by using “while, after, or before” (e.g., After laughing, the boy left).

We will be learning the aorist active, middle, and passive as well as noting second aorist forms. Active participles are used when the word the participle modifies is doing the action (e.g., The man who skated by is a friend).

A middle participle usually is translated as an active emphasizing the subject’s participation in the action of the verb. However, it may indicate that the action occurs for the benefit of the subject. Mounce calls this the “self-interest” nuance (Basics, 224). E.g., The woman who freed herself went to the library.

A passive participle is used when the word modified receives the action of the participle (e.g., The boy who was stung by the bees ran for cover.) The aorist active and middle forms are built from the aorist stem. Aorist passive participles are built from the aorist passive stem. Here is a chart about aorist participles:






Adverbial participle has no Art.

Adjectival attributive has Art. before noun it modifies.

Adjectival substantive has Art. but no noun to modify.

Aorist Active

after loosing

(the girl) who loosed

the one who loosed

Aorist Middle

after loosing himself

(the girl) who loosed herself

the ones who loosed themselves

Aorist Passive

after being loosed

(the girl) who was loosed

the one who was loosed

Sometimes the participle may act as a main verb as Wallace’s chart on the semantic range of the participle indicates (Wallace, 269).



Verbal Adjectival

Independent

(Verbal)

Imperatival

Indicative


(Substantival)

Subject, object, etc.



Dependent

(Adverbial)

Temporal, Causal,

Means, Manner, etc.

(Adjectival)

Attributive

Predicate




First Aorist Participle Forms


Aorist active participles are built from the aorist verb stem. The first aorist suffix sa is added to the stem. Then, in the masculine and neuter, the sign of the participle (nt) is added, followed by the third declension noun endings. Note: There is no augment on participles.

Stem

Aor.

Ptc. nt

Third Declension

Masc./Neut. Participle

lu +

sa +

nt +

oj =

lu

The aorist active feminine is formed by adding the first aorist suffix sa, followed by the sign of the participle (s) and the first declension endings.




Stem

Aor.

Ptc. s

First Declension

Fem. Participle

lu +

sa +

s +

hj =

lusa

Aorist middle participles are similar in form to present middle participles. The main difference is that the aorists have the first aorist sa suffix attached to the stem.




Stem

Aor.

Mid. Ptc.

Second Declension

Masc. Participle

lu +

sa +

men +

oj =

lusa

Finally, the aorist passive stem, marked with the characteristic qe, is followed by nt and the third/first/third declension endings.




Stem

Aor. Pass.

Ptc. nt

Third Declension

Masc./Neut. Participle

lu +

qe +

nt +

oj =

luqe


First Aorist Active Participles (recognize these forms)




3

1

3

Singular


Masculine

Feminine

Neuter

Nom.

lu

lu

lu?san

Gen.

lu

lusa

lu

Dat.

lu

lusa

lu

Acc.

lu

lu

lu?san

Plural










Nom.

lu

lu

lu

Gen.

lusa

lusasw?n

lusa

Dat.

lu

lusa

lu

Acc.

lu

lusa

lu


First Aorist Middle Participles




2

1

2

Singular

Masculine

Feminine

Neuter

Nom.

lusa

lusame

lusa

Gen.

lusame

lusame

lusame

Dat.

lusame

lusame

lusame

Acc.

lusa

lusame

lusa

Plural










Nom.

lusa

lusa

lusa

Gen.

lusame

lusame

lusame

Dat.

lusame

lusame

lusame

Acc.

lusame

lusame


lusa


First Aorist Passive Participles




3

1

3

Singular

Masculine

Feminine

Neuter

Nom.

luqei

luqei?sa

luqe

Gen.

luqe

luqei

luqe

Dat.

luqe

luqei

luqe

Acc.

luqe

luqei?san

luqe

Plural










Nom.

luqe

luqei?sai

luqe

Gen.

luqe

luqeisw?n

luqe

Dat.

luqei?si(n)


luqei

luqei?si(n)

Acc.

luqe

luqei

luqe


First Aorist Active Participles (know these forms cold)




3

1




Nom.

lu

lu

lu?san

Gen.

lu

lusa

lu


First Aorist Middle Participles




2

1

2

Nom.

lusa

lusame

lusa

Gen.

lusame

lusame

lusame


First Aorist Passive Participles



3

1

3

Nom.

luqei

luqei?sa

luqe

Gen.

luqe

luqei

luqe



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