You can tell when a participle is being used adjectivally because, as an attributive adjective, it will modify a noun or pronoun (e.g., the running car). It will usually come with a definite article. When translating a Greek present participle, we may use a simple English participle, which is usually a word ending in “ing.” A participle, like other adjectives, may be used as a substantive when it has the article and no modified noun or pronoun (e.g., running is fun).
A participle may be used as an adverb modifying the verb in some way. It usually does not take a definite article (i.e., it is anarthrous). Often the adverbial participles will be translated as a temporal clause. If the present tense is used, it will refer to something that happens at the same time as the main verb (e.g. while walking). If an aorist tense participle is used, the action of the participle was before the action of the main verb (e.g., after walking). If a perfect tense participle is used, its action was completed, with continuing results (e.g., after having walked) or state of affairs.
The adjectival participle will often be translated by using the English participle (“-ing”) with some connecting words such as “who,” “which,” or “the one who” (e.g., The one speaking to me wrote the book).
Present Participle Forms
In the masculine and neuter the sign of the participle (ont) is added, followed by the third declension noun endings:
lu + ont + oj = lu
The present active feminine participle is formed by using ouj as the sign of the participle, to which the first declension endings are suffixed:
lu + ous + hj = luou
Middle/passives participles are formed using the present verb stem adding -omen as a middle/passive participle indicator and the second declension case endings for the masculine and neuter:
lu + omen + oj = luo The feminine uses first declension endings:
lu + omen + h = luome
Adverbial participle has no Art..
Adjectival attributive has Art. before noun it modifies.
Adjectival substantive has Art. but no noun/pronoun to modify.