The possessive genitive may be translated “of” or with a possessive noun or pronoun (his/her).
the mother’s womb (Jn. 3:4)
The relational genitive specifies a family relationship (son, parent, wife).
Simon, [son] of John (Jn. 21:15)
The descriptive genitive qualifies the noun, describing it in more detail.
[O zh?loj tou? oi@kou sou
the zeal of your house (Jn. 2:17) (specifies the type of zeal)
The word in the genitive functions as the subject or produces the action of the verbal idea implied in the noun it describes.
the lust of the flesh (1 Jn. 2:16) (the flesh lusts)
The word in the genitive receives the action. It acts like an object to the action of the word it modifies. These categories are not mutually exclusive. Sometimes a genitive may be both objective and descriptive.
h[ de> tou? pneu
the blasphemy against the Spirit (Mat. 12:31)
The genitive of time functions like an adverb. It expresses time “within which” something happens.
h#lqen pro>j au]to>n nukto
He came to him during the night (Jn. 3:2).
The agency genitive identifies the agent that has been involved in an action.
e@sontai pa qeou?.
They shall all be taught by God (Jn. 6:45).
Deeper into the Dative [II LIST]
In chapter 4, the dative was given as the indirect object case (He hit the ball to Elliott). It is also used to express self-interest, means, location, and point of time.
ei#pen au]toi?j Lu
He said to them, “Destroy” (Jn. 2:19).
The dative often accompanies the preposition e]n.
Dative of Interest
The dative of interest may express advantage or disadvantage. When expressing advantage, it may be translated “to” or “for.” When expressing disadvantage, “against” may be used (Wallace, Beyond the Basics, 142f.).
w!ste marturei?te e[autoi?j
so that you witness against yourselves (Mat. 23:31)
Dative of Location
The dative is often used with the prepositions e]n (in) and pro
The dative may be used to refer to a particular point in time, in contrast to the genitive which describes time as time within which or time during which.
Kai> t^? h[me
And on the third day there was a wedding (Jn. 2:1).
Verb Principal Parts
Verbs Occurring Nine or More Times in the New Testament
Verbs are listed in their present active indicative first person singular forms. Deponent verbs appear in the present middle/passive indicative form. Additional principal parts (PP) appearing in the New Testament are listed below the main entry in the following order: future active, aorist active, perfect active, perfect middle/passive, aorist passive.