Mastering New Testament Greek Textbook Ted Hildebrandt Baker Academic



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Three Uses

au]to1. As a pronoun, matching its antecedent in number and gender and translated as “he,” “she,” “it,” or “they.”

2. As a reflexive intensifier, when au]tonominative case) it is translated reflexively (e.g. he himself will get the car).

3. Adjective meaning “same,” when au]to

Chapter 9 Summary: Present Middle/Passive Verbs


Definitions: There are two voices in English.

In the active voice, the subject of the sentence does the action: Zach hits the ball.

In the passive voice, the subject is acted on by the verb: Zach was hit by the ball.
Aktionsart: Punctiliar (single point in time): Zach is hit by the ball.

Continuous: Zach is being hit by the ball.


The middle has two functions:
1. As a true middle it is translated as active emphasizing the subject’s participation in the action of the verb. Some see most middles (75 percent) are deponent and should be translated as active (Mounce): “Tanya splashed Rebekah.”

2. As expressing self-interest (you loose [for yourself]), or rarely reflexive sense (he loosed himself).


Present Middle Indicative Paradigm

Singular

Plural

1. lu

I am loosing
(for myself)

luo


We are loosing
(for ourselves)

2. lu<^

You are loosing
(for yourself)

lu

You are loosing
(for yourselves)

3. lu

He/she/it is loosing
(for himself/herself/itself)

lu

They are loosing
(for themselves)


Present Passive Indicative Paradigm

Singular

Plural

1. lu

I am being loosed

luo

We are being loosed

2. lu<^

You are being loosed

lu

You are being loosed

3. lu

He/she/it is being loosed

lu

They are being loosed


Present Middle/Passive Indicative Primary Endings

Singular

Plural

1. -omai


-omeqa

2. -^ (-sai)

-esqe

3. -etai

-ontai

“Deponent” Verbs


Deponent verbs are middle in form but translated as actives. This is a debated topic in Greek. Others, including this writer, will simply take most of these forms as true middles (emphasizing the subject’s participation in the aciton of the verb and translating them active). They have no active form and are easy to tell in vocabulary lists because they have the middle ending -omai.
Frequently Used “Deponent” Verbs

a]pokri

I answer (231)

ei]se

I come in (194)

e@rxomai

I come, go (634)

e]ce

I go out (218)

gi

I become (669)

poreu

I go (132)

Accompanying Cases

Often with passives there is a need to express the agent, instrument, or means by which the subject is acted on, by

1. using u[po< or dia< with the genitive to expresses agency (e.g., Elliott was hit by Zach.), or

2. using the dative case to indicate means or instrument. The translation will use “with” or “by” (e.g., Elliott was hit by the ball).


Compound Verbs

e@rxomai

I go in, enter

ei]se

I go in, enter (ei]j prefix).

e]ce

I go out, leave e]k prefix).

die

I go through (dia< prefix).




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