Genitives of time function like adverbs. Genitives of time express time “within which” something happens.
h#lqen pro>j au]to>n nuktohe came to him during the night (Jn. 3:2).
e!wj tw?n h[merw?n Dauiuntil the days of David (Acts 7:45)
The agency genitive identifies the agent that has been involved in an action.
e@sontai pa qeou?.
They shall all be taught by God (Jn. 6:45) (God is the agent teaching).
Deeper into the Dative
In chapter 4, the dative was given as the indirect object case (He hit the ball to Elliott). It is also used to express self-interest, means, location, and point of time.
ei#pen au]toi?j LuHe said to them, “Destroy” (Jn. 2:19).
Perschbacher (New Testament Greek Syntax, 144–52), Wallace (Beyond the Basics, 137–75), and Dana and Mantey (Manual Grammar, 83–91) provide rich discussions that have been utilized here and that go beyond our present level of discussion. Daniel Wallace’s Basics of New Testament Syntax: An Intermediate Greek Grammar (Zondervan, 2000) and David Black’s It’s Still Greek to Me (Baker, 1998) are the most readable and excellent introductions to the next level.
Dative of Interest
The dative of interest may express advantage or disadvantage. When expressing advantage, it may be translated “to” or “for.” When expressing disadvantage, “against” may be used (Wallace, Beyond the Basics, 142f.).
o[ de> dou?loj ou] meBut the slave does not remain in the house (Jn. 8:35).
Dative of Sphere
The dative of sphere refers to an abstract realm, whereas the dative of location refers to a specific physical location.
e!kastoj kaqw>j pro^Let each one as he has purposed in [the sphere of his] heart (2 Cor. 9:7)
kai> eu]qu>j e]pignou>j o[ ]Ihsou?j t&? pneuAnd immediately Jesus knew in [the sphere of] his spirit (Mk. 2:8).
The dative often indicates the means by which something happens. It can designate the instrument (impersonal) or agent (personal) that performs the action.
ei]j u[pakoh>n e]qnw?n, lo e@rg&
to the obedience of the Gentiles by word and deed (Rom. 15:18)
The dative may be used to refer to a particular point in time, in contrast to the genitive, which describes time as time within which or time during which.
Kai> t^? h[meAnd on the third day there was a wedding (Jn. 2:1).
#Hn de> saAnd it was the Sabbath on that day (Jn. 5:9).
The nominative and accusative could also be explored in this deeper way in any of the intermediate or advanced grammars (Robertson, Wallace, Moulton, Burton, Dana/Mantey, or the many Grace Theological Journal articles by James Boyer [vid. web site or digital disk], etc). One interesting study which needs to be embarked on is also the various uses of the article (cf. S. M. Baugh, A First John Reader (P. & R. Publishing 1999; 83-92; Dan Wallace is the king of the article as seen in pages 93-128 of his shorter intermediate grammar--TheBasics of New Testament Syntax, or 206-290 of his massive grammar Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics).
I greet (59)
I take, receive (56)
I ask (56)
I look at (58)
I gather (59)
I am, exist (60)
xara<, -a?j, h[
Well, the end has finally arrived. You have learned the basics of Greek grammar. Where do you go from here?
There are basically three directions you may want to explore at this point:
1. Rapid reading of the New Testament (see the 1 John and John 1-5 easy reader supplied on this disk),
2. Vocabulary development (check out the Vocabulary Builder on the disk. It will take you down to all the words used nine times or more in the NT).
3. For more in-depth syntax I suggest Daniel Wallace’s second-year grammar, The Basics of New Testament Syntax [see below], or David Black’s useful guide, It’s Still Greek to Me [see below]), Stanley Porter’s Idioms of the Greek New Testament, andStephen Levinsohn’s Discourse Features of New Testament Greek.