2903/ 2904 Mumbai Central – Amritsar (WR Mumbai division)
Harmandir Sahib, informally referred to as The Golden Temple or Temple of God, is culturally the most significant place of worship of the Sikhs and one of the oldest Sikh gurdwaras. It is located in the city of Amritsar, which was established by Guru Ram Das Ji, the fourth guru of the Sikhs, and is, also due to the shrine, known as Guru Di Nagri meaning city of the Guru.
2419/ 2420 Lucknow – New Delhi (NR Lucknow division)
The Gomti, Gumti or Gomati River is a tributary of the Ganges River Ganga. According to Hindu mythology the river is the daughter of Sage Vashist, and bathing in the waters of the Gomati on Ekadashi (the eleventh day of the Hindu calendar) can wash away one's sins. The Gomti originates from Gomat Taal which formally known as Fulhaar jheel, near Madho Tanda, Pilibhit, Uttaranchal. The cities of Lucknow, Lakhimpur Kheri, Sultanpur and Jaunpur are located on the banks of the Gomti.
Gondwana is a region named after the Gondi people who live there (though they can also be found in other parts of India). The name of the ancient continent of Gondwanaland was derived from Gondwana, because some of the earliest rock formations of this continent were first investigated in part of the region, in modern Orissa. As Gonds are spread widely across central India, there is no unambiguous boundary to the region. However, the core region can be considered to be the eastern part of the Vidarbha region of Maharashtra, the parts of Madhya Pradesh immediately to the north of it, and parts of the west of Chhattisgarh. The wider region extends beyond these, also including parts of northern Andhra Pradesh, and western Orissa.
The city and district of Gorakhpur are named after a renowned ascetic saint, Gorakshanath, the chief disciple of the yogi Matsyendranath. Together, Matsyendranath and Gorakshanath founded the Nath Sampradaya line of saints. Gorakhnath Temple is said to stand on the spot where Gorakshanath practiced Hatha Yoga to develop self control.
Grand Trunk Express
2615/ 2616 Chennai Central – New Delhi (SR Chennai division)
This train once connected the length and breadth of India by joining places as distant as Peshawar and Mangalore, was short terminated to Lahore and Mettupalaiyam and now finally runs from Chennai to Delhi.
2901/ 2902 Mumbai Central – Ahmadabad (WR Ahmadabad division)
9011/ 9012 Mumbai Central – Ahmadabad (WR Mumbai division)
All these trains are named after the state of Gujarat. Modern-day Gujarat is derived from Gujjar (Gujjar Rashtra or Gujjar nation). The Gujjar clan appeared in northern India about the time of the Hun invasions. The name of the tribe was Sanskritized to "Gurjara", from which the word Gujarat is derived.
Rabindranath Tagore (1861 – 1941), who was also known as Gurudev, was a Bengali poet, novelist, musician, and playwright, and Asia's first Nobel laureate by winning the 1913 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Gyan Ganga Express
1031/ 1032 Pune – Varanasi (CR Pune division)
The name means “River (Ganga) of Knowledge”. It could also signify the connection of Varanasi on the River Ganga with Pune, the city known for its educational institutions. Today, Pune is known for its educational facilities, having more than a hundred educational institutes and nine universities.
6591/ 6592 Hubli – Bangalore City (SWR Bangalore division)
Hampi is a village in northern Karnataka, located within the ruins of Vijayanagar, the former capital of the Vijayanagar Empire. Predating the city of Vijayanagar, this village continues to be an important religious centre, housing the Virupaksha Temple. As the village is at the original centre of Vijayanagar, it is sometimes confused with this ruined city. The name is derived from Pampa, which is the old name of the Tungabhadra River on whose banks the city is built. The name "Hampi" is an anglicized version of the Kannada Hampe (derived from Pampa). Over the years, it has also been referred to as Vijayanagar and Virupakshapura (from Virupaksha, the patron deity of the Vijayanagar rulers).
The Hariharnath temple, dedicated to the combined form of Lord Vishnu (Hari) and Lord Shiva (Har) is located at Sonpur in Saran district of Bihar. It is a place of pilgrimage for the devotees who come here especially on the occasion of the great Sonpur mela on Kartik Purnima day. This day of full moon is believed to be very auspicious and any prayer offered on this day to the Lord is always fulfilled. Sonpur Mela is the one of largest cattle fairs of the world. It is a historical and ancient event celebrated every year on bank of pious confluence of Gandak and the Ganges River, on the backdrop of Harihar Nath Temple.
The name of the state of Haryana has been derived from its ancient inhabitants Abhirayana, which got changed to Ahirayana over a period, and to present day Haryana. The name “Abhira” means fearless, the honour they earned after the Battle of the Mahabharata.
Hatey Bazare Express
Bonophul (literally meaning "The wild flower") was the pen-name of Bolai Chand Mukhopadhyay (1899 – 1979), a major literary figure in twentieth century Bengali literature. He was born in Purnea in Bihar and got his medical degree from Patna University. He wrote more than 40 novels, a huge number of short stories and several plays and poems. Written in 1961, Hatey Bazare (In and Around the Marketplace) tells the story of an idealistic doctor who decides to spend his retirement healing the poor in a small town in Bihar.
The Hazarduari Palace, or the palace with a thousand doors is the chief tourist attraction of Murshidabad. It has a thousand doors (among which only 900 are real) and 114 rooms and 8 galleries. It was built in 1837 by General Duncan McLeod for the Nawab Najim Humayun Jah. Now, the palace is a museum which has collections of armory, splendid paintings, exhaustive portraits of the Nawabs, various works of art including beautiful works of ivory (of the Murshidabad school), and many other valuables. Swords used by Siraj-ud-Daula and his grandfather, Nawab Alivardi Khan, can be seen here.
Hemkund or Hemkunt Sahib, with a setting of a glacial lake surrounded by seven peaks, is a popular pilgrimage site for Sikhs. It is located at an elevation of over 15,200 ft (4,600 m) in the state of Uttaranchal and is accessible only by foot from Govindghat on the Rishikesh – Badrinath highway. It is most known for a gurudwara, known as Hemkunt Sahib, associated with the tenth Sikh guru, Guru Gobind Singh, and is one of the most sacred of Sikh shrines. The lake also has a Lakshmana temple built on its shores. Hemkund is a Sanskrit name derived from Hem – Snow & Kund – Bowl, so it means “Bowl of Snow”.
4553/ 4554 Delhi – Una Himachal (NR Ambala division)
The train is named after the state of Himachal Pradesh. The literal meaning of the word Himachal Pradesh is “Region of snowy mountains”.
Himalayan Queen Express
Hirakhand is a region in Orissa, famous for its gems and minerals. “Hira” means diamond. Another explanation for the name is Hira: Hirakud dam and Khand: Khandagiri caves, two important places in Orissa.
Hirakud Dam is built across the Mahanadi River, about 15 km from Sambalpur. Built in 1956, the dam is the world's largest earthen dam, about 16 miles (26 km) in length. It was the first major multipurpose river valley project started after India's independence. Initially the train used to run between Sambalpur and Nizamuddin in Delhi, before its run was extended in both directions.
3051/ 3052 Howrah – Siuri (ER Howrah division)
Before the advent of the British in India, the Santhals resided peacefully in the hilly districts along the Bihar – Bengal border. However the British operatives with their native counterparts cheated and turned them into slaves of the zamindars and the money lenders. On 30th June 1855, two great Santhal rebel leaders, Sido Murmu and his brother Kanhu, mobilized ten thousand Santhals and declared a rebellion (Hool) against British colonists. The Santhals initially gained some success, but soon the British suppressed them brutally. The day is still celebrated among the Santhal community with great respect and spirit for the thousands of martyrs who sacrificed their lives along with their two celebrated leaders, to win freedom from the rule of the Zamindars and the British operatives.
Hussain Sagar Express
Hussain Sagar is a lake in Hyderabad, built by Hazrat Hussain Shah Wali in 1562, during the rule of Ibrahim Quli Qutb Shah. It was a lake of 24 sq km built on a tributary of the River Musi to meet the water and irrigation needs of the city. There is a large monolithic statue of the Gautama Buddha in the middle of the lake which was erected in 1992.
2157/ 2158 Pune – Solapur (CR Pune division)
The Solapur Municipal Council was the first Municipal Council of India to host the national flag on the Municipal Council building (Now Municipal Corporation) Solapur in 1930. Taking the spirit of Dandi March from Mahatma Gandhi, the freedom fighters of Solapur decided to host the national flag on the Solapur Municipal Council. Accordingly, senior freedom fighter from Pune, Annasaheb Bhopatkar hoisted the National Flag on 6th April 1930 on the Municipal Council Building. The British rulers declared martial law and arrested many leaders and innocent citizens on false charges. The freedom fighters Mallappa Dhanshetti, Kurban Hussain, Jagannath Shinde and Kisan Sarda were arrested on charges of killing two policemen of Mangalwar police station. The lower court sentenced them to hanging till death. The High Court also confirmed the same decision and these four freedom fighters were hanged on 12th January 1931. As a mark of respect to these freedom fighters, the statues of these freedom fighters have been installed in the heart of the city and the location has been named as Hutatma (Martyrs’) Chowk.
1021/ 1022 Mumbai C.S.T. – Pune (CR Mumbai division)
Indrayani River is a rain-fed river which originates near Lonavala. The river has great religious importance and the two sacred towns Alandi and Dehu are situated on its banks. Dehu is held sacred for the poet Saint Tukaram, a popular saint of Maharashtra and Alandi holds the samadhi of the poet Dnyaneshwar.
Jallianwala Bagh is a public garden in Amritsar, and houses a memorial of national importance, established in 1951 to commemorate the murder of peaceful celebrators on the occasion of the Punjabi New Year, Baisakhi on 13th April, 1919 in the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre.
Jan Nayak Express
Jan : People, Nayak : leader, so literally it means “Leader of the People”. It could be a reference to the late Chaudhary Devi Lal, who was once the Chief Minister of Haryana and also the Deputy Prime Minister of India.
Jan Sadharan Express
5271/ 5272 Howrah – Muzaffarpur (ECR Samastipur division)
Jan : people, Sadharan : Ordinary, so literally it means the “Ordinary People”. These are trains with no reserved coaches at all, mainly connecting cities in Bihar to other cities.
Jan Sewa Express
2075/ 2076 Kozhikkode – Thiruvananthapuram Central (SR Thiruvananthapuram
2077/ 2078 Chennai Central – Vijayawada (SR Chennai division)
2079/ 2080 Hubli – Bangalore City (SWR Bangalore division)
2083/ 2084 Mayiladuthurai – Coimbatore (SR Salem division)
2365/ 2366 Patna – Ranchi (ECR Danapur division)
Shatabdi (Century) Expresses were introduced in 1989 to mark Jawaharlal Nehru’s birth centenary. However, these exclusive, fully air conditioned trains were found to be out of bounds for the common man, and therefore the Jan (people’s) Shatabdis were introduced, which included air conditioned, as well as non air conditioned coaches.
Goddess Sita as a foundling was discovered in a furrow in a ploughed field, and adopted by Janaka, the king of Mithila (Janakpur – present day India Nepal border, near Jaynagar); hence she was also called Janaki.
3039/ 3040 Howrah – Delhi (ER Howrah division)
9023/ 9024 Mumbai Central – Firozpur Cantt. (WR Mumbai division)
Janata: People. These were the original classless trains, offering only 2nd class 3-Tier Sleeper accommodation. Very few remain today.
Janmabhoomi (Land where one is born, Motherland) is a people centered development process launched in Andhra Pradesh in January 1997. It aims at establishing an ideal society, which embodies and cherishes the principles of people's participation, equality, transparency and accountability leading to sustained economic development and excellence in all walks of life.
Jharkhand Sampark Kranti Express
2825/ 2826 Ranchi – New Delhi (SER Ranchi division)
Jharkhand Swarna Jayanti Express
2817/ 2818 Hatia – Delhi via Gaya (SER Ranchi division)
2873/ 2874 Hatia – Delhi via Daltonganj (SER Ranchi division)
The name Jharkhand comes from the Sanskrit word “Jharikhanda”, which is the ancient name of the region's dense forest.
1077/ 1078 Pune – Jammu Tawi (CR Pune division)
The Jhelum River is the largest and westernmost of the five rivers of the Punjab. It rises from a spring at Verinag situated at the foot of the Pir Panjal in the south-eastern part of the valley of Kashmir in India. It flows through Srinagar and the Wular Lake before entering Pakistan through a deep narrow gorge.
Jivachh Link Express
Coaches of this Link Express are carried by Passenger trains between Samastipur and Darbhanga. I could not find any reference to the meaning of the name, but it is a common name amongst men in Bihar.
The Dnyaneshwari (or Jnaneshwari) is the commentary on Bhagavad Gita written by Marathi saint and poet Dnyaneshwar during the 13th century at age 16.
2225/ 2226 Azamgarh – Delhi (NR Delhi division)
This is one of the few trains to be named after a person. Kaifi Azmi (1919 - 2002) was an Urdu and Hindi film lyricist, poet and songwriter. He was born into a family of landlords in the small village Mejwaan, in Azamgarh district. He was the recipient of Padma Shri, one of the Indian Government's highest civilian awards. Amongst others, he is also the recipient of the Sahitya Akademi Award, Uttar Pradesh Urdu Academy Award, Special Award of Maharashtra Urdu Academy, Soviet Land Nehru Award and the President’s Award for national integration. He is the father of actress Shabana Azmi.
4723/ 4724 Kanpur Central – Bhiwani (NWR Bikaner division)
The River Yamuna is also known as the Kalindi River. The Goddess Yamuna had excessive love for her twin brother, Yama (the God of Death), who in turn asks her to find a suitable match for herself, which she does in Krishna. As she descended down from the heavens to meet her beloved Krishna and to purify the world, she rushed down the Kalinda Mountain, and thus became the daughter of Kalinda, giving her another name, Kalindi.
Kalinga was an early kingdom in eastern India, which comprised most of the modern state of Orissa, as well as some northern areas of the bordering state of Andhra Pradesh. It was a rich and fertile land and was the scene of the bloody Kalinga War fought by the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka the Great of Magadha in 265 BC. Utkal is another name for Orissa, the area around the Ganjam plains and the Mahanadi delta.
Jaishankar Prasad (1889 – 1937) of Varanasi was one of the most famous figures in modern Hindi literature, a dramatist, novelist, poet and a story-writer. His most famous work, the magnum opus, Kamayani, written in 1935, an allegorical epic poem, tells the story of the great flood. Its central characters are Manu (a male) and Shraddha (a female). Manu is representative of the human psyche and Shraddha represents love. Another female character is Ida, who represents rationality. Some critics surmise that the three lead characters of Kamayani symbolize a synthesis of knowledge, action and desires in human life.
5959/ 5960 Howrah – Dibrugarh Town (NFR Tinsukia division)
Kamrup is one of the older names of the state of Assam. Lord Shiva had withdrawn unto Himself after the death of his wife Sati, and was undergoing severe penance, which could have destroyed the world. The other Gods sent Kamadev (the God of Love) and his wife Rati, to distract Lord Shiva and save the world. But when Lord Shiva was disturbed, he was so angry at the intrusion, that he opened his Third Eye and burnt Kamadev to ashes. After a lot of requests by the Gods, Lord Shiva agreed to restore Kamadev to his original Rupa (form) again, and the land where this happened came to be called Kama – Rupa.
Kangchenjunga (Kanchanjanga) is the third highest mountain in the world (after Mount Everest and K2), with an elevation of 8,586 meters (28,169 ft). Kangchenjunga translated means "The Five Treasures of Snows", as it contains five peaks, four of them over 8,450 meters. The treasures represent the five repositories of God, which are gold, silver, gems, grain, and holy books. Although Kangchenjunga is the official spelling adopted by the Royal Geographical Society, that gives the best indication of the Tibetan pronunciation, there are a number of alternative spellings which include Kangchen Dzönga, Khangchendzonga, Kanchenjanga, Kachendzonga, Kanchenjunga or Kangchanfanga. The final word on the use of the name Kangchenjunga came from His Highness Sir Tashi Namgyal, the Chogyal of Sikkim, who stated that "although junga had no meaning in Tibetan, it really ought to have been Zod-nga (treasure, five) Kang-chen (snow, big) to convey the meaning correctly.
The name of the train is taken from a famous poem “Kandari hushiar” penned by Kazi Nazrul Islam. “Kandari” means the captain of the boat or ship and “hushiar” means be careful. Kazi Nazrul Islam was born in Burdwan district in 1899 and died in Dhaka in 1976. He is the national poet of Bangladesh, and also honoured in India.
Kapilavastu is the name of a region of ancient Shakya kingdom that is considered a holy pilgrimage place for Buddhists, located close to Lumbini, the birthplace of the Buddha. The location of ancient Kapilavastu is still the subject of debate, although recognized by UNESCO to be in Nepal. Generally, most Indian guidebooks consider Piprahwa to be the real Kapilavastu, while other guidebooks consider Tilaurakot in Nepal to be the real Kapilavastu.