au]to1. As a pronoun, matching its antecedent in number and gender and translated as “he,” “she,” “it,” or “they.”
2. As a reflexive intensifier, when au]tonominative case) it is translated reflexively (e.g. he himself will get the car).
3. Adjective meaning “same,” when au]to
Chapter 9 Summary: Present Middle/Passive Verbs
Definitions: There are two voices in English.
In the active voice, the subject of the sentence does the action: Zach hits the ball.
In the passive voice, the subject is acted on by the verb: Zach was hit by the ball.
Aktionsart: Punctiliar (single point in time): Zach is hit by the ball.
Continuous: Zach is being hit by the ball.
The middle has two functions:
1. As a true middle it is translated as active emphasizing the subject’s participation in the action of the verb. Some see most middles (75 percent) are deponent and should be translated as active (Mounce): “Tanya splashed Rebekah.”
2. As expressing self-interest (you loose [for yourself]), or rarely reflexive sense (he loosed himself).
Deponent verbs are middle in form but translated as actives. This is a debated topic in Greek. Others, including this writer, will simply take most of these forms as true middles (emphasizing the subject’s participation in the aciton of the verb and translating them active). They have no active form and are easy to tell in vocabulary lists because they have the middle ending -omai.
Frequently Used “Deponent” Verbs
I answer (231)
I come in (194)
I come, go (634)
I go out (218)
I become (669)
I go (132)
Often with passives there is a need to express the agent, instrument, or means by which the subject is acted on, by
1. using u[po< or dia< with the genitive to expresses agency (e.g., Elliott was hit by Zach.), or
2. using the dative case to indicate means or instrument. The translation will use “with” or “by” (e.g., Elliott was hit by the ball).