Mastering New Testament Greek Textbook Ted Hildebrandt Baker Academic



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Subjunctive Triggers

i!na


in order that (used most often)

e]a

if

o!j a@n

whoever

e!wj

until

Four Types of Conditionals


Conditions have two parts: the protasis (if) and the apodosis (then). The protasis presents the condition and the apodosis tells the consequence.
1. First class condition: Reality (e.g., If you are led by the Spirit, you are not under the law.)

Form: ei] + indicative verb (protasis) + any apodosis.

Function: Affirms the reality of the condition (protasis).
2. Second class condition: Impossibility (contrary to fact) (e.g., If you had been here, my brother would not have died.)

Form: ei] + secondary indicative verb (protasis) + a@n + secondary indicative verb (apodosis)

Function: The condition is contrary to fact.

3. Third class condition: Possibility (e.g., If you release him, you are not Caesar’s friend.)

Form: e]a

Function: Possible condition.

4. Fourth class condition: Possibility (rare) (e.g., If you should suffer, . . .)

Form: ei] + optative mood (protasis) + optative (apodosis) rare

Context will often indicate the level of probability.

Various Subjunctive Functions

1. Hortatory subjunctive urges the speaker and listeners to a certain behavior or mind-set. This use requires the first person.

Die i@dwmen. Let us go . . . and let us see (cf. Lk. 2:15).

2. Subordinate purpose clause is often introduced by i!na + subjunctive.

i!na marturh tou? fwto

3. Prohibitive subjunctive uses the aorist with a negative and prohibits an action.

mn> ei]sene

4. Deliberative subjunctive often is a rhetorical device not calling for an answer.

ti< ei@pw u[mi?n; What shall I say to you? (1 Cor. 11:22).

Negative Questions


When a question begins with ou], the expected answer is “yes.”

When a question begins with mh<, the expected answer is “no.”

One way to remember this is, “May” (mh<) means “nay.”

Optatives


There are only sixty-seven optatives in the New Testament. We will not learn a paradigm, but you should be aware that they exist, express a “wish,” and that their form is characterized by the connective oi, ai, or ei (Oh that . . .):
ge

Chapter 24 Summary: Imperative Verbs

Introduction


The imperative mood is used to express a command, entreaty, or prohibition. In English the imperative is used only with the second person (e.g., [You] get in the car!). The Greek imperative occurs in the present and aorist tenses. Both second and third person (“Let him/her/it”) forms may be used.
Present represents progress/immediacy foregrounding action.

Aorist indicates complete/whole background action.



Perfect is used for state of affairs frontground/dwelt upon action.

Form


Learn the little rhythm:





2 sg

3 sg

2 pl


3 pl

Present Active

e

tw

te

twsan

Present Mid/Pass

ou

sqw

sqe

sqwsan

First Aorist Active

n

tw

te

twsan

First Aorist Middle

ai

sqw

sqe

sqwsan

First Aorist Passive

ti

tw

te

twsan


Present Action Imperative of lu

Active










Singular




Plural




2. lu?e

You loose!

lu

You loose!


3. lue

Let him loose!

lue

Let them loose!













Middle/Passive







Singular




Plural




2. lu

You be loosed!

lu

You be loosed!

3. lue

Let him be loosed!

lue

Let them be loosed!


First Aorist Action Imperative of lu

Active

Passive

Singular

Plural

Singular

Plural

2. lu?son

lu

lu

lu

3. lusa

lusa

luqh

luqh

Middle




Singular

Plural




2. lu?sai

lu




3. lusa

lusa




Second Aorist Action Imperative of lei


Active

Passive

Singular

Plural

Singular

Plural

2. li

li

lei

lei

3. lipe

lipe

leifqh

leifqh



Middle

Singular


Plural

2. lipou?

li

3. lipe

lipe


Imperative of ei]mi<

Singular

Plural

2. i@sqi

e@ste

3. e@stw

e@stwsan




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