The name Marathwada identifies one of the five regions in Maharashtra, coinciding with the Aurangabad Division. Marathwada comprises the districts of Parbhani, Aurangabad, Beed, Hingoli, Jalna, Latur, Nanded, and Osmanabad. The term “Marathwada” has its origin in the word “Bara-hatti-vada (region of people with twelve elephants, i.e. wealthy people)”. The region was part of the Nizam’s domain, which later came to be known as the princely state of Hyderabad. On November 1st 1956, Marathwada was transferred from Hyderabad state to Bombay state. On May 1st 1960, Bombay state was divided into Maharashtra and Gujarat states, Marathwada becoming a part of the former.
4853/ 4854 Varanasi – Jodhpur via Faizabad (NWR Jodhpur division)
4863/ 4864 Varanasi – Jodhpur via Sultanpur (NWR Jodhpur division)
4865/ 4866 Varanasi – Jodhpur via Partapgarh (NWR Jodhpur division)
The word ‘Marudhar’ means 'desert.'
Maru Sagar Express
2977/ 2978 Ernakulam – Ajmer (NWR Ajmer division)
The word Maru Sagar means "Desert – Ocean". The word Maru refers to the Thar Desert in Rajasthan. The word Sagar refers to the ocean (Arabian Sea) lying on the West Coast.
Matsyagandha literally means "Fragrance/Smell of Fish" - the name was given since the train runs along the fishing coast of Western India adjoining the Arabian Sea - Konkan railway route.
The Maurya Empire was a geographically extensive and powerful empire in ancient India, ruled by the Mauryan dynasty from 321 to 185 B.C. Originating from the kingdom of Magadha in modern Bihar, the empire had its capital city at Pataliputra (modern Patna). The Empire was founded in 322 BC by Chandragupta Maurya. At its greatest extent, the Empire stretched to the north along the natural boundaries of the Himalayas, and to the east stretching into what is now Assam. To the west, it reached beyond modern Pakistan, annexing Baluchistan and much of what is now Afghanistan. The Empire was expanded into India's central and southern regions by the emperors Chandragupta and Bindusara. Bindusara’s son Ashoka was of course one of the greatest Emperors India has ever known.
6603/ 6604 Mangalore Central – Thiruvananthapuram Central (SR Palakkad division)
Mahabali, also known as Maveli was a benevolent Asura King, and the grandson of Prahlada. According to the legend, Kerala witnessed its golden era during the reign of king Mahabali. Everybody in the state was happy and prosperous and king was highly regarded by his subjects. Apart from all his virtues, Mahabali had one shortcoming. He was egoistic. This weakness in Mahabali's character was utilized by Gods to bring an end to his reign as they felt challenged by Mahabali's growing popularity. However, for all the good deeds done by Mahabali, God granted him a boon that he could annually visit his people with whom he was so attached. It is this visit of Mahabali that is celebrated as Onam every year.
2963/ 2964 Hazrat Nizamuddin – Udaipur City (NWR Ajmer division)
Mewar includes the districts of Bhilwara, Chittaurgarh, Rajsamand and Udaipur. The region was for centuries a Rajput kingdom that later became a princely state under the British. It was ruled by the Chattari Rajputs of Guhilot and Sisodia dynasties for over 1200 years. Known for its long history of bravery, Mewar has been home to such valiant souls like Bappa Rawal, Rani Padmini (who committed Jauhar rather than submit to conquest by Alauddin Khilji), Rana Kumbha, Rana Sangha and Maharana Pratap.
A millennium is a period of time equal to one thousand years (from Latin mille, thousand, and annum, year). Possibly the train was named to commemorate the beginning of a new millennium at the turn of the century. Many other trains were also called Millennium Express, but this one is stuck with the name.
Mithila was a city in ancient India, the capital of the Videha Kingdom. The name Mithila is also commonly used to refer to the Videha Kingdom itself, as well as to the modern-day territories that fall within the ancient boundaries of Videha. The city of Mithila has been identified as modern day Janakpur in Dhanusa district of Nepal.
Mour Dhwaj Express
Mour : Peacock, Dhwaj : Flag. But I was not able to find any reference to any flag depicting a Peacock for the Princely states along the route of the train. The only Peacock Dynasties I could find were the ones in Tamluk (Tamralipta), Mayurbhanj and Keonjhar, all 3 far away on the Bengal – Orissa border.
Muri is a town, 62 km from Ranchi in Jharkhand. It is an important railway junction, where the two parts of the train, one from Tatanagar and the other from Hatia are joined, to continue its journey to Jammu via Delhi, Amritsar and Pathankot.
4041/ 4042 Delhi Sarai Rohilla – Dehra Dun (NR Delhi division)
Mussoorie Link Express
4041A/ 4042A Delhi Sarai Rohilla – Dehra Dun (NR Delhi division)
Mussoorie is a town, about 34 km from Dehra Dun in Uttaranchal. This hill station, situated in the foothills of the Himalaya ranges, is also known as the Queen of the Hills. The name Mussoorie is often attributed to a derivation of 'mansoor', a shrub which is indigenous to the area. The town is in fact often referred to as 'Mansoori' by locals.
The River Nagavali is one of the main rivers of Southern Orissa and North Eastern Andhra Pradesh, between the Mahanadi and Godavari basins. It rises in the eastern slopes of the Eastern Ghats near Lakhbahal in the Kalahandi district of Orissa and flows into the Bay of Bengal near Srikakulam. It drains parts of the Kalahandi, Rayagada and Koraput districts of Orissa and Srikakulam, Vizianagaram and Vishakhapatnam districts of Andhra Pradesh. Rayagada and Srikakulam are two important towns situated on its banks.
Nainital is a town in Uttaranchal and headquarters of Nainital district in the Kumaon foothills of the outer Himalayas. Situated at an altitude of 1,938 meters (6,358 feet) above sea level, Nainital is set in a valley containing a pear-shaped lake (Tal), and surrounded by mountains, of which the highest is Naina (2,615 m or 8,579 ft) to the north. It is believed that the Naini Lake is one of the 64 Shakti Peethas, or religious sites where parts of the charred body of Sati (Parvati) fell on earth while being carried by Lord Shiva. The spot where Sati's eyes (or Nain) fell, came to be called Nain-tal or lake of the eye. The goddess Shakti is worshipped at the Naina Devi Temple on the north shore of the present day lake.
Nanded is widely believed to have originated from Nandi, the vehicle of Lord Shiva, who performed penance on the banks (Tat) of the River Godavari. Thus Nanditat became Nanded, also known as Nandigram (the village of Nandi).
Tirumala Venkateswara (Balaji) Temple is a famous Hindu Temple of Lord Venkateswara located in the hill town Tirumala in Andhra Pradesh. The temple is built on the Venkatadri hill, one of the seven hills of Tirumala, and hence is also known as the Temple of Seven Hills (Saptagiri in Sanskrit). The Tirumala Hill is 3200 ft above sea level and comprises seven peaks, representing the seven hoods of Adisesha, thus earning the name, Seshachalam. The seven peaks are called Seshadri, Neeladri, Garudadri, Anjanadri, Vrushabadri, Narayanadri (the Hill of Narayana) and Venkatadri.
The Narmada is the fifth largest river in the Indian subcontinent. Narmada is a Sanskrit word meaning 'the Giver of Pleasure'. It forms the traditional boundary between North India and South India and flows westwards over a length of 1,312 km before draining through the Gulf of Khambat into the Arabian Sea, 30 km west of Bharuch. It is one of only three major rivers in peninsular India that runs from east to west (largest west flowing river) along with the Tapti River and the Mahi River. It flows through the states of Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Gujarat. The Narmada happens to be one of the most sacred of the five holy rivers of India; the other four being Ganga, Yamuna, Godavari and Kaveri. It is believed that a dip in any of these five rivers washes ones sins away. According to a legend, the river Ganga is polluted by millions of people bathing in it. To cleanse herself, Ganga acquires the form of a black cow and comes to the Narmada to bathe in its holy waters.
Legend has it that Mandodari, the wife of Ravan (the demon king of Lanka in the epic Ramayana), was born in a devil's house in Meerut. She was, however, a great devotee of goddess Chandi and had a temple constructed in honor of the goddess. A religious festival was held to celebrate this occasion. Since then the Nauchandi mela is held on the second Sunday after Holi every year in Meerut. For a month, the city hums with activity as people from far and near coming to participate in the fair.
2655/ 2656 Ahmadabad – Chennai Central (SR Salem division – RSA with 2673/
2674 Cheran Express)
Named after a Gandhian principle, Navjeevan means “New Life”, a reference to the new life that Gandhiji wished for the people by following his principles of satya (truth), ahimsa (non violence), simplicity and religious tolerance.
6687/ 6688 Mangalore Central – Jammu Tawi (SR Palakkad division)
Again, it is a reference to the “New Era” which Gandhiji wished for the people by following his principles of satya (truth), ahimsa (non violence), simplicity and religious tolerance.
2875/ 2876 Puri – New Delhi (ECoR Khurda Road division)
Neela : Blue, Achal : hill (something which cannot be moved). This is a reference to Krishna, the blue God, who is in residence in Puri as Jagannath. It is also an older name for the city of Puri.
2631/ 2632 Chennai Egmore – Tirunelveli (SR Madurai division)
Nellai is the name given to Tirunelveli and Tuticorin districts of Tamil Nadu. It was once ruled by the Pandyan Kings. Nellai Tamil is distinct from Madurai Tamil, Kongu Tamil and Chennai Tamil which are other Tamil dialects. It has been claimed that Nellai Tamil is the first and purest form of Tamil.
6345/ 6346 Lokmanya Tilak Terminus – Thiruvananthapuram Central (SR
The train ran from Mumbai to Mangalore before the opening of the Konkan Railway route, and was extended first to Ernakulam and then to Thiruvananthapuram. The Netravati River has its origins in Chikkamagaluru district of Karnataka. This river flows through the famous pilgrimage place Dharmasthala and considered as one of the Holy rivers of India. It is the main source of water to Bantwal and Mangalore.
2671/ 2672 Chennai Central – Mettupalaiyam (SR Salem division)
The Nilgiri Express (also known as the Blue Mountain Express, or Nilagiri Express) is named after the Nilgiri (Tamil, English - Nil - Blue; Giri - Mountain) Hills. The train is primarily intended for travelers to these hills, especially to the towns of Ooty, Coonoor and Kotagiri. Mettupalaiyam is at the foot of these hills, and the Nilgiri Express links to the Nilagiri passenger train operated by the Nilgiri Mountain Railway (NMR) at Mettupalaiyam station, enabling passengers to complete the journey to Udhagamandalam (Ooty) by rail.
North East Express
2505/ 2506 Guwahati – New Delhi (NFR Lumding division)
Providing a fast and convenient connection between the national capital Delhi and the north eastern states through the gateway of Guwahati city, this train is also known by its Hindi name, Purvottar Express.
Orissa Sampark Kranti Express
2819/ 2820 Bhubaneshwar – New Delhi (ECoR Khurda Road division)
This train has been named for the state of Orissa. The name Oriya originated from Odra or Udra tribes that inhabited the central belt (Angul, Deogarh, Sundargarh, Sambalpur, Sonepur, Baudh, and Balangir) of modern Orissa.
2377/ 2378 Sealdah – New Jalpaiguri (ER Sealdah division)
Subhash Mukhopadhyay (1919 – 2003) was one of the foremost Bengali poets of the 20th century. He was born in Krishnanagar, a town in Nadia district. In 1940, while still a student, he published his first volume of poetry Padatik (The Foot-Soldier). Many critics regard this book as a milestone in the development of modern Bengali poetry. In his poetry, Subhash grappled with the massive upheavals of that era which ruptured Bengali society from top to bottom. The 1940s were marked by world war, famine, partition, communal riots and mass emigration in Bengal. Subhash's writings broke away from the traditional moorings of the establishment poets, and instead addressed the despair and disillusion felt by the common people.
Padmavat is an epic poem written in 1540 by Malik Muhammad Jayasi, who hailed from Jais, a city in Rae Bareli district. Written in the Awadhi language, this poem is a fictionalized version of the historic siege of Chittor in 1303 by Alauddin Khilji, who attacks Chittor after hearing of the beauty of Queen Rani Padmini, the wife of King Rawal Ratan Singh.
Padmavati (Padmavathi or Padmavathy) is a Hindu Goddess, believed to be a form of Lakshmi, the Hindu Goddess of wealth and good fortune. She is the consort of Sri Venkateswara of Tirupati. The name Padmavati is Sanskrit for "she who emerged from a lotus".
5721/ 5722 Digha – New Jalpaiguri (NFR Katihar division)
Connecting the coastal region of West Bengal to the foot of the mountains in northern Bengal, this train is supposed to act as a bridge between the ocean and the mountains, and boost tourism in the state.
Palamau is one of the twenty-four districts of Jharkhand. The etymological derivation of the term Palamau is the land of the Palas and Mahua. Daltonganj named after Colonel Dalton, Commissioner of Chhota Nagpur in 1861, is the district headquarters. The district is home to the famous Palamau National Park (Betla National Park) known for its wild life. The Palamau National Park was brought under Project Tiger in the year 1973 and is among the original tiger reserves of India.
2605/ 2606 Chennai Egmore – Tiruchhirapalli (SR Madurai division – RSA with
2635/ 2636 Vaigai Express)
The Pallava dynasty ruled northern Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh with their capital at Kanchipuram. Originally, descendents of warriors from Northwest India, they settled in the Guntur region of Andhra Pradesh in the 6th century BC and dominated the Telugu and northern parts of the Tamil region until the end of the 9th century AD. The word Pallava means branch in Sanskrit, in contrast with Chola meaning new country, Pandya meaning old country and Chera meaning hill country in the Sangam Tamil lexicon. The Pallavas are considered to be later offshoot of the Cholas. Throughout their reign, they were in constant conflict with both the Chalukyas of Badami in the north, and the Tamil kingdoms of the Cholas and Pandyas in the south and were finally defeated by the Chola kings in the 9th century AD.
Palnadu is the northern region of Guntur District in Andhra Pradesh. Also known as Pallava Nadu, it occupies an important place in Telugu history. After the decline of the Satavahana dynasty, the Pallavas became independent in the Krishna river valley. The region is known as Palnadu in memory of ancient Pallavas.
Panchavati is a famous religious and pilgrimage place in Nasik city. The name is derived from the Sanskrit pancha five, vata Banyan Tree. The area of five Banyan trees is situated on the banks of River Godavari, one of which is an Ashoka tree. Lord Rama, along with his wife Sita and brother Laxman, stayed in Panchavati during their Vanvasa period. There is also a cave here called Sita Gupha. The famous Laxman Rekha is located in Panchavati about a kilometer away from Sita Gupha. It was from here that Ravana abducted Goddess Sita. Today this area is a major pilgrimage and tourist attraction.
2637/ 2638 Chennai Egmore – Madurai (SR Madurai division)
The Pandyan Kingdom was an ancient Tamil state with their capital at Madurai. Pandyan was well known since the ancient period, with diplomatic contacts even reaching the Roman Empire. In the Sangam Tamil lexicon the word Pandya means old country in contrast with Chola meaning new country, Chera meaning hill country and Pallava meaning branch in Sanskrit.
The word Parasnath comes from the 23rd Jain Tirthankara Shri Parshwanath Bhagwan. Parasnath hills are a range of small to medium size hills (highest peak 1,350 meters (4,400 ft)), located in Jharkhand. In Jainism, the Parasnath hills are referred to as Shri Sammet Shikhar Teerth. They are one of the two most prominent Jain pilgrimage centers, the other being Shetrunjaya, located in Gujarat. Twenty Jain Tirthankars, out of twenty-four attained salvation in the Parasnath hills.
6349/ 6350 Thiruvananthapuram Central – Mangalore Central (SR
Parasuram (also known as Bhrigupati, Bhargava, Bhargava Rama or Jamadagnya), a Brahmin, is considered the sixth avatar of Vishnu. Parashu means axe, hence his name literally means Rama-of-the-axe. He received an axe after undertaking a terrible penance to please Shiva, from whom he learned the methods of warfare and other skills. He fought the advancing ocean back thus saving the lands of Konkan and Malabar. The coastal area of Kerala state along with the Konkan region, i.e., coastal Maharashtra and Karnataka, is also sometimes called Parasuram Kshetra (Parasuram's area). Some say it extends all the way to Mumbai in Maharashtra.
This train connects the national capital Delhi to the great Western (Paschim) city of Mumbai. Originally called Air Conditioned Express or Deluxe Express, it now runs daily from Mumbai to Amritsar via Delhi, and even provides a link to Kalka (for Shimla).
8621/ 8622 Patna – Hatia (SER Ranchi division)
Pataliputra, modern-day Patna, was originally built by Ajatashatru in 490 BC as a small fort near the River Ganges, and later became the capital of the ancient Mahajanapadas kingdom of Magadha. Lord Buddha visited it shortly before his death and prophesied it would be great, but would face destruction either by fire, water, or civil war. During the reign of Emperor Ashoka in the 3rd century BC, it was the world's largest city, with a population of 150,000-300,000. Pataliputra reached the pinnacle of prosperity when it was the capital of the great Mauryan Emperors, Chandragupta Maurya and Ashoka the Great. The city was largely in ruins when visited by Hiuen tsang, and suffered further damage at the hands of Muslim raiders in the 12th century. Afterwards Sher Shah Suri made Pataliputra his capital and changed the name to modern Patna. The etymology of Pataliputra is unclear. "Putra" means son, and "patali" is a species of rice or the plant Bignonia suaveolens. One traditional etymology holds that the city was named after the plant. Another tradition says that Pataliputra means the son of Patali, who was the daughter of Raja Sudarshan. As it was known as Patali-grama originally, some scholars believe that Pataliputra is a transformation of Patalipura, "Patali town".
Patalkot is a tourist site in Chhindwara district of Madhya Pradesh. The Patalkot valley is located at a distance of 78 km from Chhindwara. The Doodhi River flows in the picturesque valley. This horse–shoe shaped valley is surrounded by giant hills and there are several pathways to reach the villages located inside the valley. There is a belief that after worshipping Lord Shiva, Prince Meghnath had gone to Patal-lok through this place only. Traditionally, the site is believed to be the entrance to Patal. This valley had long been cut off from the civilized culture outside and was discovered only few years back. Patalkot has been a home to a tribal (Gond) culture and custom since its origin.
Pearl City Express
2601/ 2602 Chennai Egmore – Tuticorin (SR Chennai division)
Thoothukudi also known as Tuticorin is a city in southern Tamil Nadu. Tuticorin is also known as "Pearl City" (Muthu Nagar in Tamil) as it is traditionally known for its pearl fishing industry.
2711/ 2712 Chennai Central – Vijayawada (SCR Vijayawada division)
The Pinakini is another name for the Penner River. It rises in the Nandi Hills in Chikballapur District of Karnataka, and runs 560 km (350 miles) north and east through Andhra Pradesh to empty into the Bay of Bengal 15 km east of Nellore. The name Pinakin is another name for Lord Shiva, and literally means “Wielder of the Bow”, though I could not find the context behind the name of the river.
2661/ 2662 Chennai Egmore – Sengottai (SR Chennai division)
The Pothigai (Podhigai) Malai (hill), also known as the Agasthiyar Malai, is in the Ashambu hills, part of the Anaimalai Hills in the Western Ghats of Southern India. Legend says that Sage Agasthya (also written as Agasthiyar) created the Tamil language here. According to the Mahabharata, Lord Shiva sent the two saints (or sages) Vyasa and Agasthya to create the divine languages Sanskrit and Tamil. Agasthiyar came to Pothigai and established the Tamil culture. The Tamil spoken in the Tirunelveli district is considered to be very pure.