Mastering New Testament Greek Textbook Ted Hildebrandt Baker Academic


Chapter 4 Summary: Second Declension Nouns



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Chapter 4 Summary: Second Declension Nouns

A noun is commonly defined as a word that stands for a person, place or thing.

Natanya = person; store = place; book = thing.


Declensions: First, Second, Third


A declension is a grouping of nouns that are inflected with a shared set of endings.
1. First declension nouns are characterized by an h or a and are mostly feminine.

2. The second declension nouns are characterized by an o as the final letter of the stem. They are largely masculine or neuter.

3. Third declension nouns have stems that end in a consonant.

Article “the”


Greek nouns are assumed to be indefinite unless marked by the definite article (“the”). o[ = masculine (“the”); h[ = feminine (“the”); to< = neuter (“the”). The article can also, at points, be translated as a personal pronoun (I, you, he/she/it, they), a demonstrative pronoun (this/that//these/those) or a relative pronoun (who/which). Sometimes with names and abstracts it is best left untranslated.

Gender


Greek nouns are masculine, feminine, or neuter in gender. Often this gender is more a syntactic feature than a metaphysical statement as many inanimate objects are given grammatical gender. Gender is indicated by the definite article.

Number and Agreement


As in English, Greek has both singular
and plural nouns. The verb must match the number of the subject noun the same way as in English: Students love Greek. The student loves Greek.

Case Inflectional Forms


There are five inflectional forms that mark the various cases or roles that nouns play in sentences.
Nominative form marks the subject of the sentence.

Music calms the heart.

Genitive form expresses a description or possession.

The Pharisee went to the house of God.

Dative form marks the indirect object, agency, location etc. (to, by, for, at, with):

He spoke a word to the apostle.

Accusative form indicates the object of the sentence.

Joy saw the ball.

Vocative form is used for direct address.


O Lord, how majestic is your name.

Masculine Second Declension Forms
lo




Singular

Plural

Nom.

lo

a word

lo

words

(subject of sentence)

Gen.

lo

of a word

lo

of words

(possessive)

Dat.

lo

to a word

lo

to words

(indirect object)

Acc.

lo

a word

lo

words

(direct object)

Voc.

lo

O word

lo

O words

(direct address)


Neuter Second Declension Forms
i[ero




Singular

Plural

Nom.

i[ero

a temple

i[era<

temples

(subject of sentence)

Gen.

i[erou?

of a temple

i[erw?n

of temples

(possessive)

Dat.

i[er&?

to a temple

i[eroi?j

to temples

(indirect object)

Acc.

i[ero

a temple

i[era<

temples

(direct object)

Voc.

i[ero

O temple

i[era<

O temples

(direct address)

Chapter 5 Summary: First Declension Nouns


Feminine First Declension Forms (Stem Ending in h)




Singular

Plural

Nom.

grafh<

a writing

grafai<

writings

(subject of sentence)

Gen.

grafh?j

of a writing

grafw?n

of writings

(possessive)

Dat.

graf^?

to a writing

grafai?j

to writings

(indirect object)

Acc.

grafh

a writing

grafa

writings

(direct object)

Voc.

grafh<

O writing

grafai<

O writings

(direct address)


Feminine First Declension Forms (Stem Ending in a)
w!ra = hour



Singular


Plural

Nom./Voc.

w!ra

hour

w$rai

hours

(subject of sentence)

Gen.

w!raj

of an hour

w[rw?n

of hours

(possessive)

Dat.

w!r%

for an hour

w!raij

for hours

(indirect object)

Acc.

w!ran

hour

w!raj

hours

(direct object)


Masculine First Declension Forms
profh




Singular

Plural

Nom.

profh

prophet

profh?tai

prophets

(subject)

Gen.


profh

of a prophet

profhtw?n

of prophets

(possessive)

Dat.

profh

to a prophet

profh

to prophets

(indirect object)

Acc.

profh

prophet

profh

prophets

(direct object)

Voc.

profh?ta

O prophet

profh?tai

O prophets

(direct address)




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