The order of words in a sentence in Greek may be the same as in English (subject + verb + object). Greek puts inflectional endings on nouns to mark their case. This allows Greek to change the word order for various purposes without substantially altering the meaning of a sentence. For example, the subject may be placed after the verb and the object placed before the verb for emphasis while retaining the original meaning of the sentence. Recent studies have shown that word order is important, so the good student will keep an eye on the order of syntactic units (VSOM versus SVOM etc.).
One comment on the vocabulary forms. In lexical lists, nouns such as dou?loj are followed by -ou?, which gives the genitive singular ending, indicating that it is a second declension noun. The o[ article is given to specify that it is masculine.
1. understand the English syntax of nouns in sentences (subject, object, number, gender, etc.),
2. understand the Greek noun system (gender, number, case),
3. write out and chant the first declension paradigm for feminine nouns, and
4. master ten more high-frequency vocabulary words.
There are three noun declensions in Greek. We have learned the second declension with its masculine and neuter nouns and its characteristic o endings. Now we will focus on the first declension. First declension nouns are largely feminine, as indicated by placing the feminine article h[ (“the”) after the nominative singular form. Each noun should be learned with its definite article, which indicates its gender. The stem of first declension nouns ends with an alpha or eta. Learn to chant through this eta first declension of grafh<. Learn to recognize the variations on the other two forms (alpha and masculine form).
Feminine First Declension Forms (Stem Ending in h)
grafh<, h[ = writing, Scripture