The name of the River Indus is a Latinization of the word Hindu, in turn the Iranian variant of Sindhu, the name of the Indus in the Rig-Veda. The Sanskrit Sindhu generically means river, stream, ocean, probably from a root sidh meaning to keep off. Though why the train is so named is not clear, because it goes nowhere near the River Indus or the ocean. One explanation is that the Jamnagar area was once part of the Indus Valley Civilization and many archaeological sites related to that era have been discovered here.
1009/ 1010 Mumbai C.S.T. – Pune (CR Pune division)
Sinhagad, The Lion's Fort, is a fortress located roughly 30 km southwest of Pune city. Previously called Kondhana (after the sage Kaundinya), the fort has been the site of many important battles, most notably the battle of Sinhagad in 1670. Tanaji Malusare, a general of Shivaji was entrusted of recapturing the fort from the Mughals in March 1670. A steep cliff leading to the fort was scaled with the help of a ghorpad, or a monitor lizard. Thereafter, there ensued fierce battles between Tanaji and his men, and the Mughals. Tanaji lost his life, but his brother Suryaji took over and captured Kondana. Upon hearing of Tanaji's death, Shivaji expressed his remorse with the words: "Gad aala, pan sinha gela" - "We gained the fort, but lost the lion". In honor of Tanaji's death, the fort was renamed as Sinhagad. A bust of Tanaji has been established on the fort in memory of his contribution to the battle.
The Somnath Temple located in the Prabhas Kshetra near Veraval on the western coast of Gujarat, is the most sacred of the twelve Jyotirlingas (lingams of light) of the God Shiva. Somnath means "The Protector of Moon God". Hindu mythology states that the Moon God Chandra, being arrogant about his beauty, was cursed by his father-in-law Daksha to wane. The Moon then prayed to Lord Shiva at the Prabhas tirth (a Hindu pilgrimage site) who then removed the curse partially, thus causing the periodic waning of moon. The Somnath Temple is known as 'the Shrine Eternal', as although the temple has been destroyed six times, it has been rebuilt every single time, on the last occasion in November 1947.
South Bihar Express
3287/ 3288 Durg – Danapur (ECR Danapur division)
Initially it used to run between the capital of Bihar, Patna and the largest city in South Bihar, Jamshedpur (Tatanagar). However, the name has lost its significance today, as it was extended to Durg, and also Jamshedpur is no longer in Bihar, but in Jharkhand.
Sri Jagannath Express
Jagannath is a Hindu deity, a form of Vishnu. The oldest and most famous Jagannath deity is in the city of Puri (the city is known to many as Jagannath Puri after the Jagannath Temple) where each year the famous Rath Yatra festival takes place. The Jagannath Temple in Puri is regarded as one of the four most sacred Hindu pilgrimage places in India. Jagannath is derived from Jagannatha a Sanskrit name used to describe a form of Krishna. The term means 'master, lord' (natha) of the 'World, Universe' (jagat).
Jodhpur is the second largest city in Rajasthan, set in the stark landscape of the Thar Desert. The city is known as the Sun City for the bright, sunny weather it enjoys all year. The name could also be a reference to the legendary solar origin of the former rulers of Jodhpur.
Both Ludhiana and Firozpur are situated on the banks of the Sutlej, the longest of the five rivers that flow through the Punjab. The Sutlej is the easternmost tributary of the Indus. Its source is in Tibet near Mount Kailash, and it flows generally west and southwest entering India through the Shipki La pass in Himachal Pradesh. It joins with the Beas near Amritsar, and continues southwest into Pakistan to unite with the Chenab, forming the Panjnad River south of ancient Multan. The Panjnad joins the Indus at Mithankot.
The Subarnarekha River flows through the Indian states of Jharkhand, West Bengal and Orissa. It originates in the Chhota Nagpur Plateau in Jharkhand, and passing through West Bengal, finally, empties into the Bay of Bengal Balasore District of Orissa. The river derives its name from two Sanskrit/Bengali words: subarna meaning "gold" and rekha meaning "line" or "streak". Their combination has given the river its name Subarnarekha or "golden line" or "streak of gold". The Hindi name of the river is Swarnarekha, which is synonymous with Subarnarekha. According to legend, traces of gold were found in the river's bed at the source of the river near Piska, a small village not too far from Ranchi. Important cities lying along the river include Ranchi, the capital of Jharkhand, and the steel city of Jamshedpur.
Swaraj can mean generally self-governance or "home-rule" (swa- "self", raj- "rule") but the word usually refers to Mahatma Gandhi's concept for Indian independence from foreign domination. Lokmanya Tilak was one of the first and strongest advocates of Swaraj in Indian consciousness. His famous quote, "Swaraj is my birthright, and I shall have it" is well-remembered in India even today.
Swarna Jayanti Express
2643/ 2644 Thiruvananthapuram Central – Hazrat Nizamuddin (SR
2817/ 2818 Hatia – Delhi via Gaya (SER Ranchi division)
2873/ 2874 Hatia – Delhi via Daltonganj (SER Ranchi division)
2957/ 2958 Ahmadabad – New Delhi (WR Ahmadabad division)
Swarna Jayanti means Golden Jubilee. These trains were introduced or named for the Golden Jubilee year of Indian independence in 1997.
Swarna Shatabdi Express
2029/ 2030 New Delhi – Amritsar (NR Delhi division)
Running 6 days a week with LHB coaches, (and one day with ICF coaches as 2031/ 2032), the Swarna Shatabdi has been provided with modern communication facilities including cellular telephones and fax on board. The Railways claim that it not only runs at a higher speed than the ordinary Shatabdi but also offers better riding experience with fewer jerks. Moreover, it is supposed to be more comfortable, have superior catering, original paintings by eminent artists and also two rail hostesses (comparable to air hostesses) for the Executive Class.
Swatantrata Sainani Express
2561/ 2562 Darbhanga – New Delhi (ECR Samastipur division)
The train has been named to commemorate the sacrifices made by the unknown freedom fighters who fought for India's independence.
Once one of Indian Railway’s prestigious trains running between Delhi and Agra, the city of the Taj, it has lost much of its glamour after being upstaged by the Shatabdi Express, and extended to first Gwalior and then Jhansi.
Tamil Nadu Express
2621/ 2622 Chennai Central – New Delhi (SR Chennai division)
Land (Nadu) of the Tamil people is the literal meaning of the name of the state. By the third century BC, the ethnic identity of Tamils has been formed as a distinct group. Tamilar is etymologically related to Tamil, the language spoken by Tamil people. The name comes from tam-miz 'self-speak', or 'one's own speech'.
Tamralipta is the name of an ancient city on the Bay of Bengal corresponding with Tamluk. Tamralipta may have been one of the most important urban centers of trade and commerce of early historic India, trading with China, the Middle East, Europe, Bali, Java and other areas of the Far East. Tamluk derives its name from the Sanskrit word Tamra Lipta meaning "Full of Copper". It had been an important waterway for more than 3000 years and gets its name from the copper which was mined, as it is even now, in Jharkhand and Orissa, areas which are not far from the city. Copper had been eclipsed by iron around 100 B.C., so the name must have originated during the Copper Age, when Tamralipta exported the ore and metal. The original name of the port was in use till the third century B.C., when Ashoka's daughter and son sailed from it for Sri Lanka. According to local folklore the name Tamralipta came from the King Tamradhwaja (which means The King with Copper Flag/symbol) of the Mayura-Dhwaja (Peacock) dynasty. If you go according to Mahabharat's description the ruling period of the King Tamradhwaja is nearer to the end of the Copper Age. Probably this ancient king had a huge base of copper, and the metal brought prosperity to the region in his time. Thus both the names, Tamralipta and Raja Tamradhwaja, might have been originated from it.
Gangadhar Meher (1862 – 1924) was born at Barpali, Bargarh District (undivided Sambalpur District) in a weaver family. Though he was educated up to 5th Class, he has given a new meaning and glory to Oriya Language and Literature. He has written his poetry in such a manner that it attracts and gladdens the hearts of all literature-loving people. His poetic creations include 'Tapaswini', a masterpiece which has been translated into English, Hindi and Sanskrit. Tapaswini means “Ascetic”.
Tapovan (Sanskrit) comes from the two root words Tapasya - meaning specifically austerity, and more generally spiritual practice, and Vana, meaning forest, or wilderness. Tapovan then translates as forest of spiritual practice, wild place for practicing austerities, etc. Traditionally in India, any place where someone has engaged in serious spiritual retreat may become known as Tapovan. Within the city of Nasik, once a part of the holy Dandakaranya forest, Tapovan is a pictorial spot and has a close association with the epic Ramayana. Though the train goes from Mumbai to Nanded, it is quite popular as a day Inter City Express between Mumbai and Nasik.
Tapti Ganga Express
2945/ 2946 Surat – Varanasi (WR Mumbai division)
This train connects Surat on the Tapti River to Varanasi on the Ganga River. The Tapti River originates in Betul district of Madhya Pradesh near a place called Multai. The Sanskrit name of Multai is Multapi, meaning origin of Tapi Mata or the Tapti River. Tapti is the daughter of Surya, the Sun God.
Tea Garden Express
Originally the train ran from Cochin H.T. to Mettupalaiyam, at the foot of the Nilgiri mountains. Nilgiri tea is grown in the hills of the Nilgiris district of Tamil Nadu, though there are numerous other tea districts in South India as well, including Munnar and Central Travancore, further south in Kerala. It is generally described as being a dark, intensely aromatic, fragrant and flavorful tea.
Tebhaga literally means three shares of harvests. Traditionally, sharecroppers used to hold their tenancy on fifty-fifty share of the produce. In 1946, sharecroppers of some north and northeastern districts of Bengal and their supporters demanded that the half-sharing system was unjust. Since all the labor and other investment were made by the tenants, and since the landowner had least participation in the production process in terms of capital input, labor and infrastructure, the latter should get one-third of the crops, not the traditional one half. Tebhaga movement was organized mainly by the communist cadres of the Bengal Provincial Krishak Sabha. The movement was most intensely felt in the districts of Dinajpur, Rangpur, Jalpaiguri, Khulna, Mymensingh, Jessore and the 24-Parganas. In some places the Tebhaga movement made such headway that the peasants declared their zone as Tebhaga elaka or liberated area, and Tebhaga committees were set up for the governance of the area locally, e.g. in Jessore, Dinajpur and Jalpaiguri. All these developments led the government to initiate a bill in the Legislative Assembly in early 1947. The Tebhaga struggle was successful in so far as it has been estimated that about 40% of the sharecropping peasants got Tebhaga right granted willingly by the landholders.
Teesta Torsha Express
3141/ 3142 Sealdah – Haldibari/ New Alipurduar (ER Sealdah division)
The River Teesta or Tista is said to be the lifeline of Sikkim, flowing for almost the entire length of the state. It then forms the border between Sikkim and West Bengal before joining the Brahmaputra as a tributary in Bangladesh. Torsa River (also spelt Torsha) rises from the Chumbi Valley in Tibet, China. It flows into Bhutan, before entering the northern part of West Bengal. It then flows into Bangladesh by the name of Kaljani and meets with Brahmaputra (Jamuna) there.
Telangana is a region in Andhra Pradesh. It literally means "land of the Telugus" and the Telugu language originated here. It more or less corresponds to that portion of the state which was previously part of the princely state of Hyderabad and includes the districts of Warangal, Adilabad, Khammam, Mahbubnagar, Nalgonda, Rangareddy, Karimnagar, Nizamabad, Medak, and the state capital, Hyderabad. There is a long standing demand of statehood for this region.
4889/ 4890 Bhagat ki Kothi – Munabao (NWR Jodhpur division)
Thar Express is an international train that connects Karachi, Pakistan to Jodhpur, India. Six km apart, Munabao and Khokhropar are the two last railway stations of the India – Pakistan border, with Zero Point being the actual border crossing point. The link was destroyed during the Indo – Pakistani War of 1965, but, on 18th February, 2006, it was revived after a period of 41 years. The Thar Desert, also known as the Great Indian Desert, is a large, arid region in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent. It is world's 7th largest desert and also Asia's 3rd largest desert. It lies mostly in Rajasthan, and extends into the southern portions of Haryana and Punjab, and into northern Gujarat. In Pakistan, the desert covers eastern Sindh province and the southeastern portion of Pakistan's Punjab province. Thar means ‘desert’.
Thirukkural is a classic of couplets or Kurals (1330 rhyming Tamil couplets) in the Tamil language. It was authored by Thiruvalluvar (around 200 BC), and is considered to be the first work to focus on ethics in India. Thirukkural expounds various aspects of life and is one of the most important works in Tamil. There is a 133 feet tall statue of Saint Thiruvalluvar erected at the southern tip of Indian subcontinent (Kanyakumari) where the Arabian Sea, the Bay of Bengal, and the Indian Ocean confluence. The 133 ft denotes Thirukkural's 133 Chapters or athikarams and the show of three fingers, to denote the three themes Aram, Porul, and Inbam i.e. the sections on Morals, Wealth and Rejoice.
Tirumala Venkateswara Temple is a famous Hindu Temple of Lord Venkateswara located in the hill town Tirumala (Tiru: sacred, mala: hill) in Andhra Pradesh. The temple is built on the Venkatadri hill, one of the seven hills of Tirumala, and hence is also known as the Temple of Seven Hills (Saptagiri in Sanskrit). The presiding deity of the temple, Lord Venkateswara is also known by other names - Balaji or Srinivasa or Perumal. The temple is the richest and the most visited place of worship in the world. The temple is visited by about 50,000 to 100,000 pilgrims daily, while on special occasions and festivals, the number of pilgrims shoots up to 500,000, making it one of the most visited holy places in the world.
2613/ 2614 Mysore – Bangalore City (SWR Mysore division)
Sultan Fateh Ali Tipu (1750 – 1799), also known as the Tiger of Mysore, was the de facto ruler of the Islamic Kingdom of Mysore from 1782 (the time of his father's death) until his own demise in 1799. He was the first son of Hyder Ali by his second wife, Fatima, and his full name is Sultan Fateh Ali Khan Shahab or Tipu Saheb Tipu Sultan. In addition to his role as ruler, he was a scholar, soldier, and poet. He was a devout Muslim but the majority of his subjects were Hindus. He allied with the French in their struggle against the British. He helped his father Hyder Ali defeat the British in the Second Mysore War, but was defeated in the Third and Fourth Anglo-Mysore Wars by the combined forces of the British East India Company, the Nizam of Hyderabad and Travancore. Tipu Sultan died defending his capital Srirangapattana, on 4th May 1799.
Historically Tirhut refers to the Indo-Gangetic plains lying north of the Ganga River, in Bihar, corresponding to the ancient region of Mithila. Tirhut, a densely populated area of India, has alluvial plains with several rivers passing through them. In ancient time, the area was part of the kingdom of Vaishali. During the initial period of the British Raj, Tirhut district was formed in 1873, as part of Patna division. Tirhut district was thereafter reorganized into two districts, namely, Darbhanga and Muzaffarpur. In 1908, Tirhut was carved out of Patna division to form a new division named Tirhut division, a name which still continues, but the boundaries have changed several times due to reorganization of districts and creating smaller districts over decades. Originally, Tirhut division consisted of five districts: Darbhanga, Muzaffarpur, Saran, East and West Champaran. Mahatma Gandhi started his Satyagraha movement in Champaran from areas around Motihari.
2913/ 2914 Indore – Nagpur via Ujjain (WR Ratlam division)
Recent history ascribes the founding of Nagpur to Bakht Buland, a prince of the Gond kingdom of Deogarh in the Chhindwara district in 1702. The train was introduced in 2002 to mark the Tercentenary (Tri Shatabdi) celebrations of the founding of the city.
Triveni Sangam is the confluence of three rivers (Ganga, Yamuna and Saraswati) near Allahabad. It is the site for the historic Kumbha Mela held every 12 years. Sangama is the Sanskrit word for confluence. Of these three, the river Saraswati is invisible and is said to flow underground and join the other two rivers from below. The Triveni Sangam is believed to be the same place where drops of Nectar fell from the pitcher from the hands of the Gods. So it is believed that a bath in the Sangam will wash away all one's sins, free one from the cycle of rebirth and will clear the way to heaven. The train ran between Allahabad and Lucknow before it was extended in both directions.
1069/ 1070 Lokmanya Tilak Terminus – Allahabad via Jhansi, Banda (CR Mumbai
Tulsidas (1532-1623) was a great Awadhi bhakta (devotee), philosopher, composer, and the author of Ramacharitamanasa, an epic poem and scripture devoted to Lord Rama. Tulsidas was born in present day Gonda district. The name comes from two words: Tulasi, which is an Indian variety of the basil plant, and Dasa, which means "servant" or, by extension, "devotee". Ramacharitamanasa, an epic devoted to Rama, was the Awadhi version of Ramayana of Valmiki. Apart from "Awadhi"- three other languages are also seen in the epic Ramacharitamanasa- they are Bhojpuri, Brijbhasa and the local language of the people of Chitrakoot region.
7607/7608 Secunderabad – Kurnool Town (SCR Hyderabad division)
The Tungabhadra is a sacred river in southern India that flows through the states of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh, and it is the chief tributary of the Krishna River. The Tungabhadra is formed by the confluence of two rivers, the Tunga River and the Bhadra River, which flow down the eastern slopes of the Western Ghats in Karnataka. The combined river then takes a northeasterly direction and flows by the towns of Shimoga, Harihar, Hospet, Manthralayam and Kurnool, after which it joins the Krishna River.
2943/ 2944 Valsad – Kanpur Central (WR Mumbai division)
Udyog: Industry and Karmi: Doer. The train is so named because it connects the two industrial areas of Kanpur and Valsad in South Gujarat.
Udyog: Industry and Nagari: City. The train is so named because it connects the two industrial cities of Mumbai and Kanpur.
6529/ 6530 Mumbai C.S.T. – Bangalore City (SWR Bangalore division)
Bangalore is called the “Garden (Udyan) city” of India due to its over 700 parks (the most famous of which are Lalbagh gardens and Cubbon Park) and 187 lakes (examples are Ulsoor Lake and Sankey Tank).
Udyan Abha Toofan Express
3007/ 3008 Howrah – Sri Ganganagar (ER Howrah division)
This is a train formed by the combination of two trains : Udyan Abha Express from New Delhi to Sri Ganganagar and Toofan Express from Howrah to New Delhi. Udyan : Garden, Abha : Splendor. Sri Ganganagar is one of the well planned modern cities of India. It is said to be influenced by the town planning of Paris. It is divided into residential blocks and commercial areas. Residential Blocks have large parks for each Block. Sri Ganganagar is a testimony of the vision and efforts of Great Maharaja Ganga Singh Ji. Desert land was converted to a lush green town, credited to the Maharaja who brought the Gang canal which carries the excess waters of Punjab and Himachal Pradesh to the region. Toofan: Typhoon/ Storm. In pre- independence days, this was one of the fastest connections between Howrah and Delhi and used to run via the Grand Chord. Later on it was diverted via 1) Patna and 2) Agra, and the name “Toofan”, indicating speed, has lost its significance.
4309/ 4310 Ujjain – Dehra Dun (NR Moradabad division)
Ujjain (also known as Ujjayani, Avanti, Avantikapuri), is an ancient city of Malwa region, on the eastern bank of the Kshipra River in Madhya Pradesh. As mentioned in the Mahabharata epic, Ujjayani was the capital of the Avanti Kingdom, and has been the first meridian of longitude for Hindu geographers since the 4th century BC. Ujjain is one of the seven sacred cities of the Hindus, and the Kumbha Mela is held there every 12 years. It is also home to Mahakaleshwar Jyotirlinga, one of the twelve Jyotirlinga shrines to the god Shiva and is also the place where Lord Krishna got his education, along with Balarama and Sudama from Maharshi Sandipani.