Mastering New Testament Greek Textbook Ted Hildebrandt Baker Academic



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Introduction

Thus far we have studied verbs in the indicative mood. Mood, as Porter has said, “is an indication of the attitude of the speaker toward reality” (Idioms, 231). The indicative mood is the mood a speaker/writer will use to portray reality as they perceive it and indicative verbs express real action. One must be careful to realize the indicative does not equal reality as liars may use the indicative to misrepresent reality. There are three Greek moods of potential:
1. Subjunctive is the realm of the possible. “May” or “might” is often used in translation (e.g., Zach may wash the car).

2. Imperative indicates expected action calling for volition and often with expectation. The imperative often expresses a command (e.g., Zach, wash the car! or prohibition: Zach, don’t wash the car today).



3. Optative indicates a hoped-for circumstance that is often a remote possibility. In Greek it is often used in prayer (e.g., Oh, that Zach would wash the car).
Aspect may be a useful way of thinking of the subjunctive. The present is used by the writer to portray an unfolding of process, immediacy foregrounding the verb. The aorist is used as a background form viewing the action as wholistic and complete.

Introduction to the Subjunctive


The subjunctive mood is the mood of potential or possibility. “May” and “might” are the two key words often used in translating subjunctives. Subjunctives are easily recognized by the trigger words that usually precede them. Their form is easily learned since the endings are the same as the present active indicative except that the connecting vowel is lengthened from omicron to omega and from epsilon to eta.

Form

The subjunctive present (action in progress or unfolding) is built from the present verb stem as follows:

lu + w + men = luThe subjunctive aorist (whole or complete action) is built from the aorist verb stem with a sigma and the same endings as the present. There is no initial augment. Augments occur only in the indicative. Be able to chant through the present and first aorist paradigms. They should sound very familiar.
lu + s + w + men = lumay loose
Present Subjunctive of lu

Active

Singular

Plural




1. lu

I may loose

lu

We may loose




2. lu<^j

You may loose

lu

You may loose




3. lu<^

He/she may loose

lu

They may loose

Middle/Passive

Singular

Plural




1. lu

I may be loosed

luw

We may be loosed




2. lu<^

You may be loosed

lu

You may be loosed




3. lu

He/she may be loosed

lu

They may be loosed


First Aorist Subjunctive of lu

Active

Singular

Plural




1. lu

I may loose

lu

We may loose




2. lu

You may loose

lu

You may loose




3. lu

He/she may loose

lu

They may loose

Middle

Singular

Plural




1. lu

I may loose myself

lusw

We may loose ourselves





2. lu

You may loose yourself

lu

You may loose yourselves




3. lu

He/she may loose himself/herself

lu

They may loose themselves
















Passive

Singular

Plural




1. luqw?

I may be loosed

luqw?men

We may be loosed




2. luq^?j

You may be loosed

luqh?te

You may be loosed




3. luq^?

He/she may be loosed

luqw?si(n)

They may be loosed


Second Aorist Active Forms of lei
(to leave, fall short) (no sigma)


Singular

Plural


1. li

li

2. li

li

3. li

li


Subjunctive of ei]mi<

Singular

Plural

1. w#

I may be

w#men

We may be

2. ^#j

You may be

h#te

You may be

3. ^#

He/she may be

w#si(n)

They may be

Subjunctive Triggers


The subjunctive aorist looks like the future indicative, so care must be taken to distinguish the two. One way is to use subjunctive triggers, words that usually tip you off that a subjunctive will follow. These are found in dependent clauses (He went so that he might try the bike).


i!na

in order that (used most often)

e]a

if

o!j a@n

whoever


e!wj

until

Subjunctive Translation Examples


kai> o!ti ou] xrei tou? a]nqrw

And because he did not need that anyone might witness concerning man (Jn. 2:25)


i!na pa?j o[ pisteun ai]wThat anyone believing in him might have eternal life (Jn. 3:15)


a]lla> tau?ta leBut I say these things that you might be saved (Jn. 5:34).


Four Types of Conditionals


Conditions have two parts: the protasis (if) and the apodosis (then). The simple form is: If A then B. The protasis presents the condition, and the apodosis tells the consequence. There are about 600 conditional statements in the New Testament. Here are the basic structures but one must be careful to allow the pragmatic use in context to determine how a particular condition is being used and to what desired effect on the readers.
There are four types of conditions in Greek:

1. reality, assumed reality (for the sake of argument)

2. contrary to fact (presumed false)

3. possible (anticipation/expectation), and

4. possible but more contingent (less likely future).
One should be aware that levels of probability can better be derived from the contextual indicators than the particular conditional form structure.

First Class Condition: Assumed Reality

Form: ei] + indicative verb (protasis) + any apodosis.

Function: Assumes the reality of the condition (protasis). Assumption may not actually be the case in reality, however—may just be assumed for the sake of argument.

E.g., ei] de> pneu u[po> noBut if (since) you are led by the Spirit, you are not under the law [= and indeed you are so led] (Gal. 5:18).

Wallace observes only 37% of the 300 first class conditions fit with a “since” translation of the first class conditional. He highlights 36 times where it cannot possibly be “since.” For example, Mat. 12:27: “if I cast out demons by Beelzebub ...”. Clearly he is assuming it to make a point and not affirming its reality (cf. 1 Cor. 15:13; Wallace, 310).

Second Class Condition: Assumed Impossibility (contrary to fact)


Form: ei] + aorist/impf. indicative verb (protasis) + a@n +

aorist/impf. indicative verb (apodosis)

Function: Assumes the condition is contrary to fact.
E.g., ei] h#j w#de ou]k a@n mou a]peqanen o[ a]delfo

If you had been here, my brother would not have died [= but obviously you were not here—thus denying the protasis] (Jn. 11:32).


Third Class Condition: Possibility (anticipation/expectation)


Form: e]aFunction: Possibility future condition.


E.g., e]aIf you release this one, you are not a friend of Caesar [= you have not yet, but if you do, then . . .] (Jn. 19:12).

Found about 300 times in the New Testament. Sometimes it will semantically share the meaning of the first class conditions with the level of probability derived from the context.

Fourth class condition: Possibility (rare)—less likely future or more contingent

Form: ei] + optative mood (protasis) + optative (apodosis)
E.g., a]ll ] ei] kai> pa

But if you should suffer (1 Pet. 3:14) (cf. Summers, Essentials, 121; Dana and Mantey, Manual Grammar, 289). Again the context will dictate the level

of possibility.

Various Subjunctive Functions


We have already discussed the role of the subjunctive in third class conditional statements. The subjunctive has four other major functions:
1. Hortatory subjunctive urges the speaker and listeners to a certain behavior or mind-set. This use requires the first person.

Die i@dwmen.

Let us go, and let us see (cf. Lk. 2:15).
2. Subordinate purpose or result clause is often introduced by i!na + subjunctive.

i!na marturh tou? fwto

in order that he might witness concerning the light (Jn. 1:7)
3. Prohibitive subjunctive uses the aorist with a negative and prohibits an action.

mh> ei]sene

Lead us not into temptation (Mat. 6:13).

4. Deliberative subjunctive often is a rhetorical device not calling for an answer.

ti< ei@pw u[mi?n;

What shall I say to you? (1 Cor. 11:22).


Negative Questions

There are two major ways to say “no” in Greek, using ou] and mh<. ou] is used with finite verbs in the indicative. mh< is used with the moods of potential (subjunctive, imperative, optative) and nonfinite verbal forms (participles, infinitives). Sometimes with subjunctives, a double negative ou] mh> is used for emphasis (Jn. 6:37). ou] and mh< are used in questions to elicit two quite different responses.

When a question begins with ou], the expected answer is “yes.”

You will study tonight, won’t you? (implied “yes” answer)


When a question begins with mh<, the expected answer is “no.”

You aren’t going to study, are you? (implied negative answer)


One way to remember this is, “May” (mh<) means “nay.”

Translation Examples


ou]k ei]mi> a]po ]Ihsou?n to>n kuAm I not an apostle? [of course I am] Have I not seen Jesus our Lord? [of course I have] (1 Cor. 9:1)


ti< ga h[ a]pistin piWhat then? If some did not believe, will their faithlessness nullify the faithfulness of God? [no way] (Rom. 3:3)


Optatives


There are only sixty-seven optatives in the New Testament. We will not learn a paradigm but you should be aware that they exist, express a “wish,” and that their form is characterized by the connective oi, ai, or ei. Here are a few examples (Oh that . . .) (Hewitt, New Testament Greek, 193–94):


ge

aorist dep. 3sg

gi

Oh that it might be

dunai

present dep. 1sg

du

Oh that I might be able

ei@h

present active 3sg

ei]mi<


Oh that he might be

e@xoien

present active 3pl

e@xw

Oh that they might have

qe

present active 3sg

qe

Oh that he might wish

poih

aorist active 3pl

poie

Oh that they might make

Optative Translation Example


Ti< ou#n e]rou?men; o[ no geWhat shall we say then? Is the law sin? May it never be! (Rom. 7:7)


Chant: #24: Subjunctive (I may loose)

lu

lu
Aorist Active & Middle use the same endings as the present

Aorist Passive uses the Present Active endings

Vocabulary


a@gw

I lead, bring (67)

a]polu

I set free (66)

ei@te

if, whether (65)


e]ntolh<, -h?j, h[

commandment (68)

karpo

fruit (66)

pisto

faithful (67)

presbu

elder (66)

r[h?ma, -atoj, to<

word (68)

sa

Sabbath (68)

fe

I bear, carry (66)

24

Imperative Verbs

You will be able to—

1. understand how imperatives work in English and Greek as commands, prohibitions, or entreaties;

2. recognize and write the imperative forms in the present and aorist tenses for the active, middle, and passive voices;

3. gain more practice in translating and working with Greek; and

4. master ten more high-frequency vocabulary words.


Introduction


The imperative mood is used to express a command, entreaty, or prohibition. In English the imperative is used only with the second person (e.g., [You] get in the car!). The Greek imperative occurs in the present and aorist tenses. Both second and third person (“Let him/her/it do something”) forms may be used.

Tense/Aspect

The imperative mood is built from both the present and the aorist stems. The present denotes action as a process in progress (“continue loosing”) and does not necessarily refer to the present time. The aorist form portrays action as a complete whole ([you] loose)(Mathewson, 34). The two tense forms (present/aorist) will often be translated the same way in English but one should be aware of the untranslatable differences between the two.

Form


The form of the second person singular must be learned for each tense. The second person plural form is the same as the present active indicative. You will have to use context to distinguish the two. The third person singular replaces the final e of the second person plural with an w. The third person plural replaces the second person plural e with wsan. A handy way to learn the imperative endings is by learning them in a rhythmic manner: (do as a rap softshoe) (E-toe-ti-toe-san, ou -stho, sthe, sthosan [with a lisp], etc.).
Chant: Imperative Endings tap-dance




2 sg

3 sg

2 pl

3 pl

Present Active

e

tw

te

twsan

Present Mid/Pass

ou

sqw

sqe

sqwsan

First Aorist Active

n

tw

te

twsan

First Aorist Middle

ai

sqw

sqe

sqwsan

First Aorist Passive

ti

tw

te


twsan


Present/Process Action in Progress Imperative of lu

Active




Singular

Plural

2. lu?e

You loose!

lu

You loose!

3. lue

Let him loose!

lue

Let them loose!













Middle/Passive




Singular

Plural

2. lu

You be loosed!

lu

You be loosed!

3. lue

Let him be loosed!

lue

Let them be loosed!

Pedantically one may translate it “you continue loosing,” or “let her continue loosing.”

Note: The third person singular form replaces the final e of the second person plural form with an w, while the third person plural form replaces it with wsan.

First Aorist/Wholistic Complete Action Imperative of lu-- you loose, let her loose

Active

Passive

Singular

Plural

Singular

Plural

2. lu?son

lu

lu

lu

3. lusa

lusa

luqh

luqh










Middle







Singular

Plural




2. lu?sai (= Inf.)

lu




3. lusa

lusa





Second Aorist/Wholistic Complete Action Imperative of lei
(I leave)

Active


Passive

Singular

Plural

Singular

Plural

2. li

li

lei

lei

3. lipe

lipe

leifqh

leifqh










Middle







Singular

Plural




2. lipou?

li




3. lipe

lipe





Imperative of ei]mi<

Singular

Plural

2. i@sqi

e@ste

3. e@stw

e@stwsan

Translated: you be, she must be...

Various Functions


Imperatives are used in several ways:
1. As a command:

a]gapa?te tou>j e]xqrou>j u[mw?n.

Love your enemies! (Mat. 5:44).
2. As a prohibition:

Mh> fobou?, to> mikro>n poi

Fear not, little flock! (Lk. 12:32).
Mounce (Basics, 307f.) observes that a prohibition may also be made in several other ways:

(1) ou] + indicative (you shall not . . .)

(2) mh> + aorist subjunctive

(3) ou] mh> + aorist subjunctive (strong negation)


3. As an entreaty, especially when speaking to a superior (Dana and Mantey, Manual Grammar, 175f.; Summers, Essentials, 127):

Paj e]n t&? o]no

Holy Father, keep them in your name (Jn. 17:11).

Translation Examples


le o@yesqe. h#lqan ou#n kai> ei#dan.

He said to them, “Come, and you will see.” They came therefore and saw (Jn. 1:39).


leJesus said to him, “Go, your son lives.” The man believed (Jn. 4:50).


len kra peripaJesus said to him, “Arise, take your bed and walk” (Jn. 5:8).


Vocabulary


a]gaphto

beloved (61)

grammateu

scribe (63)


daimo

demon (63)

doke

I think (62)

doca

I glorify, honor (61)

e@cw

outside (63)

e]rwta

I ask (63)

qe

will (62)

qro

throne (62)

o@roj, -ouj, to<

mountain (63)

25

The -mi Verbs

You will be able to—


1. read and write the basic paradigms of the -mi verbs,

2. understand how -mi verbs relate to the verb forms we have learned thus far,

3. gain more practice in translating and working with Greek, and

4. master ten more high-frequency vocabulary words.


Introduction


So far we have worked with the -w conjugation, which is also called “thematic” because its verbs use a connecting vowel (usually o or e) between the stem and the ending. Another type of verb that is older, but by New Testament times played a less important role in Koine Greek, is the “mi (-mi)” or “athematic” verbs.

There are four types of -mi verbs:

1. Omicron class (di

di

2. Alpha class (i!sthmi, I set, stand)

i!sthmi is alpha class because the root is sta-.

3. Epsilon class (ti

ti

4. Upsilon (dei

deiWith a few simple rules and knowledge of the endings, these verbs prove fairly regular. The point is not to master them but to be able to recognize their forms.

Formation Rules


1. In the present and imperfect, the initial consonant is reduplicated and connected with an iota (cf. perfect) (Mounce, Basics, 313f.).

do (the root of di

2. -mi verbs do not take a connecting vowel before the pronominal endings. Rather, the root’s final vowel may be retained, lengthened, or omitted.

dido becomes didw.

3. The present form takes the following pronominal endings (Learn these well):





Singular

Plural

1.

-mi

-men

2.

-j

-te

3.

-si

-asi

4. Most of the -mi verbs use the tense suffix ka rather than the normal sa (e.g., e@dwka). Don’t confuse this with the perfects. Note that the present is different, but the rest have rather normal endings that you already know.


di
Active Indicatives

Present

Imperfect


Future

Aorist

Perfect







Singular







1. di

e]di

dw

e@dwka

de

2. di

e]di

dw

e@dwkaj

de

3. di

e]di

dw

e@dwke(n)

de







Plural







1. di

e]di

dw

e]dw

dedw

2. di

e]di

dw

e]dw

dedw

3. dido

e]di

dw

e@dwkan


de


Other Moods

Present Subjunctive

Aorist Subjunctive

Present Imperative

Aorist Imperative

Singular

1. didw?

dw?





2. did&?j

d&?j

di

do

3. did&?

d&?

dido

do

Plural

1 didw?men

dw?men





2. didw?te

dw?te

di

do

3. didw?si(n)

dw?si(n)

dido

do


Infinitives




Present

Aorist


Active

dido

dou?nai

Middle

di

do

Passive

di

doqh?nai


Present Middle/Passive Indicative
(note how regular)





Singular

Plural

1.

di

dido

2.

di

di

3.

di

di

Filling Out the Paradigm


Imperfect Mid./Pass.: e]didoFuture Middles: dw

Future Passives: doqh

Aorist Middles: e]do

Aorist Passives: e]do

Perfect Mid/Pass: de

Three other -mi verb types are based on the final vowel of their root:

Alpha class: (i!sthmi, I set, stand),

Epsilon class: (ti

Upsilon class: (dei

We will now look more carefully at these. In this section we will focus on the present tense only. The other tenses are fairly regular if the expected changes to the final vowels are kept in mind. One should note that in the present and imperfect, the final vowel is lengthened in the singular and shortened in the plural.
Present Paradigms

Singular

1. i!sthmi

ti

dei

2. i!sthj

ti

dei

3. i!sthsi(n)

ti

dei

Plural

1. i!stamen

ti

dei

2. i!state

ti

dei

3. i[sta?si(n)

tiqe

deiknu

Although the normal mi-verb paradigm for stems ending in u (e.g., a]po

Exploring ti

Imperfect Active: e]tiAorist Indicative: e@qhka, e@qhkaj, e@qhke(n), e]qh

Present Subjunctive: tiqw?, tiq^?j, tiq^?, tiqw?men, tiqh?te, tiqw?si(n)

Aorist Subjunctive: qw?, q^?j, q^<, qw?men, qh?te, qw?si(n)

Present Active Imperative: ti

Aorist Active Imperative: qe

Principal Parts

PresAI

FAI

AAI

PerfAI

PerfMI

API

di

dw

e@dwka

de

de

e]do

ti

qh

e@qhka

te

te

e]te

i!sthmi

sth

e@sthsa

e!sthka

e!stamai

e]sta

dei

dei

e@deica

(de

de

e]dei

-mi Participles


Participles are formed in a fairly regular manner with the initial reduplication in the present but not in the aorist (all masculine singular examples here):
Present Participles

Active

Masc.

Fem.


Neut.

Nom.

didou

didou?sa

dido

Gen.

dido

didou

dido

Mid/Pass










Nom.

dido

didome

dido

Gen.

didome

didome

didome


Aorist Participles (just pop the di off the present ptc.)

Active

Masc.

Fem.

Neut.

Nom.

dou

dou?sa

do

Gen.

do

dou

do

Middle








Nom.

do

dome

do

Gen.

dome

dome

dome

Passive










Nom.

doqei

doqei?sa

doqe

Gen.

doqe

doqei

doqe


Perfect Participles (shift the di to de + perf. kot/kui )

Active

Masc.

Fem.

Neut.

Nom.

dedwkw

dedwkui?a

dedwko

Gen.

dedwko

dedwkui

dedwko

Mid/Pass

no perf. k






Nom.

dedo

dedome

dedo

Gen.

didome

dedome

dedome

Translation Examples


o[ path>r a]gap%? to>n ui[o>n kai> pa au]tou?.

The Father loves the Son and has given all things into his hand (Jn. 3:35).


ou!twj kai> t&? ui[&? e@dwken zwh>n e@xein e]n e[aut&?.

So he gave to the son also to have life in himself (Jn. 5:26).


a]pokrin yuxhr e]mou? qhJesus answered, “Will you lay down your life for me?” (Jn. 13:38).


Chant: -mi verb Spanish endings (Present)


di

Vocabulary


a]ni

I raise, erect (108)

a]po

I destroy (90)

a]fi

I let go, dismiss (143)

di

I give, put (415)

h@dh

now, already (61)


i!sthmi

I set, stand (154)

khru

I proclaim (61)

paradi

I entrust, hand over (119)

ti

I put, place (100)

fhmi<

I say (66)

26

Numbers and Interrogatives

You will be able to—


1. recognize and translate interrogative statements,

2. recognize and translate indefinite pronouns,

3. recognize and translate basic Greek numbers,

4. gain more practice in translating and working with Greek, and

5. master ten more high-frequency vocabulary words.

Introduction


Thus far we have looked at the following types of pronouns: personal (e.g., e]gw<), relative (e.g., o!j), demonstrative (e.g., ou$toj), reflexive (myself [e]mautou?], yourself [seautou?], him/her/itself [e[autou?]) and reciprocal (e.g., a]llh

Possessive Adjectives


Possessive adjectives are used in place of the genitive case of the personal pronouns at times.

e]mo

so

h[meteroj -- our

u[meteroj -- your (pl.)

Example:

a[gij e]n t^? a]lhqei<% o[ loj a]lhqeia< e]stin (Jn. 17:17)

sanctify them in the truth, your word is truth

Indefinite Pronouns (tij/ti, someone, anything)


This form is an enclitic and is often combined with o!j (o!stij).





Singular

Plural




Masc. and Fem.

Neut.

Masc. and Fem.

Neut.

Nom.

tij

ti

tine

tina<

Gen.

tino

tino

tinw?n

tinw?n

Dat.

tini<

tini<

tisi<(n)

tisi<(n)

Acc.

tina<

ti

tina

tina<

Note that the word is an enclitic, with no accent of its own. These forms receive an accent when given special emphasis or when beginning a clause. The two-syllable forms also receive an accent when following a word with no accent on the ultima.

Example:

Kai> a]postej au]to

And they sent to him some of the Pharisees (Mk. 12:13).

We have looked at interrogative clauses, which use ou] when expecting an affirmative answer and mh< when calling for a negative one. Other questions may also be introduced by the following interrogative adverbs:


po

when?

pou?

where?

pw?j

how?

ti

who? which? what?

Other interrogatives are




dia> ti<

why?

ti<

why?


Interrogative Pronoun (ti




Singular

Plural




Masc. and Fem.

Neut.

Masc. and Fem.

Neut.

Nom.

ti

ti<

ti

ti

Gen.


ti

ti

ti

ti

Dat.

ti

ti

ti

ti

Acc.

ti

ti<

ti

ti

Note that these forms are not enclitic; instead, they have their own accent. Note also that the two-syllable forms are accented on the first syllable and that the acute accent on ti

Example:

mh> ou#n merimnh

Ti< peribalw

Therefore do not worry saying, “What shall we eat?” or “What shall we drink?” or

“What shall we wear?”

Greek Numbers


There are two types of numbers:
1. Cardinal numbers (1, 2, 3 and counting)

2. Ordinal numbers (first, second, and third, telling order in a list)


In Greek ordinal numbers are expressed as shown:


prw?toj, -h, -on

first

deu

second

tri

third

te

fourth

Cardinal Numbers


Cardinal Numbers function like adjectives:


ei$j, mi

1

e!c

6

du

2

e[pta<

7

trei?j, trei?j, tri

3

o]ktw<

8

te

4

e]nne

9

pe

5

de

10







ei@kosi

20





tria

30

e[kato

100

tessera

40

xi

1,000

penth

50

Teens


e!ndeka

dw

triskai

dekate

dekape

11

12

13

14

15

Tens


ei@kosi

tria

tessara

penth

e[ch

20

30

40

50

60

Number One


The number one is often compounded (ou]deiNew Testament Greek, 165; Summers, Essentials, 138):





Masc.

Fem.

Neut.

Nom.

ei$j

mi

e!n

Gen.


e[no

mia?j

e[no

Dat.

e[ni<

mi%?

e[ni<

Acc.

e!na

mi

e!n

Example


h#san de> e]kei? li to>n kaqarismo>n tw?n ]I*oudai metrhta>j duBut there was lying there six stone water jars according to the purification of the Jews, holding two or three measures each


Chant Numbers: 1-10, 12, 100, 1000


ei$j, due!c, e[pta<, o]ktw<, e]nne

dw

Vocabulary


e[autou?, -h?j

of him/her/itself (319)

e]mo

my, mine (76)

i[ma

garment (60)

nu

night (61)

o!stij, h!tij, o!ti

whoever (153)

pou?


where? (48)

proskune

I worship (60)

tij, ti

someone, something (525)

ti

who? which? what? (555)

w$de

here, hither (61)

27

Comparatives, Conjunctions, Adverbs, and Clause Types

You will be able to—


1. recognize and translate comparatives;

2. recognize, classify, and translate conjunctions, adverbs and particles;

3. recognize, classify, and translate purpose, result, and other types of clauses;

4. gain more practice in translating and working with Greek;

5. translate John 1:1–10; and

6. master ten more high-frequency vocabulary words.


Introduction to Comparative and Superlative Adjectives

In this chapter we will examine four syntactic odds and ends. Comparative adjectives (e.g., greater) usually compare two items. Superlative adjectives (e.g., greatest) are used when comparing more than two items. The issue is more the number of items being compared than the inflection on the Greek form. A comparative may be used as a regular adjective or as a superlative. Likewise a superlative may be used as a normal adjective or comparative. Both may be used as a elative which is an intensification of the regular adjectival usage [the very big baloon] (Wallace, The Basics of New Testament Syntax, 132ff).

Comparative Adjectives


Greek uses either the endings -iwn or -teroj, -a, -on, or the particle h@ (than) to indicate a comparative. For example:


me

mei

mikro

mikro

a]gaqo

krei

These are then declined like adjectives (mei

Wallace notes a regular adjective may be used as a comparative:

1) Comparative: Mat. 18:8 kalo soi< e]stin ei]selqei?n ei]j th>n zwh>n kullo

it is better to enter into life crippled.

2) Superlative: Mt 22:38 au!th e]sti?n h[ mega prw

this is the greatest and first commandment
A comparative may function as a:

1) Regular adjective: Mat 12:6 le

I tell you, [something] greater than the temple is here

2) Superlative: Luk 9:48 o[ mikro

the least among you ... is greatest

3) Elative (sense of the adj. is intensified): Acts 13:31 o{j w@fqh e]pi> h[me

who appeared for very many days

Superlative Adjectives

The superlative is rare in the New Testament. It is formed by suffixing either -tatoj, -h, -on or -istoj, -h, -on. There may be a change in the stem as seen in the following example. The most frequent is prw?toj (first) and e@sxatoj (last). The superlative form may function as a regular adjective or as a comparative or elative.



Adjective

Comparative

Superlative

mikro

e]la

e]la

me

mei

meizo

ne

new

new

Other superlatives are

u!yistoj, -h, -on (highest) prw?toj, -h, -on (first)

plei?stoj, -h, -on (most) e@sxatoj, -h, -on (last)

Superlative as an elative: Mk 4:1 sunaj au]to>n o@xloj plei?stoj

a very great crowd gathered before him. (adj. sense instensified: very)

Superlative as comparative:

Mat 21:28 a@nqrwpoj ei#xen te proselqe>n t&? prw

a man had two sons. He came to the first and said...

(vid. Wallace, The Basics of New Testament Syntax, 132ff, for a more complete discussion)


Conjunctions


Conjunctions connect words, phrases, clauses, or sentences. Dana and Mantey’s classifications according to broader areas of meaning are helpful (Manual Grammar, 257).
Temporal

a@xri

until


o!te

when

e]pei<

when

pri

before

e]peidh<

when

w[j

when, as

e!wj

until







Causal

ga

for

o!ti

because

dio

because

w[j

since

e]pei<

since

e]peidh<

since


Purpose

i!na

in order that

o!pwj

in order that

w[j

in order that


Result

w!ste

so that

i!na


(may also sometimes mean) so that

w[j

so as

o!ti

so that


Continuative

de<

and, now

o!ti

that

i!na

that

ou#n

then, now

kai<

and

te<

and


Adversative

a]lla<

but

me

however

de<

but

ou#n

however

kai<

but





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