Perschbacher (New Testament Greek Syntax, 171–84) identifies particles as small indeclinable words that are not prepositions, conjunctions, adverbs, or interjections. The following is a list of some of most frequently used particles:
so be it, truly, amen
(untranslated; occurs with the various moods and often with relative pronouns)
indeed (emphasizes the word it goes with)
look! notice, behold
look! notice, behold
indeed (often with the relative pronoun), on the one hand
There are many ways in Greek by which the verb may be modified in an adverbial sense of time, manner or place. In English, an adverb is often designated by the addition of the –ly ending (he went quickly). We can often convert adjectives into adverbs by adding the –ly ending (he was an articulate [adj.] speaker; he spoke articulately [adv.]).
In Greek we are familiar with several ways the verb may be modified in time, manner and place already. One may use a participle in an adverbial manner (After leaving the store, he went home; vid. chs. 20/21 Translating Participles—adverbial sense). Secondly, the articular infinitive is also used in an adverbial manner (before Phillip called you, I saw you....; vid. ch. 22 Articular Infinitives). Thirdly, many prepositional phrases have an adverbial verb modifying function and indeed some adverbs actually became more prepositional in their function and are classed as “adverbial prepositions” (i.e. e@cw outside). Indeed, some words are classified as both improper prepositions and adverbs and some are marked by the –qen ending (o]pi
We have studied nouns, verbs, prepositions, and other parts of speech. After studying single words, we must move on to larger grammatical constructions. Clauses are a group of connected words that contain a verb. Clauses can function substantively (like a noun), adjectivally, or adverbially. We have already seen clauses in the four types of conditional clauses (if x then y). The following will be an initial exploration into several types of dependent clauses. For higher level analysis one will find wonderful resources in S. Porter’s Idioms of the Greek New Testament (Sheffield, 1999), S. Levinsohn’s Discourse Features of New Testament Greek (SIL, 2000) and Katharine Barnwell’s Introduction to Semantics and Translation (SIL, 1980).
I do not have what I need (functions as the object)
The various clause types follow. The four types of conditional clauses were covered in chapter 23, on the subjunctive verb.
A purpose clause gives an explanation of the object or goal that was pursued by the main verb. They are retrospective, looking back and giving an explanation for why something has occured. I stopped quickly to avoid running over Zach’s bike. Greek expresses purpose in at least three ways (Dana and Mantey, Manual Grammar, 283–84):
1. With an infinitive:
He came that he might bear witness concerning the light (Jn. 1:7).
3. With ei]j or pro
poiou?sin pro>j to> qeaqh?nai toi?j a]nqrw
They do [them] to be seen by men (Mat. 23:5).
Result clauses describe the results that flow from the main verb. There are several ways in which result clauses are marked in Greek. The difference between purpose and result is often subtle in English.
1. The most common is w!ste or w[j + infinitive:
Cause clauses are prospective, looking forward to a goal with intention. They are often introduced with “because.” These types of clauses are generally introduced by conjunctions like o!ti or e]pei<. They can be formed by participles and infintives as well (Porter, Idioms, 237).