There are several ways to form clauses that indicate events taking place before, while, or after the time of the main verb (Dana and Mantey, Manual Grammar, 280–82):
1. With an indicative verb introduced by various prepositions and particles:
o!te, e]peidh<, w[j
e!wj, a@xri, ou$
o!te e]tej lo
When Jesus had finished these words, he departed (Mat. 19:1).
2. With the subjunctive and various prepositions or particles:
e!wj, a@xri, me
Remain there [in that place] until you leave there (Mk. 6:10).
3. With pri
ei@rhka u[mi?n pri>n gene
I have told you before it comes to pass (Jn. 14:29).
4. With a participle:
kai> e]celqw>n ei#den polu>n o@xlon.
And when he came forth, he saw the great crowd (Mat. 14:14).
one hundred (11)
no, no one (90)
no, no one (234)
You will be able to—
1. recognize and translate the various nuances of the Greek case system (genitive, dative),
4. master ten more high-frequency vocabulary words.
Introduction to Deep Case Structure
In chapter 4, the Greek five-case structure was introduced (nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, and vocative). In order to translate correctly, one must be aware of the great variation in the ways these cases are utilized in Greek. This chapter will show some of the translation options for the genitive and dative cases. Context will ultimately determine which option should be employed. One of the major problems with having just one year of Greek is a “this equals that” view of translation. This section is meant to expose you to some of the wide variety and numerous possibilities that come with a deeper knowledge of Greek. This is a mere introduction to the next level of expanding your understanding of Greek.
Until now, we have seen the genitive as a case used for possession, translated “of.” The genitive, however, is used much more widely than that. Its broader meaning is descriptive and often specifies more exactly, defines more precisely, or limits the scope of the word to which it is connected. Thus the genitive has an adjectival function. It also functions like an adverb when it specifies time and place.
The possessive genitive may be translated “of” or as a possessive noun or pronoun (his/her). Possessive answers: whose? Descriptive answers: which?
th>n koilithe mother’s womb (Jn. 3:4)
th>n dohis glory (Jn. 1:14)
The relational genitive specifies a family relationship (son, parent, wife).
h[ mhhis mother (Jn. 2:5)
SiSimon, [son] of John (Jn. 21:15)
Mary the [wife] of Clopas (Jn. 19:25)
The descriptive genitive qualifies the noun, describing it in more detail.
[O zh?loj tou? oi@kou sou
the zeal of your house (Jn. 2:17) [specifies the focus of the zeal]
tou? naou? tou? swthe temple of his body (Jn. 2:21)
The word in the genitive functions as the subject or produces the action of the verbal idea implied in the noun it describes.
the lust of the flesh (1 Jn. 2:16) [the flesh lusts]
the lust of the eyes (1 Jn. 2:16) [the eyes lust]
The genitive receives the action. It acts like an object to the action of the word it modifies. These categories are not mutually exclusive. Sometimes a genitive may be both objective and descriptive or just plain ambiguous at times.
h[ de> tou? pneuthe blasphemy against the Spirit (Mat. 12:31) [blaspheme the Holy Spirit]
o[ qerismo>j th?j gh?j
the harvest of the earth (Rev. 14:15) [harvest the earth]