Data Sheet 1: Governmental and nongovernmental bodies specialized in the field of ICH …………………………………………………………………………………...…82
Data Sheet 2: Programmes, projects and activities in the field of ICH ………….145
Writers and Publications in the field of ICH ………………………………………181
Radio Programs on ICH …………………………………………………………….188
Identifying Jordanian National ICH …………………..…………………………...189
Cultural Bodies and Traditional Bands ……………………………………………192
Museums in Jordan ……………………………………………………………….…207
Names of Jordanian Travellers …………………………………………………..…208
A list of writers and Publications in the field of ICH (Arabic) ……………………213
A report on the contribution of the Circassia in Jordan ……………….….………235
The present assessment report will try to give an overview of the current situation of Jordan’s Intangible Cultural Heritage (hereafter ICH) in respect to the 2003 UNESCO Convention for Safeguarding Intangible Cultural Heritage.
Since its establishment, the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan has attached great importance to cultural issues at both the governmental and non-governmental levels, and Jordan continues to see the significance of its culture for sustainable development and cultural dialogue. Included in this concept is Cultural Heritage, which shapes the basic elements of identity and social cohesion among the country’s various communities and minorities. The recently-launched Jordanian “National Agenda” clearly defines the main challenges relating to the country’s culture sector, including cultural heritage issues.
Our survey conducted during the first phase of the MedLiHer project explored the strengths and weakness of the various administrative bodies involved in Jordan’s ICH. On the positive side, for example, the survey found official governmental interest in ICH issues, the existence of certain institutions and organizations that contribute to ICH issues in different and divergent ways, and Jordanian laws and legislations that can potentially be developed to deal with ICH issues. On the other hand, the survey revealed that one of the major obstacles toward realizing best practices in this field for Jordan was the lack of a central official umbrella organization for ICH issues. It also became evident, based on the information collected, that there are considerable weaknesses in integrating cultural heritage issues into the national strategic plan. In addition, the survey showed that awareness efforts - at the governmental, institutional and public levels - about the importance of ICH and its great value have not been carried out satisfactorily. It is believed that successful awareness program would enable the Jordanian people to explore the value of their ICH as reflected in the cultural diversity of their society.
Following Jordan’s ratification of the Convention in 2006, efforts have increased to establish an official body for ICH. It was only a couple of weeks ago, in fact, that the Jordanian government approved a proposal to establish just such a unit within the administrative structure of the Ministry of Culture. Although still inactive, the unit will be called the “Directorate of ICH.”
In recent years, some Jordanian universities have established a small number of cultural heritage related academic programs; none, however, devote special attention to ICH. Rather, almost all focus on the management, conservation and restoration of tangible cultural heritage. We believe, however, that by conducting some structural and administrative modifications, such programs have the potential to extend their fields of study to cover ICH issues.
The lack of any official governmental body for ICH has likewise meant the absence of effective Jordanian legislation for the protection and management of ICH. The adaptability of existing legislations in the country would allow for the modification of some constitutional provisions to deal with ICH issues in a way that is harmonious with the Convention.
As for the inventorying of ICH in Jordan, we found that a central entity responsible for documenting or inventorying ICH does not exist. Certain governmental and non-governmental institutions have accomplished some work on ICH, though much of this work is dispersed and characterized by different nomenclatures and titles. Among the previous attempts to deal with ICH, it is remarkable that no unified and constant standards or criteria were followed. Different lists, studies, and treatises on the subject were traced in the history of research on ICH in Jordan. They remain, however, as valuable sources of the country’s ICH and a basis for any future inventory that complies with the Convention. A committee was recently established to determine standards for the inventorying of Jordan’s ICH, and also identifying the organizations and individuals working on ICH, as well as the actual practitioners and tradition bearers.
Because Jordan has witnessed dispersed, individual and often unorganized endeavors aimed at preserving and documenting its ICH, it was impossible to measure whether these attempts satisfied the requirement of the participation of communities, groups, and NGOs in the identification and definition of ICH.
Concerning awareness and promotion of ICH in Jordan, it has become evident in the years after the ratification of the Convention that there is still an inadequate awareness of the importance of safeguarding ICH on the part of both central and local governmental sectors, as well as among the stakeholders themselves. Without targeting a specific social category (i.e., community or group), the country is taking scattered steps toward developing a general awareness of the importance of ICH. It is hoped that the recent establishment of the “Directorate of ICH” will result in serious and planned steps toward realizing this goal—educating the public about efforts to develop and preserve the national ICH. Until now, the media has contributed only indirectly to this field, as media outlets concentrate primarily on describing and documenting some ICH practices for the Jordanian communities, rather than on concentrating on raising awareness about ICH.
Jordan maintains excellent cultural relations with different countries around the world and constantly strives to benefit from its bilateral treaties and relationships with partner countries. Central to our interest are those treaties that include cultural aspects, as it is possible to widen covered areas to include cooperation in the field of ICH. Jordan participates in these mutual cultural exchanges, for example, by sending delegations of Jordanian musicians and bands to perform in the folk festivals of partner countries.
The Cultural Space of the Bedu in Petra and Wadi Ram was taken as a case study. The Cultural Space’s social and cultural functions, its viability, and current risks were reviewed. As this cultural element is on the “Representative List,” it was taken to be a good example of Jordan’s efforts to raise awareness of ICH. From the submitted documentation, we can see the local community’s contribution in safeguarding their ICH.
The survey allowed us to diagnose some problems and priorities to which Jordan has attached great importance. We have noticed that the primary problem is the lack of an official body which can manage ICH in Jordan from different perspectives. The lack of such a body creates further problems and obstacles, namely the lack of a database for listing and identifying the practitioners and researchers of ICH in Jordan; and an overall organizational weakness resulting from minimal financial support and lack of coordination among the various entities, organizations and individuals with a vested interest in Jordan’s ICH. Moreover, attempts by the Jordanian media to raise awareness about ICH are deemed unsatisfactory. Particularly noticeable is the lack of capable advisory and intersectoral administrative bodies that can evaluate the institutions and systems that have worked so far to collect ICH. The lack of awareness programs is considered to be one of the main problems, as Jordanians currently do not understand the real and factual situation and importance of their ICH, or the many threats that face their vibrant, deep-rooted living heritage. Related to the latter issue is the weakness of ICH-related subjects infused into the school curricula, where cultural studies remain focused solely on tangible heritage. In addition, decreasing research interest makes it difficult to determine the appropriate solutions for the different problems facing the decline of a large sector of ICH in Jordan.
The report has also tackled the possible problems that might arise once institutional and official steps have been taken towards inventorying and safeguarding Jordan’s ICH: the commoditization, freezing and distortion or manipulation of the country’s ICH, as well as problems that might be encountered during the future inventorying process. The latter includes different levels of participation among Jordan’s numerous social and ethnic communities, and a concern for inclusivity while handling the ICH inventory. As stated in the report, the ICH safeguarding process in Jordan should consider excluding the safeguarding of certain elements in accordance with the Convention, and be aware of the inappropriate use of ICH and the respect of the issue of cultural property.
While collecting data and information, the surveying team encountered certain problems and obstacles that stemmed from insufficient information available in the Jordanian institutions and organizations surveyed. Moreover, some of the administrative members of certain institutions were not aware of the concept of ICH.
Introduction Culture is the reflection of the civilization level of any nation or country; it is the outcome of man's understanding of his heritage, religion and social and physical interaction in every stage of his history at both the individual and group level. This outcome comprises spiritual and intellectual elements and dimensions, technical tools, values, traditions, behaviour conventions and lifestyles, as well as arts, literature and varied forms of creativity.
Our present era holds escalating cognitive challenges accompany the technology challenges. Moreover, the world gross cultural transformation imposes new styles of culture that are inevitable to contact and interact with such as the globalization culture with all its advantages and disadvantages at all theoretical and practical levels posed on the principle of merging originality and contemporariness.
Proceeding from the royal directives to establish a culture based on conscious loyalty to the nation state, to promote the values of rightfulness and openness to other world cultures, to care for culture, heritage and arts; the government of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, has continued to preserve, guard and spread tangible and intangible heritage for a long time, this includes scripts, antiques, artistic or archaeological products, practices, skills, knowledge, arts and traditions. In addition, the government has recruited specialists to safeguard and maintain them through a number of ministries and governmental institutions. The private sector and institutions of civil society are also encouraged to participate in safeguarding the cultural heritage of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.
In recognition of the importance of heritage and safeguarding it by some countries, the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan has authenticated a number of international cultural agreements, and participated actively in planning the cultural strategies and policies at both the Arabic and Islamic levels for culture enhancement, and technology utilization in preserving and introducing it to the children and youth.
Analysis of current status A number of institutions share the responsibility of managing, safeguarding and utilizing tangible and ICHin Jordan (for example, the Ministry of Culture, Ministry of Tourism, Department of Archeology, Jordanian universities, Ministry of Education and a number of civil society institutions). Unfortunately, the diversity of involved institutions in this issue, has led to an ineffective system in managing the historical heritage. This system is affected greatly by shortage of human and finance resources for this vital and important sector. In spite the large number of legislations and regulations that identify the scope of work, it is a must to overcome one of the obstacles (i.e. the absence of a legislative framework that specifies roles and authorities of the main involved parties, and gives a definition for heritage and historical legacy and heritage compatible with the world best practices.
In light of "MEDLIHER" first stage analysis and after studying the results of conducted surveys, SWOT analysis were identified without specifying a particular body, but showing the big picture of issues related to the topic.
Jordan has a huge amount of heritage resources.
Royal directives to preserve cultural heritage.
National agenda and Action plans of governments.
Jordan's approval of a number of international cultural agreements.
Civil society and public sector interest in heritage issues.
Flexibility and leniency of Jordanian legislation that facilitate heritage preservation.
Availability of communication networks at national, regional and international levels.
Culture diversity in Jordan.
Absence of a national umbrella for managing tangible and intangible heritage at present.
Preservation of heritage comes at the minor rank in the national economy.
Insufficient financial resources.
Unavailability of national qualified personnel.
Redundancy and diversity of legislations and overlapping among authorities of concerned parties.
Non-participation of media in raising the desired awareness.
The concern of his Majesty King Abdullah the second for the preservation of tangible and intangible heritage. This is also a concern other princes of the Royal Family.
Inclusion of the heritage issue in the national agenda, and connecting heritage and culture with the sustainable development.
Setting a national strategy for tangible heritage by Archaeology Department, and a plan for culture development by the Ministry of Culture.
The potential for fostering relations with civil society and NGOs, in particular those concerned with minorities.
Jordan's well reputation and relations with regional and international heritage organizations.
Interest of Jordanian universities.
Making use of the role of schools in educating society.
Making use of media in raising the awareness of Jordan culture and heritage.
Frequent change of responsible political leadership of culture and heritage threatens the continuity of executing the vision.
Lack of qualified human resources.
Lack of sufficient financial support especially for awareness raising and promotion of tangible heritage concepts.
Dominance of political events over interest in cultural heritage.
Invasion of global culture via Internet and other ICT techniques.
Absence of master plan and lack of guidance for locating and preserving heritage.
The current report has been shaped by the definition of Intangible Cultural Heritage (hereinafter ICH) contained within the 2003 UNESCO Convention for the Safeguarding of ICH. The ICH means the practices, representations, expressions, knowledge, skills – as well as the instruments, objects, artifacts and cultural spaces associated therewith – that communities, groups and, in some cases, individuals recognize as part of their cultural heritage. This intangible cultural heritage, transmitted from generation to generation, is constantly recreated by communities and groups in response to their environment, their interaction with nature and their history, and provides them with a sense of identity and continuity, thus promoting respect for cultural diversity and human creativity. For the purposes of this Convention, consideration is given solely to such ICH as is compatible with existing international human rights instruments, and complies with the requirements of mutual respect among communities, groups and individuals, and of sustainable development. The ‘domain definitions’ of Article 2.2 of the Convention, referred to above, are:
- Oral traditions and expressions, including language as a vehicle of the intangible cultural heritage
- Knowledge and practices concerning nature and the universe
- Traditional craftsmanship
A. LEGISLATIVE, REGULATORY AND OTHER MEASURES AVAILABLE FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CONVENTION
1. Institutional capacities for safeguarding intangible cultural heritage
1. a. Competent bodies for safeguarding its intangible cultural heritage The government of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan seeks to adopt a general policy that aims to highlight the role of ICH among society and in sustainable development, and to integrate preserving this heritage in planning programs. It is emphasized in the National Agenda that cultural development is vitally related to political, economic and social development. Also, the National Agenda has identified the greatest challenge that encounters culture in Jordan which lies in the absence of an obvious national policy and strategies that coordinates efforts and provides resources to attain the objectives, thus the national agenda aims at the activation of institutional work through the call to establish a high council for culture and arts to be headed by the minister of culture to draw policies and set strategies related to this sector, and to supervise the supportive account fund that is going to be established, in partnership with the public and private sector to provide financial support and funding individuals and institutions and cultural, artistic centers and relevant projects; to facilitate the establishment of this council, the Cabinet approved, at the beginning of 2010, to formulate a supreme national committee for ICH chaired by the minister of culture and with members of other involved parties, in addition to establishing a directorate for the ICH and cultural diversity within the ministry framework as a step towards setting a national strategy for ICH, at the current time, several institutions locate and preserve ICH in accordance with regulations and legislations that control its work such as the Ministry of Culture, Ministry of Tourism, Ministry of Municipals Affairs, Ministry of Education, Municipality of Greater Amman, and several Jordanian universities such as Jordan University, the Hashemite University, Al Bait University, and King Hussein Ibn Talal University which created Princess Basma Center for ICH, and got the position of tourist for cultural and sustainable tourism, also there are other interested NGOs such as the League of Jordanian Writers, Middle East University and the League of Historians who are interested in the heritage of tribes and their ancestors, besides other charitable societies of minorities in Jordan such as Circassian , Armenians and Duroze who attempt to gather their history. In addition to the abovementioned, a department for documenting history and tangible and ICH has been established in the Royal Court.
1. b. Institutions for training in intangible cultural heritage management and transmission of this heritage
1. b.1 Training institution on cultural heritage management
There are several capacity building of institutions for preserving heritage in general with special care for intangible heritage:
The Hashemite University/ Department of Heritage Management/ Queen Rania Academy for Heritage and Tourism.
This institution grants BA degree in managing and documenting tangible and intangible heritage. It follows a theoretical and practical instructional approach and provides specific courses in heritage gathering, documentation and safeguarding, and then publishing verified articles in local, regional and international magazines. On the practical side, students make field tours holding specific forms, and gather samples according specifications to fill in the forms. Tens of studies have been conducted in this field. Recently, "The Oral Tale Project" is taking place in Zarqa, the selected Jordanian Culture City for 2010.
The Hashemite University/ Reviving Islamic Heritage Center
The center trains students to conduct field studies to learn how to document tangible and intangible heritage. The center applies statistical forms, photographing and writing academic reports to be published in books. A book entitled "Hayyan Al-Mishref" has been published. A project to document Wadi Alaqeb is being conducted (2009-2010).
King Hussein Ibn Talal University
Princess Sumayya Center for ICH has been established. Its objective is to start systematic documentation of ICH in Jordan in accordance with the 2003 Convention. These areas are rich with ICH as they witnessed the significant historical events since the establishment of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.
Municipality of Greater Amman/ Department of Master Plan
University students have been involved in some projects related to the documentation of surroundings of heritage buildings, conducted by foreign missionaries that participate in documenting the heritage of Amman, especially the documentation of Zahran Street, where students filled in specific forms in participation with a French Missionary specialized in this domain.
Middle East University- Jacob Naser-Eddeen Center for reviving heritage
This center has been established recently for the purpose of documenting oral heritage in east and south Amman, organizational framework is being set to develop the work of the participating students in the center.
Ministry of Tourism/ Department of Heritage Resources Management
The ministry is considered to be one of the most important bodies that manage all types of heritage especially the intangible heritage as it is responsible for implementing law items and regulations, and empowering local communities with what it implies. One can benefit from the efforts of the ministry and its management experience in managing heritage through the cooperation and coordination agreements approved by the ministry and institutions and universities or international institutions.
Ministry of Education
Department of Curriculum provides curriculum in various fields of specialty, in particular, tangible heritage that includes the surrounding events and tales related to reality. In addition, the Department has heritage specialists, and hires people to provide capacity building to achieve the required goals.
Ministry of Municipal and Rural Affairs
As little attention is given to intangible heritage and its surrounding, the ministry has devoted its attention to documenting heritage in the municipalities of the ministry.
Ministry of Culture
The ministry plays the most prominent role in preserving intangible heritage. Yet, this role has stopped due to the regression of official concern about intangible heritage. Consequently, some magazines and the “Thesaurus Project” were ceased, which affected intangible heritage negatively. It is hoped that the national committee to be convened for intangible heritage revival and documentation provides competent specialists and financial allocations for this domain.
1. b.2 Institutions for cultural heritage training according to the Convention
Within the management bodies and programs of the Jordanian Government we could not trace any specialized institution, activity, or plans toward establishing programs for capacity building in this field in particular, although it is manifested that the intangible heritage of Jordan in particular and the region in general are in danger of disappearing.
One of the ways to preserve the heritage is to keep accurate records of it. It is necessary in this stage to launch new programs for sending a mobile team of experts to national workshops on the documentation and promotion of intangible cultural heritage. Such workshops will provide knowledge and experience to personnel involved in documentation work on intangible cultural heritage, instruct the participants on how to record the intangible cultural heritage, and promote awareness of the significance of preserving the intangible cultural heritage. For resource management, authorities on national and local levels should recognize and accordingly apply certain principles, e.g. that intangible heritage resources have lasting value in their own right and provide evidence of the origins of the Jordanian society; are valuable, finite, and irreplaceable and should accordingly be managed carefully in order to ensure their survival and transmission
The contribution of programs, projects and activities to raise awareness about the importance of ICH can be represented, including other aspects, in surveying individuals, governments as well and organizations to get their input by giving the chance of participants in these programs, projects and activities to determine priorities and, work with consultants, develop goals, objectives, and strategies toward safeguarding of the country’s ICH. This will lead to strengthening national and regional measures of safeguarding ICH, enhancing capacities at local and national level. Programs, projects and activities can also contribute in the realization of a classification system for ICH; on the basis of a shared methodology among the participants, and taking into account both the UNESCO well-defined cultural policy and orientation in this field.
1. c. Documentation institutions for intangible cultural heritage
The survey of the Jordanian governmental and none governmental cultural sectors has revealed that no central documentation authority for the Jordanian ICH is present. Contact was limited for logistical and operational reasons to national bodies, and inevitably omits too much of what is happening at local level. The use of extant collections likely to contain information on ICH practices and knowledge can be considered as certain existing archives represent an extremely important and valuable resource, for example:
First: Department of National Library. The National Library is the authority that controls the implementation of the copyright law 1992. It aims at the acquisition of the national intellectual outcome either issued in Jordan or abroad, then organizing, publicizing, gathering, and preserving scripts, periodical publications, pictorials, recorded materials, films and others that are related to the national heritage in particular and the Arab World, the Islamic Civilization, and the human heritage in general.
Second: Among the 27 Official and private universities' libraries are: Jordan University, Hashemite University, Yarmuk University, Hussein Ibn Talal University, Mu’ta University, Science and Technology University, National Amman University, Zaituna University, and the Middle East University.
Third: Libraries of the Engineers' Association, Greater Amman Municipality, American Center for Eastern Research, British Centre for Antiquities, French Centre for Far East Research, German Center for Antiquities, Ministry of Municipals Affairs, Abdel-Hameed Shouman Foundation, Jordan’s Writers' Union, Jordan’s Writers' League, and Ministry of Culture.
Fourth: Civil Institutions' Archives: Jordan River Foundation, Sustainable Development Society, Union of Historians of tribes' Heritage, Queen Rania for Tourism and Heritage, Jordanian Studies Center at Yarmuk Universities, Center for Scripts at Jordan University and Circassian Charity Society.
Gathering information procedures:
First: Borrowing books on intangible heritage, and transmitting their contents into cards.
Second: Following the scientific approach research in documentation to ascribe information resources to their true sources.
Third: Reading information and documenting the relevant ones using microfilm display screens for manuscripts.
Fourth: Photocopying documents and articles about ICH, and keeping them for archives.
Suggested procedures for the safeguarding of ICH:
Establishing an ICH library, provide it with specialized personnel, governmental support, and apply modern ICT methods to access and process information.