Tense: Present, past, future. (I swim, I swam, I will swim). In Greek, tense forms are used not so much to refer to time (when the event happened), but to aktionsart (how the action takes place [punctiliar, durative, iterative, inceptive, gnomic/omnitemporal, timeless) but most of all to aspect (how the writer portrays the action of the verb): Present/imperfect: progress, immediacy, description, foregrounding; aorist: whole/complete background; and perfect/pluperfect: state of affairs, frontgrounding dwelt upon action.
1. Active voice: The subject does the action of the verb. (He hit the ball.)
2. Passive voice: The subject receives the action of the verb. (He was hit by the ball.)
3. Middle voice: Emphasizes the subject’s particpation in the action of the verb (most frequently translated active), for the interest or benefit of the subject (loose [for herself]; more rarely the subject acts on him/herself (reflexive), or members of a group interact among themselves (reciprocal). Middles will usually be translated active. Some consider many of the middles as deponent (missing the active form) hence they are translated as active as well.
Mood refers to the kind of reality of the action, or how the action of the verb is regarded.
1. Indicative mood: The verb portrays reality or indicates that something simply happened.
2. Imperative mood: The verb gives a command, entreaty or exhortation.
3. Subjunctive mood: The verb expresses a wish, possibility, or potentiality.
1. First person indicates the person(s) speaking (I studied Greek.)
2. Second person indicates the person(s) spoken to (you [singular or plural]). (You studied Greek.)
3. Third person indicates the person(s) or thing(s) spoken about (he, she, they, it). (She studied Greek.)
Verbs must agree with their subjects in both person and number.
He rides the wave. They ride the wave.
We will translate the Present tense either undefined (event simply happens) or continuous aspect (event was a process). The present tense form however can refer
to events past, present, future, omnitemporal or timeless. It is important to realize that aspect seems to be more the function of the present tense form (progress, immediacy, description, foregrounding material). The time will be more a function of the adverbial, prepositional or conjunctions of the context than of the strict tense form.
1. Undefined action:
I loose, I run
2. Continuous action:
I am loosing, I am running
Greek will often use the present tense to reference an event that actually happened in the past.
Present Active Indicative (PAI) Paradigm