Mastering New Testament Greek Textbook Ted Hildebrandt Baker Academic



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Participle as Adjective

You can tell when a participle is being used adjectivally because, as an attributive adjective, it will modify a noun or pronoun (e.g., the running car). It will usually come with a definite article. When translating a Greek present participle, we may use a simple English participle, which is usually a word ending in “ing.” A participle, like other adjectives, may be used as a substantive when it has the article and no modified noun or pronoun (e.g., running is fun).

Participle as Adverb


A participle may be used as an adverb modifying the verb in some way. It usually does not take a definite article (i.e., it is anarthrous). Often the adverbial participles will be translated as a temporal clause. If the present tense is used, it will refer to something that happens at the same time as the main verb (e.g. while walking). If an aorist tense participle is used, the action of the participle was before the action of the main verb (e.g., after walking). If a perfect tense participle is used, its action was completed, with continuing results (e.g., after having walked) or state of affairs.

Translating Participles


The adjectival participle will often be translated by using the English participle (“-ing”) with some connecting words such as “who,” “which,” or “the one who” (e.g., The one speaking to me wrote the book).

Present Participle Forms


In the masculine and neuter the sign of the participle (ont) is added, followed by the third declension noun endings:

lu + ont + oj = lu

The present active feminine participle is formed by using ouj as the sign of the participle, to which the first declension endings are suffixed:

lu + ous + hj = luou

Middle/passives participles are formed using the present verb stem adding -omen as a middle/passive participle indicator and the second declension case endings for the masculine and neuter:

lu + omen + oj = luo
The feminine uses first declension endings:

lu + omen + h = luome


Present Participle



Adverbial participle has no Art..

Adjectival attributive has Art. before noun it modifies.

Adjectival substantive has Art. but no noun/pronoun to modify.

Active

while loosing

the loosing girl

the one loosing

Middle

while loosing himself

the girl loosing herself

the ones loosing themselves

Passive

while being loosed

the girl being loosed

the one being loosed


Present Active Participles




3

1

3

Singular


Masculine

Feminine

Neuter

Nom.

lu

lu

lu?on

Gen.

lu

luou

lu

Dat.

lu

luou

lu

Acc.

lu

lu

lu?on

Plural










Nom.

lu

lu

lu

Gen.

luo

luousw?n

luo

Dat.

lu

luou

lu

Acc.

lu

luou

lu


Present Middle/Passive Participles (recognize these)




3




3

Singular

Masculine

Feminine

Neuter

Nom.

luo

luome

luo

Gen.

luome

luome

luome

Dat.

luome

luome

luome

Acc.

luo

luome

luo

Plural










Nom.

luo

luo

luo

Gen.

luome

luome

luome

Dat.

luome

luome

luome

Acc.

luome

luome

luo

Present Active Participle of ei]mi<




3

1

3

Singular

Masculine

Feminine

Neuter

Nom.

w@n

ou#sa

o@n

Gen.

o@ntoj

ou@shj

o@ntoj

Dat.

o@nti

ou@s^

o@nti

Acc.

o@nta

ou#san

o@n

Plural










Nom.

o@ntej

ou#sai

o@nta

Gen.

o@ntwn

ou]sw?n

o@ntwn

Dat.

ou#si(n)

ou@saij


ou#si(n)

Acc.

o@ntaj

ou@saj

o@nta


Present Active Participles (know these forms)

Nom.

lu

lu

lu?on

Gen.

lu

luou

lu


Present Middle/Passive Participles

Nom.

luo

luome

luo

Gen.

luome

luome

luome



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