Mastering New Testament Greek Textbook Ted Hildebrandt Baker Academic



Download 5.03 Mb.
Page63/115
Date08.11.2016
Size5.03 Mb.
1   ...   59   60   61   62   63   64   65   66   ...   115

Relative Pronouns

Relative pronouns are words like who, whom, which, that, and whose.
o!j (who/which)




Singular

Plural




2

1

2

2

1

2




Masc.

Fem.

Neut.

Masc.

Fem.

Neut.

Nom.

o!j

h!

o!

oi!

ai!

a!

Gen.

ou$

h$j

ou$

w$n

w$n

w$n

Dat.

&$

^$

&$

oi$j

ai$j

oi$j

Acc.

o!n

h!n

o!

ou!j


a!j

a!

Reflexive/Reciprocal Pronouns


Reflexive pronouns are used to indicate that the antecedent is acting on itself. This is similar to one of the functions of the middle voice in Greek.
Terry threw himself into the water from the bridge.
Reciprocal pronouns are used to indicate that several subjects are acting on each other. a]llhReflexive Pronouns

First Person (myself)




Singular

Plural




2

1

2

1




Masc.

Fem.

Masc.

Fem.

Gen.

e]mautou?

e]mauth?j

e[autw?n

e[autw?n

Dat.

e]maut&?

e]maut^?

e[autoi?j

e[autai?j

Acc.

e]mauto

e]mauth

e[autou

e[auta


Second Person (yourself)




Singular

Plural




2

1

2

1




Masc.

Fem.

Masc.

Fem.

Gen.

seautou?

seauth?j

e[autw?n

e[autw?n

Dat.

seaut&?

seaut^?

e[autoi?j

e[autai?j

Acc.

seauto

seauth

e[autou

e[auta


Third Person (himself/herself/itself)




Singular

Plural



2


1

2

2

1

2




Masc.

Fem.

Neut.

Masc.

Fem.

Neut.

Gen.

e[autou?

e[auth?j

e[autou?

e[autw?n

e[autw?n

e[autw?n

Dat.

e[aut&?

e[aut^?

e[aut&?

e[autoi?j

e[autai?j

e[autoi?j

Acc.

e[auto

e[auth

e[auto<

e[autou

e[auta

e[auta<

Chapter 12 Summary: Imperfect Verbs

Greek Imperfect


The Greek imperfect tense is used for unfolding action in progress or dwelled upon action. In English, it will usually be translated with the helping verb was/were + the participle form of the verb (e.g., was singing).


Augment +

Verb stem +


Connecting vowel +

Secondary active endings




e +

lu +

o +

n =

e@luon

Aug

Stem

CV

Ending



The connecting vowel: o before m and n and e elsewhere


Imperfect Active Indicative of lu

Singular

Plural

1. e@luon

I was loosing

e]lu

We were loosing

2. e@luej

You were loosing

e]lu

You were loosing

3. e@lue(n)

He/she/it was loosing

e@luon

They were loosing


Secondary Active Endings

Singular

Plural

1. -n

-men


2. -j

-te

3. -e

-n

Learn: e@luon, j, e, men, te, n (n s e men t e n)


Imperfect Middle/Passive Indicative of lu

Singular

Plural

1. e]luo

I was being loosed

e]luo

We were being loosed

2. e]lu

You were being loosed

e]lu

You were being loosed

3. e]lu

He/she/it was being loosed

e]lu

They were being loosed

Secondary Middle/Passive Endings

Singular

Plural

1. -mhn

-meqa

2. -ou

-sqe

3. -to

-nto

Learn: e]luo

Augments

The augment (prefix) is added in four ways:

1. Before consonants it is e.

2. Before vowels the augment contracts with the vowel according to the following rules:




Vowels

Diphthongs

e + a = h

e + ai = ^

e + e = h

e + ei = ^

e + h = h

e + oi = &

e + i = i

e + au = hu

e + o = w

e + eu = hu

e + u = u



Four patterns:

1. a and e lengthen to h

2. o lengthens to w

3. i ending a diphthong subscripts

4. u ending a diphthong stays strong

3. Compound verbs with prepositions ending in a consonant: insert the augment between the prepositional prefix and the verb stem. e]kba

4. Compound verbs with prepositions ending in a vowel: the final vowel of the preposition is dropped and the e augment inserted in its place. a]poktei
Imperfect Indicative of ei]mi<

Singular

Plural

1. h@mhn

I was

h#men

We were


2. h#j

You were

h#te

You were

3. h#n

He/she/it was

h#san

They were

Memory Verse: Mat. 6:9, the Lord’s Prayer


Pa

h[mw?n

o[

e]n

toi?j

ou]ranoi?j:

Father

our,

the one

in

the

heavens;




a[giasqh

to>

o@noma<

sou:

hallowed be

the

name

your

Chapter 13 Summary: Third Declension Nouns

Transformations


Labials: p, b, or f + s = y

Velars: k, g, or x + s = c


Dentals: t, d, or q + s = s

Nu drops out when followed by a sigma.
Tau/Delta Final Stems
xa




Singular

Plural

Nom./Voc.

xa

xa

Gen.

xa

xari

Dat.

xa

xa

Acc.

xa

xa


Iota Final Stems
pi




Singular

Plural

Nom./Voc.

pi

pi

Gen.

pi

pi

Dat.

pi

pi

Acc.

pi

pi


-mat Final Stems

o@noma, o]no





Singular

Plural

Nom./Voc.

o@noma

o]no

Gen.

o]no

o]noma

Dat.

o]no

o]no

Acc.

o@noma

o]no


pa?j (all)




Singular

Plural




Masc.

Fem.

Neut.

Masc.

Fem.

Neut.

Nom.

pa?j

pa?sa

pa?n

pa

pa?sai

pa

Gen.

panto

pa

panto

pa


pasw?n

pa

Dat.

panti<

pa

panti<

pa?si(n)

pa

pa?si(n)

Acc.

pa

pa?san

pa?n

pa

pa

pa

Memory Verse: Mat 6:10a


e]lqe

h[

basilei

sou:

Let come

the

kingdom

your;




genhqh

to>

qe

sou.

let happen

the

will

your.

Chapter 14 Summary: Second Aorist Verbs

Form: The second aorist is built from the second aorist verb stem. It is preceded by an (e) augment and followed by secondary endings like the imperfect. The aorist is understood as a backgrounding tense form portraying a complete or wholistic action. It is the most frequently used tense form and the least semantically marked base for general writing.



Augment +

Verb stem +

Connecting vowel +

Secondary endings




e +

lab +

o +

n =

e@labon

Aug

Stem

CV

Ending



The connecting vowel is o before m and n and e elsewhere


Second Aorist Active Indicative of lamba




Singular

Plural

1.

e@labon

I took

e]la

We took

2.

e@labej

You took

e]la

You took

3.

e@labe(n)

He/she/it took

e@labon

They took

Note: The n, s, e, men, te, n endings are the same as for the imperfects.

Second Aorist Middle Indicative of gi




Singular

Plural

1.

e]geno

I became

e]geno

We became

2.

e]ge

You became

e]ge

You became

3.

e]ge

He/she/it became

e]ge

They became

Note: The mhn, ou, to, meqa, esqe, onto endings are the same as for the imperfects.


Augments


Aorist augments = Imperfect augments

Aorist Stems of Verbs


Here is a list of second aorist forms of verbs already learned. Master these forms.


Present

Aorist




a]pe<

a]ph?lqon

I departed

a]poqn^

a]pe

I died

ba


e@balon

I threw

o[ra

ei#don

I saw (cf. ble

gi

e]geno

I became

ginw

e@gnwn

I knew

ei]se

ei]sh?lqon

I entered

e]ce

e]ch?lqon

I went out

e@rxomai

h#lqon

I came, went

eu[ri

eu$ron

I found

e@xw

e@sxon

I had

lamba

e@labon

I took

le

ei#pon

I said

Memory Verse: Mat. 6:10c


w[j

e]n

ou]ran&?

kai>


e]pi>

gh?j:

as

in

heaven

so also

on

earth;

Chapter 15 Summary: First Aorist Verbs

Comparison with Greek


Like English with the past, Greek forms the aorist in two ways. The first aorist is formed off the present stem, with an augment and a suffixed sa. The second aorist is built from a different aorist stem, which adds endings identical to the imperfect. The aorist is understood as a backgrounding tense form portraying a complete or wholistic action. It is the most frequently used tense form and the least semantically marked base for general writing.

First Aorist Form


Augment +

Verb stem +

Tense formative +

Secondary endings




e +

lu +

sa +

j =

e@lusaj

Aug

Stem

Tense connective

Ending




Aorist Active Indicative of lu





Singular




Plural




1.

e@lusa

I loosed

e]lu

We loosed

2.

e@lusaj

You loosed

e]lu

You loosed

3.

e@luse(n)

He/she/it loosed

e@lusan

They loosed

Note:The -, s, e, men, te, n endings are the same as the imperfects except that in the first person singular the n is dropped.


Aorist Middle Indicative of lu




Singular




Plural




1.

e]lusa

I loosed
(for myself)

e]lusa

We loosed
(for ourselves)

2.

e]lu

You loosed
(for yourself)


e]lu

You loosed
(for yourselves)

3.

e]lu

He/she/it loosed
(for himself/herself/itself)

e]lu

They loosed
(for themselves)

Note: The mhn, w, to, meqa, sqe, nto endings are the same as the imperfects except in the second person singular, where the ou shifts to w.


Ending Transformations


The sigma ending is added in basically the same way as the sigma was added for future tense verbs (see chap. 10).
Velars (k, g, or x) + s becomes c

dida

Labials (p, b, or f) + s becomes y

ble

Dentals (t, d, or q) + s drops the dental

pei
With liquids (l and r) and nasals (m and n), lemoners, often the sigma is dropped and the preceding vowel in the stem is changed. me

Aorist Stems of Verbs


Here is a list of first aorist active indicative forms of verbs already learned.


Present

First Aorist




a]kou

h@kousa

I heard

a]poste

a]pe

I sent

ble

e#bleya

I saw


gra

e@graya

I wrote

dida

e]di

I taught

pisteu

e]pi

I believed

qe

h]qe

I wished

me

e@meina

I remained

kri

e@krina

I judged

s&

e@swsa

I saved

Memory Verse: Mat. 6:11


to>n

a@rton

h[mw?n

to>n

e]piou

the

bread

our

the

daily portion




do>j

h[mi?n

sh

Give


us

today;

Chapter 16 Summary: Aorist and Future Passive Verbs

Introduction


Passive verbs go with subjects acted on by the action of the verbs. In English, we form the past passive indicative by using a helping verb (e.g., I was struck by the foul ball). Similarly, the future passive indicative is formed with the helping “will be” (e.g., I will be flown to Indianapolis).

Form: The aorist passives are formed by adding qh before the ending:




e] +

lu +

qh +

n =

e]lu

Aug.

Stem

Passive connective

Ending

I was loosed

The future passives add qhs before the ending and drop the augment.




lu +

qhs +

omai =

luqh

Stem

Passive connective

Ending

I will be loosed


Passive Connective Transformations

Consonant Shifts


Velars:

k, g

+ q

= x

Labials:

p, b

+ q

= f

Dentals:

t, d, q

+ q

= s

Sibilants:

z, c, y

+ q

= s


First Aorist Passive Indicative of lu

Singular

Plural

1. e]lu

I was loosed

e]lu

We were loosed

2. e]lu

You were loosed

e]lu

You were loosed

3. e]lu

He/she/it was loosed

e]lu

They were loosed


Future Passive Indicative of lu

Singular

Plural


1. luqh

I will be loosed

luqhso

We will be loosed

2. luqh

You will be loosed

luqh

You will be loosed

3. luqh

He/she/it will be loosed

luqh

They will be loosed

Passive Stems

Present Active

Aorist Passive

Future Passive

a]poste

a]pesta



ba

e]blh

blhqh

gi

e]genh



ginw

e]gnw

gnwsqh

dida

e]dida



du

h]dunh



e]gei

h]ge

e]gerqh


eu[ri

eu[re

eu[reqh

qe

h]qelh



kri

e]kri

e]kriqh

lamba

e]lh



le

e]rre



pisteu

e]pisteu



poreu

e]poreu



s&

e]sw

swqh

Memory Verse: Mat. 6:12a


kai>

a@fej

h[mi?n

ta>

o]feilh

h[mw?n,

and

forgive

for us

the

debts

our

Chapter 17 Summary: Contract Verbs

Introduction

Verbs with stems ending in a, e, or o are known as contract verbs. For example, in the verb a]gapaContractions take place in the present and imperfect tenses.


Rules of Contraction


Rule 1: Likes go long. Two like vowels combine into their common long vowel.

a + a = a

e + h = h

o + w = w

Rule 2: O overcomes. An o or w will overcome an a, e, or h; becoming w.

o + a = w

e + w = w

Rule 3: First overcomes. When an a, e, or h come together, whichever comes first becomes its own matching long vowel.

a + e or a+ h = long a

e + a = h

Rule 4: Same vowel, diphthong drops. A vowel similar to the first vowel of a diphthong drops out.

o + ou = ou

e + ei = ei

Rule 5: Dissimilar diphthong contracts. A vowel dissimilar to the diphthong that follows it will contract using the preceding rules—

a. unless the third vowel is an upsilon, in which case the upsilon drops out.

b. unless the third vowel is an iota, in which case the iota becomes an iota subscript.

Exceptions: o + ei = oi e + oi = oi o + ^ = oi

Present Active Indicative of a]gapa




Singular

Plural

1.

a]gapw? (aw)

I love

a]gapw?men (aomen)

We love

2.

a]gap%?j (aeij)

You love

a]gapa?te (aete)

You love

3.

a]gap%? (aei)

He/she/it loves

a]gapw?si(n) (aousi)

They love


Present Active Indicative of poie




Singular

Plural

1.

poiw? (ew)

I do

poiou?men (eomen)

We do

2.

poiei?j (eeij)

You do

poiei?te (eete)

You do

3.

poiei? (eei)


He/she/it does

poiou?si(n) (eousi)

They do

Present Active Indicative of plhro




Singular

Plural

1.

plhrw? (ow)

I fill

plhrou?men (oomen)

We fill

2.

plhroi?j (oeij)

You fill

plhrou?te (oete)

You fill

3.

plhroi? (oei)

He/she/it fills

plhrou?si(n) (oousi)

They fill

Memory Verse: Review + Mat. 6: 12b


kai>

a@fej

h[mi?n

ta>

o]feilh

h[mw?n,

and

forgive

for us

the

debts


our




w[j

kai>

h[mei?j

a]fh

toi?j

o]feile

h[mw?n:

as

also

we

we forgave

the

debtors

our;

Chapter 18 Summary: Perfect Verbs

Introduction


The Greek perfect is used to indicate that an action states of being focusing on the action by frontgrounding it. It is used when the action is to be dwelt upon (e.g., “I have prepared for the game”).

Perfect Translation


While the perfect is generally translated into English using the helping verb “have,” sometimes the meaning of the verb makes it clear that the action is completed and its effects continue into the present


Redup.

Stem

Perfect connective

Pronominal ending




le +

lu +

ka +

te =


lelu

Reduplication Patterns


Consonantal reduplication: When a verb begins with a consonant, the consonant is doubled and attached to the front of a word with a connecting epsilon (le + luka).

Vocalic reduplication: When a verb begins with a vowel or diphthong, the vowel is lengthened (e]lpi
Doubled consonant or
r: If a word begins with two consonants or a rho, an epsilon is usually added instead of reduplication. (ginw
Compound verbs: The reduplicated form comes between the verb and the initial preposition: a]poste

Adding Perfect Kappa


Contract verbs lengthen their final stem vowel preceding the perfect k ending: a]gapaIf a verb stem ends in t, d, or q, the consonant is dropped when the perfect k is added: e]lpi
Perfect Active Indicative of lu




Singular




Plural




1.

le

I have loosed

lelu

We have loosed

2.

le

You have loosed

lelu

You have loosed


3.

le

He/she/it has loosed

lelu

They have loosed

Note the active secondary endings are used: –, j, e, men, te, n. The first singular drops the n.



Perfect Middle/Passive Indicative of lu




Singular

Plural

1.

le

I have been loosed

lelu

We have been loosed

2.

le

You have been loosed

le

You have been loosed

3.

le

He/she/it has been loosed

le

They have been loosed

Oi#da


oi#da is a perfect but translated as a present, with irregular forms:


1.

oi#da

I know

oi@damen

We know


2.

oi#daj

You know

oi@date

You know

3.

oi#de(n)

He knows

oi@dasi(n)

They know

Pluperfect Paradigm


Pluperfect tense is rare and expresses action completed in the past with a terminated effect some time in the past.


1.

e]lelu

I had loosed

e]lelu

We had loosed

2.

e]lelu

You had loosed

e]lelu

You had loosed

3.

e]lelu

He/she/it had loosed

e]lelu

They had loosed

Principal Parts


For Greek verbs there are six principal parts from which the paradigms are built. You now know how all the parts function.


Present

Future

Aorist Active

a]gapa

a]gaph

h]ga




Perfect Active

Perfect Mid/Pass

Aorist Passive

h]ga

h]ga

h]gaph


Perfect Indicative Verb Stems

Present Active

Perfect Active

Perfect Mid/Pass




a]gapa

h]ga

h]ga

I love

a]kou

a]kh



I hear

a]poste

a]pe

a]pe

I send

ba

be

be

I throw

gi

ge

gege

I become

ginw

e@gnwka


e@gnwsmai

I know

gra

ge

ge

I write

e@rxomai

e]lh



I come

eu[ri

eu!rhka



I find

e@xw

e@sxhka



I have

kale

ke

ke

I call

kri

ke

ke

I judge

lale

lela

lela

I speak

le

ei@rhka

ei@rhmai

I say

me

meme



I remain

o[ra

e[w



I see

pisteu

pepi

pepi

I believe

poie

pepoi

pepoi

I do, make

poreu



pepo

I go

s&

se

se

I save

Memory Verse: Mat. 6:13a


kai>

mh>

ei]sene

h[ma?j

ei]j

peirasmo

and

not

(you) lead

us

into

temptation,

Chapter 19 Summary: Present Participles

Introduction


In Greek, participles are used in much the same way as they are in English. Present participles are formed in English by adding “-ing” to the verbal form (e.g., walking). A participle is a verbal (with present, aorist, active/passive tenses) adjective (with gender, number, case).




Share with your friends:
1   ...   59   60   61   62   63   64   65   66   ...   115


The database is protected by copyright ©hestories.info 2019
send message

    Main page