The time of the participle is relative to the time of the main verb. In aorist participles, the action often takes place before the action of the main verb: “After talking, he saw his friend.” The aorist may also describe attendant circumstances, with action taking place at the same time as the main verb. Writers use the aorist to portray complete/wholistic action in a backgrounding manner.
The aorist adjectival participle will often be translated by using the English past tense verb rather than an “ing” English participle, adding “who,” “which,” or “the one who” (e.g., The one who spoke to me wrote the book,” or “The one who loosed me entered the temple). Adverbial participles will often be translated in a temporal clause by using “while, after, or before” (e.g., After laughing, the boy left).
We will be learning the aorist active, middle, and passive as well as noting second aorist forms. Active participles are used when the word the participle modifies is doing the action (e.g., The man who skated by is a friend).
A middle participle usually is translated as an active emphasizing the subject’s participation in the action of the verb. However, it may indicate that the action occurs for the benefit of the subject. Mounce calls this the “self-interest” nuance (Basics, 224). E.g., The woman who freed herself went to the library.
A passive participle is used when the word modified receives the action of the participle (e.g., The boy who was stung by the bees ran for cover.) The aorist active and middle forms are built from the aorist stem. Aorist passive participles are built from the aorist passive stem. Here is a chart about aorist participles:
Adverbial participle has no Art.
Adjectival attributive has Art. before noun it modifies.
Adjectival substantive has Art. but no noun to modify.
(the girl) who loosed
the one who loosed
after loosing himself
(the girl) who loosed herself
the ones who loosed themselves
after being loosed
(the girl) who was loosed
the one who was loosed
Sometimes the participle may act as a main verb as Wallace’s chart on the semantic range of the participle indicates (Wallace, 269).
Aorist active participles are built from the aorist verb stem. The first aorist suffix sa is added to the stem. Then, in the masculine and neuter, the sign of the participle (nt) is added, followed by the third declension noun endings. Note: There is no augment on participles.