Conditions have two parts: the protasis (if) and the apodosis (then). The protasis presents the condition and the apodosis tells the consequence.
1. First class condition: Reality (e.g., If you are led by the Spirit, you are not under the law.)
Form: ei] + indicative verb (protasis) + any apodosis.
Function: Affirms the reality of the condition (protasis).
2. Second class condition: Impossibility (contrary to fact) (e.g., If you had been here, my brother would not have died.)
When a question begins with ou], the expected answer is “yes.”
When a question begins with mh<, the expected answer is “no.”
One way to remember this is, “May” (mh<) means “nay.”
There are only sixty-seven optatives in the New Testament. We will not learn a paradigm, but you should be aware that they exist, express a “wish,” and that their form is characterized by the connective oi, ai, or ei (Oh that . . .):
The imperative mood is used to express a command, entreaty, or prohibition. In English the imperative is used only with the second person (e.g., [You] get in the car!). The Greek imperative occurs in the present and aorist tenses. Both second and third person (“Let him/her/it”) forms may be used.
Present represents progress/immediacy foregrounding action.