Mastering New Testament Greek Textbook Ted Hildebrandt Baker Academic

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Clause Type Introduction

1. Substantive

I do not have what I need (functions as the object).

2. Adjective

He bought the ball that Coach Kessler had signed (restrictive clause).

3. Adverb

I will come when I have finished playing with Elliott (modifies the verb).

Purpose Clauses

1. With an infinitive.

2. With i!na or o!pwj + subjunctive.

3. With ei]j or pro

Result Clauses

1. The most common is w!ste or w[j + infinitive.

2. w!ste or o!ti + indicative.

Temporal Clauses are formed—

1. With an indicative verb introduced by various prepositions and particles:

o!te, e]peidh<, w[j




e!wj, a@xri, ou$


e!wj, a@xri


w[j, ou$


2. With the subjunctive with various prepositions or particles:

o!tan, e]pa


e!wj, a@xri, me


3. With pri

4. With a participle meaning “while” or “after”

Chapter 28 Summary: Case Revisited [TP ROADS]

Genitive Introduction

Until now, we have seen the genitive as a case used for possession, translated “of.”

Possessive Genitive

The possessive genitive may be translated “of” or with a possessive noun or pronoun (his/her).

th>n koili

the mother’s womb (Jn. 3:4)

Relational Genitive

The relational genitive specifies a family relationship (son, parent, wife).


Simon, [son] of John (Jn. 21:15)

Descriptive Genitive

The descriptive genitive qualifies the noun, describing it in more detail.

[O zh?loj tou? oi@kou sou

the zeal of your house (Jn. 2:17) (specifies the type of zeal)

Subjective Genitive

The word in the genitive functions as the subject or produces the action of the verbal idea implied in the noun it describes.

h[ e]piqumi

the lust of the flesh (1 Jn. 2:16) (the flesh lusts)

Objective Genitive

The word in the genitive receives the action. It acts like an object to the action of the word it modifies. These categories are not mutually exclusive. Sometimes a genitive may be both objective and descriptive.

h[ de> tou? pneu

the blasphemy against the Spirit (Mat. 12:31)

Time Genitive

The genitive of time functions like an adverb. It expresses time “within which” something happens.

h#lqen pro>j au]to>n nukto

He came to him during the night (Jn. 3:2).

Agency Genitive

The agency genitive identifies the agent that has been involved in an action.

e@sontai pa qeou?.

They shall all be taught by God (Jn. 6:45).

Deeper into the Dative [II LIST]

In chapter 4, the dative was given as the indirect object case (He hit the ball to Elliott). It is also used to express self-interest, means, location, and point of time.

Indirect Object

ei#pen au]toi?j Lu

He said to them, “Destroy” (Jn. 2:19).

The dative often accompanies the preposition e]n.

Dative of Interest

The dative of interest may express advantage or disadvantage. When expressing advantage, it may be translated “to” or “for.” When expressing disadvantage, “against” may be used (Wallace, Beyond the Basics, 142f.).

w!ste marturei?te e[autoi?j

so that you witness against yourselves (Mat. 23:31)

Dative of Location

The dative is often used with the prepositions e]n (in) and pro

oi[ . . . maqhtai> t&? ploiari<& h#lqon.

the disciples came in a small boat (Jn. 21:8).

Dative of Sphere

The dative of sphere refers to an abstract realm, whereas the dative of location refers to a specific physical location.

e!kastoj kaqw>j pro^

Let each one as he has purposed in [his] heart (2 Cor. 9:7)

Instrumental Dative

The dative often indicates the means by which something happens. It can designate the instrument (impersonal) or agent (personal) that performs the action.

ei]j u[pakoh>n e]qnw?n, lo e@rg&

to the obedience of the Gentiles by word and deed (Rom. 15:18)

Dative of Time

The dative may be used to refer to a particular point in time, in contrast to the genitive which describes time as time within which or time during which.

Kai> t^? h[me

And on the third day there was a wedding (Jn. 2:1).

Appendix 4

Verb Principal Parts

Verbs Occurring Nine or More Times in the New Testament

Verbs are listed in their present active indicative first person singular forms. Deponent verbs appear in the present middle/passive indicative form. Additional principal parts (PP) appearing in the New Testament are listed below the main entry in the following order: future active, aorist active, perfect active, perfect middle/passive, aorist passive.

Greek Verb English Meaning(s) Times in N.T.


PP: ___, h]gaqopoi

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