Mastering New Testament Greek Textbook Ted Hildebrandt Baker Academic

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Nouns in Greek have gender, number and case.

Gender: The Greek has masculine, feminine, and neuter genders.

Number: As an “s” often marks an English word as being plural, Greek has, likewise, endings that mark whether a noun is singular or plural (e.g., book, books).

Case: In English we have three cases that are seen in how we use our pronouns.
1. Subjective or Nominative Case:

She = subject (She did it.)

2. Objective or Accusative Case:

Her = object (The car hit her.)

3. Possessive or Genitive Case:

Hers = possessive (The car was hers.)

Greek adds two more cases:

4. Dative case: The case marking the indirect object.

(I told the story to the apostles.)

5. Vocative case: The case of direct address.

(O Lord, save me.)

Chapter 3 Summary: Present Active Verbs

Verbs are words of action or state of being.

Tense: Present, past, future. (I swim, I swam, I will swim). In Greek, tense forms are used not so much to refer to time (when the event happened), but to aktionsart (how the action takes place [punctiliar, durative, iterative, inceptive, gnomic/omnitemporal, timeless) but most of all to aspect (how the writer portrays the action of the verb): Present/imperfect: progress, immediacy, description, foregrounding; aorist: whole/complete background; and perfect/pluperfect: state of affairs, frontgrounding dwelt upon action.


1. Active voice: The subject does the action of the verb. (He hit the ball.)

2. Passive voice: The subject receives the action of the verb. (He was hit by the ball.)

3. Middle voice: Emphasizes the subject’s particpation in the action of the verb (most frequently translated active), for the interest or benefit of the subject (loose [for herself]; more rarely the subject acts on him/herself (reflexive), or members of a group interact among themselves (reciprocal). Middles will usually be translated active. Some consider many of the middles as deponent (missing the active form) hence they are translated as active as well.


Mood refers to the kind of reality of the action, or how the action of the verb is regarded.
1. Indicative mood: The verb portrays reality or indicates that something simply happened.

2. Imperative mood: The verb gives a command, entreaty or exhortation.

3. Subjunctive mood: The verb expresses a wish, possibility, or potentiality.


1. First person indicates the person(s) speaking (I studied Greek.)

2. Second person indicates the person(s) spoken to (you [singular or plural]). (You studied Greek.)

3. Third person indicates the person(s) or thing(s) spoken about (he, she, they, it). (She studied Greek.)

Number and Agreement

Verbs must agree with their subjects in both person and number.

He rides the wave. They ride the wave.


We will translate the Present tense either undefined (event simply happens) or continuous aspect (event was a process). The present tense form however can refer
to events past, present, future, omnitemporal or timeless. It is important to realize that aspect seems to be more the function of the present tense form (progress, immediacy, description, foregrounding material). The time will be more a function of the adverbial, prepositional or conjunctions of the context than of the strict tense form.

1. Undefined action:

I loose, I run

2. Continuous action:

I am loosing, I am running

Historical Present

Greek will often use the present tense to reference an event that actually happened in the past.
Present Active Indicative (PAI) Paradigm



1. lu

I loose/am loosing


We loose/ are loosing

2. lu

You loose/are loosing


You loose/are loosing

3. lu

He/she/it looses/is loosing


They loose/are loosing

Pronominal Suffixes








you (you-all)





Movable Nu (n )

Sometimes a nu ( n ) is added to the end of words ending in si or e, especially when it is followed by a word that begins with a vowel.

Parsing Format

Tense, voice, mood, person, number, lexical from, English meaning.


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