Schemes of work and lesson plans a192 – Science of materials and production B3 Agriculture, Biotechnology & Food



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ADDITIONAL APPLIED SCIENCE

SCHEMES OF WORK AND LESSON PLANS

A192 – Science of materials and production B3 Agriculture, Biotechnology & Food

VERSION 1 OCTOBER 2011





Introduction

OCR involves teachers in the development of new support materials to capture current teaching practices tailored to our new specifications. These support materials are designed to inspire teachers and facilitate different ideas and teaching practices. Each Scheme of Work and set of sample Lesson Plans is provided in Word format – so that you can use it as a foundation to build upon and amend the content to suit your teaching style and students’ needs.

The Scheme of Work and sample Lesson plans provide examples of how to teach this unit and the teaching hours are suggestions only. Some or all of it may be applicable to your teaching.

The Specification is the document on which assessment is based and specifies what content and skills need to be covered in delivering the course. At all times, therefore, this Support Material booklet should be read in conjunction with the Specification. If clarification on a particular point is sought then that clarification should be found in the Specification itself. References to the content statements for each lesson are given in the ‘Points to note’ column.



Sample Scheme of Work

GCSE Additional Applied Science J251

Unit A192: Science of materials and production


B3: Agriculture, Biotechnology & Food


Lesson 1: Growing wheat for food production – Part 1
Suggested Teaching Time: 1 Hour


Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note

Growing wheat for food production – Part 1

Show pupils a picture of a traditional ‘full English breakfast’ – this should include sausages, eggs, bacon, tomatoes, mushrooms and buttered bread, accompanied by a cup of tea with milk. Pupils should list all the ingredients present and identify the potential origins of the different items on the plate.

How do we produce the food we eat?

Develop the idea that the different products are either directly or indirectly from plants/animals or are processed in some way.

Show pupils a picture of an ear of wheat and ask all pupils to write down what this is used to make. Discuss answers with the class.

What do we need to grow wheat for?

Produce a PowerPoint to demonstrate the different types of wheat grown by farmers. This should include bread wheat, durum wheat, winter wheat and spring wheat. For each type of wheat include information on the wheat’s distinctive features and what the wheat would be used to make. A spider diagram could be a useful tool for pupils to record key information delivered through the presentation.

Pupils can work out how much of the wheat produced is used for human consumption? Provide pupils with the following data (The Grain Chain provides useful data).

For example. If the UK produces 15 million tonnes of wheat each year and 17% of this is exported, and 40% is used for animal feed, how many tonnes are available for human consumption?








Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note




Pupils can then consider the amount of wheat that is used in the production of bread.

If 60% of the flour available for human consumption is used to make bread, how much of the original wheat produced is used in bread production?

Making bread from wheat.

Pupils conduct research on the Grain Chain which looks at how wheat is turned into bread.

The Grain Chain is an interactive tutorial with videos following the story of grain to table. Pupils can be given a worksheet to complete as they work through the process to help focus them on the important stages of wheat production. A flow chart may be an appropriate method to record this information.

The tutorial contains short videos to help explain the processes involved.



www.grainchain.com/14-to- 16/farming/wheat-farming.aspx

Pupils will need access to computers and the internet.




Lesson 2: Growing Wheat Part 2
Suggested Teaching Time: 1 Hour


Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities


Suggested resources

Points to note

Growing Wheat Part 2

Starter – Pose the question Why is soil important for plants?

How does the quality of soil affect wheat production?

Explain the key characteristics of soil to include water supply, source of nutrients (key elements required can be discussed) and pH.

Pupils can then be given the opportunity to do some soil sampling. Simple analysis can then be conducted, for example testing the pH, determining the water content and amount of organic material.

Provide data for pupils to analyse on germination rates, crop yields and dry mass. For example:

If 5000 seeds were planted and only 4300 germinated what is the germination rate?

If the average yield of wheat per hectare is 8 tonnes, how much wheat can a farmer expect to get from a field which is 12 hectares in size?

The Grain Chain website provides statistics that could be used for this activity.

Present pupils with two pictures showing two fields of crop with distinctly different crop yields and develop the scenario. Field A owned by Farmer Storey often has a poor yield, the plants can be small and often the crop is damaged by pests. Farmer Green on the other hand obtains high yields every year. How could Farmer Storey increase the yield of her crop and ensure maximum profit?

Allow pupils time to discuss this in pairs and then ask groups to feedback to the class. This should generate discussion on the role of fertilisers, insecticides, herbicides and fungicides. This will also set the scene for the following lesson.

Soil testing kits, incubator for drying.






Lesson 3: Growing wheat for food production – Part 3
Suggested Teaching Time: 1 Hour


Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note

Growing wheat for food production – Part 3

Play a game of cheat to revisit some of the important key content from the previous lessons.

Provide pupils with the axes lines for a graph and ask them to sketch a line to show what they think would happen to the yield of a crop if fertiliser is added in increasing quantities.

Present pupils with a graph that demonstrates the actual improvement observed (and potential decline with excessive application) in yield with increasing fertiliser application.

Pupils should compare this graph with their own and to try to explain why they may be different.

In addition they should use the graph to indicate what level of fertiliser they would use on the crop.

Discuss their ideas.

Pupils can be given a calculation to complete to demonstrate the cost of fertiliser and how applying large quantities could ultimately cost the farmer as the increase in yield is not sufficient to offset the initial outlay.

The class should then be divided into groups of six, give each member a number (1-6). Each member of the group will be expected to complete an activity and will be expected to return to their group as ’an expert’ in that area.

Appropriate materials will need to be provided.

Group 1 – The disadvantages of using fertilisers.

Provide the group with a picture of an anoxic body of water and a description of eutrophication. They must be able to describe the picture to their group when they return and give a brief explanation as to cause.





The ability of the students may need to be considered when assigning groups/or deciding on suitable activities and resources.




Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note




Group 2 – The advantages of using pesticides.

Provide the group with information on the advantages of using pesticides. This could be centred on a specific fungal disease or insect pest such as aphids. Pupils should be able to explain why pesticides are useful and give examples of pests that need to be dealt with using pesticides.

Group 3 – The disadvantages of using pesticides.

This group could be given the following video to watch which introduces how pesticides can have an effect on the whole food web of interlinking food chains www.bbc.co.uk/learningzone/clips/pesticides-and-the-food-chain/198.html

Pupils should be able to explain this effect to their group( potentially with a food web)

Group 4 –What pests are problematic for farmers producing wheat?

Ask pupils to consider what pests could cause problems for producers of wheat.


The following link will provide specific examples to list www.grainchain.com/14-to-16/farming/pests-and-pesticides.aspx

Group 5 – Alternatives to pesticides.

Pupils should be given some information on alternative solutions to pest problems, e.g. the use of biological control. Pupils must be able to explain briefly how this works and they must compile a list of advantages and disadvantages of using this as an alternative to pesticides.

Group 6 –Organic or Inorganic?

Provide pupils with information on organic and inorganic fertilisers. They must compile a list of advantages and disadvantages on this area.











Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note




After an appropriate length of time ‘experts’ return to their original groups to feedback on the work they have been doing. As a team they must complete an unseen worksheet based on the work conducted in each of the areas.

Ask pupils if they can think of any other problems pesticides may cause. Discuss the main problems arising such as Bioaccumulation and Biomagnification – there are some useful animations available on the internet (for example www.youtube.com/watch?v=e5p-uoklxla)

Alternatively you could use the class to demonstrate the process through role play.

Mobility and effect on non target species can also be discussed.

Pupils should then complete a table outlining the benefits and risks of using chemicals to increase yields.

Finally pupils can consider the costs associated with wheat production to include soil preparation, spraying, application of fertilisers, harvesting and the effect of the weather. This could be completed as a piece of extended writing.

Define the term organic and inorganic farming. Pupils should then be given 2 case studies, describing the techniques used by two different farmers, each trying to gain approval to sell their crops as an organic product. Pupils must decide which of the two farmers meets more criteria and highlight the areas which they believe would not be suitable for an organic farm.









Lesson 4: Rearing cattle for milk
Suggested Teaching Time: 1 Hour


Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note

Rearing cattle for milk

Produce an information sheet which shows a picture of different breeds of cattle accompanied with a paragraph describing that breed. Pupils should read the information sheet and pick out the cattle they believe would a good choice for a farmer wishing to start up a dairy farm, pupils should be encouraged to give a reason for the choices made. Cattle to include Ayrshire Cow, Brown Swiss cow, Jersey, Holstein, Guernsey, Friesian, Aberdeen Angus, Highland, Belted Galloway and Hereford.

Information can be found at the following website www.animalcorner.co.uk/farm/cows/cow_breeds.html

Pupils should then list the desirable features required for cattle used in milk production.


Introduce pupils to rearing cattle for milk through a series of Power Points available at www.foodafactoflife.org.uk

There are a number of useful resources including:

An Introduction to Dairy Farming,

Health and Welfare of Cows and

Dairy Farming Case Study.

These resources are free and can be modified to produce a Power Point that suits.


www.foodafactoflife.org.uk/sheet.aspx?siteid=19§ionid=92&contentid=416

A series of videos on all aspects of dairy farming including welfare issues is also available. Ensure pupils understand how the industry is regulated with regards to animal welfare issues.

Include in this the factors that affect animal growth (temperature, shelter, food, water and disease).

Downloadable resources available at



www.dairyco.net/library/school-milk/dairy-production/dairy-production.aspx







Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note




Pupils should use the knowledge gained to complete a piece of extended writing to describe how a farmer could increase the productivity of his herd?

Explore the ways this could be achieved to include welfare of the cows, appropriate feeding and selective breeding.



Pupils complete a worksheet with questions requiring interpretation of data on product yield. Data on average milk yield can be found at www.dairyco.net/datum/on-farm-data/milk-yield/average-milk-yield.aspx.

Homework – Read the press release from Newcastle University

‘Names gives cows a lotta bottle’ www.ncl.ac.uk/research/news/item/names-give-cows-a-lotta-bottle









Lesson 5: Rearing cattle for milk – Artificial Insemination
Suggested Teaching Time: 1 Hour


Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note

Rearing cattle for milk – Artificial Insemination 5

Show pupils pictures of cows in oestrus- this could include cows resting their chins on each other, raising their top lip, butting or mounting each other (females)

Ask pupils what the cows are doing and why?

Explain that these are signs farmers use to detect oestrus in cows and therefore the right time to mate the cattle. Include in this discussion the role of hormones in bringing about oestrus.

Is natural reproduction the best method?

Ask pupils to consider whether natural reproduction is the best method for farmers to use.

What could the disadvantages of this be?

Ask how farmers could get round this problem?

Introduce AI as a possible solution. Describe the technique used in artificial insemination to include the selection of animals, collection of sperm, storage of sperm and timing of sperm introduction. It may be useful to include diagrams to assist with the explanation.

For higher candidates only explain how hormones can be used to control the timing of reproduction in animals such as cattle.

Provide pupils with a pack of statements to sort through. Their task is to find the cards that describe the advantages to controlling the timing of reproduction.

Include the following reasons - to ensure fertile time is not missed / control time of birth / to prepare shelter or book a vet / to avoid bad weather / meet contract to supply / select a bull / select characteristics / no need to keep a bull / timing correct for desired birth time / greater chance of success / allows a single bull to fertilise more cows / can store semen ..











Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note




Pupils are to design a leaflet to give to local farmers to encourage them to use a new artificial insemination facility – the leaflet should be designed to persuade – pupils should be given success criteria to assist with the content. They should include information on the AI process, and the advantages







Lesson 6: Rearing cattle for milk - Milk Processing
Suggested Teaching Time: 1 Hour


Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note

Rearing cattle for milk - Milk Processing

All pupils should be given an order form for milk delivery for their family. They should write down the quantity of milk they would like and state the type of milk. The teacher can collate this information and present it to the class. This will show the different types of milk available.

Consider fat percentages for each type of milk. Pupils should vote for the milk they think is sold in the most quantity in the UK.

Reveal most buy semi skimmed – Discuss why this is the most popular type of milk.

Pose the question – What happens to milk before it gets to the consumer?

Produce a PowerPoint ‘From Cow to Consumer’ to describe the main stages of this process. Provide pupils with a blank flow chart to fill in as the presentation is given.

Pupils must write an accompanying sentence to explain why each stage is conducted. Ensure there are sufficient details on pasteurisation, production of UHT milk and the removal of fat from skimmed milk are included.

Points to consider include - Why does pasteurized milk only last 7 days?

Testing for freshness.

Provide pupils with a scenario. There are 3 bottles of milk in the fridge with no best before date on them. How could you decide which milk to put in your cup of tea? In pairs pupils should generate a list of possible solutions to the problem.



www.tomorrowsengineers.org.uk/_db/_documents/testing_milk_-teachers_notes.pdf

Water baths

Milk samples

Test tubes

Pipettes

Resazurin tablets (Phillip Harris)



Take care with Resazurin tablets – they are an irritant when solid. Check hazards before use.

Complete appropriate risk assessments.





Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note




Discuss possible solutions.

Could they taste it, smell it or look at it?

What are the problems with these solutions?

Introduce the Resazurin Test as a method of determining freshness.

Using 4 samples of milk of varying age’s pupils can test each sample to determine which is the freshest. The link below provides a comprehensive list of equipment and method to use.

www.tomorrowsengineers.org.uk/_db/_documents/testing_milk_-teachers_notes.pdf

An alternative practical to this could be to look for the amount of micro-organisms present in the milk. Pupils use aseptic techniques to inoculate agar plates with milk of different ages, colony counting could then be used as a tool for comparison.

Pupils should be made aware of the role of the FSA in testing the quality and safety of the milk.

To consolidate the content delivered, past paper questions from an old specification - Agriculture and Food should be used

Milk ( several samples varying in age)

Agar plates

Inoculation loops


Aseptic techniques should be used.

Pupils should not open plates after incubation.

Refer to CLEAPSS for further guidance





Lesson 7: Biotechnology and food – Microorganisms and food spoilage
Suggested Teaching Time: 1 Hour


Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note

Biotechnology and food – Microorganisms and food spoilage.

Design a PowerPoint to show pictures of microorganisms that are responsible for either disease or used in the manufacture of fuel, alcoholic drinks, bread, cheese, yoghurt or mycoprotein. As the pupils watch the PowerPoint they should try and identify if the pictures are examples of bacteria, fungi or viruses.

Show pupils the following video that introduces the idea that some microorganisms are harmful.



www.bbc.co.uk/learningzone/clips/microbes-and-the-human-body/207.html

Introduce the term pathogen and return to the initial PowerPoint. Highlight the microorganisms that are pathogenic in the slides.


Pupils watch the video to gain an understanding of bacterial growth www.bbc.co.uk/learningzone/clips/bacterial-growth/209.html

Outline the conditions required for bacterial growth to occur.

In pairs pupils should sketch a graph to show what this population growth would look like. Ask some groups to share their graph with the rest of the class, explaining the reasons behind the position of their line.

Show pupils a population growth curve for bacteria and ask pupils to try to explain what it shows and why it may look different to the one they produced.

Describe the graph ensuring the terms lag phase, exponential phase and senescence are included.





Bacterial growth covered in B2




Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note




Provide a set of questions based on population growth. This could include calculating both number of bacteria present after a period of time and time taken for bacterial populations to reach a particular quantity.

Describe how scientists use different methods to count bacteria. Include colony counts, turbidity and biomass. Present some data for pupils to analyse.










Lesson 8: Biotechnology and food – Food Spoilage and Food Poisoning
Suggested Teaching Time: 1 Hour


Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note

Biotechnology and food – Food Spoilage and Food Poisoning


Show pupils images of various foods in a state of decay as a result of microorganisms. Explain how this spoilage is caused by the microorganisms feeding on the food and contaminating them with their waste products.

Pupils should read a news article which highlights the severity of food poisoning. An example of a suitable report www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/jun/02/e-coli-outbreak-uk-cases

ICT Pupils should conduct research on food poisoning. Concentrating on Ecoli and Salmonella. They should produce a short fact file which outlines the cause of food poisoning, how it is spread, symptoms and treatment.

The following website may be a good starting point.

www.abpischools.org.uk/page/modules/diseases/diseases5.cfm?cositenavigation_alltopic=1the.

Or www.microbiologyonline.org.uk/about-microbiology/microbes-and-food/food-poisoning

Pupils should read a second news article which outlines the role of the FSA and the Health Protection Agency in the event of an outbreak of food poisoning.

Pupils should be provided with data to interpret on food poisoning including graphs to analyse. For example, if it takes 200 bacteria to have an effect on a person and they were infected at 9.20am, at what time will they begin to feel ill?





To ensure the newspaper article is accessible it may need to be reworded


Lesson 9: Food Industries people and organisation
Suggested Teaching Time: 1 Hour

Topic outline


Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note

Food Industries people and organisation

Ask pupils what they would do if they fell ill and thought it was as a result of some milk they drank which came from a local supermarket. Discuss individual ideas with the class.

Pupils should read the following articles which highlight problems that can occur with food products and the intervention taken to prevent public harm. It highlights the role of the FSA and can be used as a stimulus for the main part of the lesson.



www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1369960/childrens-strawberry-milkshake-faces-recall-suspected-contamination-listeria.html

www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2006/jul/08/health.healthandwellbeing

Pupils should produce their own PowerPoint to highlight the role of environmental health officers, food technicians and factory inspectors in the production of milk or other products discussed through the scheme. Provide a list of success criteria / or template for pupils to use. They should incorporate sections previously discussed for example methods of testing. It may also be useful to provide some websites to direct their research.

On completion pupils can share their findings with the class.


Access to computers and internet required.




Lesson 10: Biotechnology and Food – How can we use micro-organisms in the production of food products

Suggested Teaching Time: 1 Hour


Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note

Biotechnology and Food – How can we use micro-organisms in the production of food products

Return to the PowerPoint showing pictures of microorganisms that are responsible for either disease or used in the manufacture of fuel, alcoholic drinks, bread, cheese, yoghurt or mycoprotein. This time pupils should identify the microorganisms which are being used in the production of food products.

Pupils can then be given the opportunity to conduct some practical work which allows them to produce a food product using microorganisms.

Making yogurt.

How to make yoghurt www.microbiologyonline.org.uk/themed/sgm/files/pdf/recipes_yoghurt.pdf

This can be extended to explore the nature of the pH changes that take place when yogurt is produced.

Making bread.

Practical can centre on the production of CO2 and how this can affect the rising of bread. Pupils can investigate the effect of temperature on fermentation. Two methods are available , either ‘make bread’ and place in boiling tubes and measure how high they climb or collect CO2 produced in balloon over the top of test tube.

Pose the question – Respiration can be aerobic or anaerobic what is the difference?

Discuss both aerobic and anaerobic respiration in yeast and generate word equations for both.


Provide pupils with flow charts showing how yoghurt, cheese, yeast extract and mycoprotein are produced. http://resources.schoolscience.co.uk/sgm/sgmfoods22.html#top

The following websites provide useful information



http://resources.schoolscience.co.uk/sgm/sgmprods4.html

http://resources.schoolscience.co.uk/sgm/sgmfoods22.html#top


Remember any food products produced may not be tasted or eaten by students




Topic outline

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Points to note




Pupils should use the flow charts to interpret information on the stages of production.

Homework - Past paper questions from Agriculture and Food paper can be used to consolidate knowledge.










Lesson 11: Biotechnology and food/ Instrumentation to monitor and control processes – Continuous and Batch Cultures
Suggested Teaching Time: 1 Hour

Topic outline


Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note

Biotechnology and food/ Instrumentation to monitor and control processes – Continuous and Batch Cultures

Ask pupils to produce a list of the requirements of living things to allow survival.

How do we use micro-organisms to produce food products on a large scale?

Pose the question ‘If you were going to grow microorganisms what conditions would you need to provide?’

Show pupils the layout of an industrial fermenter - the following animation available at http://archive.microbelibrary.org/asmonly/details.asp?id=2665 will assist.

It shows the structure of an industrial fermenter and the control units for temperature, pH and oxygen content.

Pupils should be provided with a diagram to annotate.

After watching the animation pupils must consider the purpose of each part of the fermenter and the reasons for maintaining the temperature, pH and oxygen content at an optimum.



Useful site for information and an image of a fermenter http://scienceaid.co.uk/biology/micro/fermentation.html

Discuss the importance of ensuring aseptic conditions for this process and the consequences of failing to do this.

Introduce batch and continuous culture methods. Pupils should produce a table comparing the two and outline the advantages and disadvantages of each method.

Homework – Past paper questions from Agriculture and Food (old specification) to aid consolidation








Lesson 12: Instrumentation to monitor and control processes
Suggested Teaching Time: 1 Hour


Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note

Instrumentation to monitor and control processes.

Use ‘Cheat’ to test pupil’s knowledge from the previous lesson on fermenters. (This involves a number of true and false statements; if the statement is false pupils must shout cheat and amend the statement).

Discuss the importance of maintaining temperature and pH constant during the fermentation process.

How can technology help in the manufacture of food products?

Show pupils examples of feedback systems (diagrams) where a bioreactor uses sensors and data logging software to monitor changes. If data logging equipment is available it may be possible to demonstrate this process to pupils.

For higher students they will also need to be provided with a flow diagram to describe the monitoring of a bioreactor using a systems input approach and a second flow diagram to describe the control of the bioreactor.

Provide pupils with mock data of the logged data from this monitoring.



Data logging equipment




Lesson 13: Biotechnology and food – GM

Suggested Teaching Time: 1 Hour


Topic outline

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Points to note

Biotechnology and food – GM

Revisit the structure of the cell and the function of the nucleus.

Divide the class into groups of 4. In each group one person is responsible for drawing. The job of the other three members is to take it in turns to look at a picture, return to the ‘artist’ and describe what should be drawn. Each group should aim to produce an accurate replica of the original drawing.

Ensure students can recall that DNA is the genetic material of organisms.

Explain how a gene codes for a particular protein. DNA interactive provides a good explanation and is visual to aid understanding.


Using an animation explain how bacteria can be being genetically modified. www.dnalc.org/view/15476-genetic-engineering-inserting-new-dna-into-a-plasmid-vector-3d-animation-with-with-basic-narration.html

Pupils can produce a cartoon to describe the main stages of this process.

Produce a Power Point to show the range of useful food products that can be produced through the genetic modification of microorganisms. Include examples such as the production of the enzyme chymosin by a modified fungus (required in the making of cheese), Beta Carotene which is added to butter and yoghurt and riboflavin which is added to cheese.

For higher candidates explain how GM organisms produce the protein of the introduced gene.



www.dnai.org/

Some terms used in the animation are too advanced for this level, a more basic explanation will be necessary.



Sample Lesson Plan

GCSE Additional Applied Science J251

Unit A192: Science of materials and production

B3: Agriculture, Biotechnology & Food

Growing wheat for food production

OCR recognises that the teaching of this qualification above will vary greatly from school to school and from teacher to teacher. With that in mind this lesson plan is offered as a possible approach but will be subject to modifications by the individual teacher.

Lesson length is assumed to be one hour.

Learning Objectives for the Lesson

Objective 1

Describe and explain the features of commercial crop varieties of wheat.

Objective 2

Explain the stages of wheat production (soil preparation, sowing, use of chemicals, harvesting, drying and storage)

Objective 3

Outline the conditions required for wheat production, with particular reference to the key characteristics of soil.

Content

Time


Content

10 minutes

Show pupils a picture of a traditional ‘full English breakfast’ – this should include sausages, eggs, bacon, tomatoes, mushrooms and buttered bread, accompanied by a cup of tea with milk. Pupils should list all the ingredients present and identify the potential origins of the different items on the plate.

How do we produce the food we eat?

Develop the idea that the different products are either directly or indirectly from plants/animals or are processed in some way.


15 minutes

Show pupils a picture of an ear of wheat and ask all pupils to write down what this is used to make. Discuss answers with the class.

What do we need to grow wheat for?

Produce a PowerPoint to demonstrate the different types of wheat grown by farmers. This should include bread wheat, durum wheat, winter wheat and spring wheat. For each type of wheat include information on the wheat’s distinctive features and what the wheat would be used to make. A spider diagram could be a useful tool for pupils to record key information delivered through the presentation.


10 minutes

Pupils can work out how much of the wheat produced is used for human consumption? Provide pupils with the following data (The Grain Chain provides useful data).

For example. If the UK produces 15 million tonnes of wheat each year and 17% of this is exported, and 40% is used for animal feed, how many tonnes are available for human consumption?

Pupils can then consider the amount of wheat that is used in the production of bread.

If 60% of the flour available for human consumption is used to make bread, how much of the original wheat produced is used in bread production?





20 minutes

Making bread from wheat.

Pupils conduct research on the Grain Chain which looks at how wheat is turned into bread.

The Grain Chain is an interactive tutorial with videos following the story of grain to table. Pupils can be given a worksheet to complete as they work through the process to help focus them on the important stages of wheat production. A flow chart may be an appropriate method to record this information.

The tutorial contains short videos to help explain the processes involved.



http://www.grainchain.com/14-to- 16/farming/wheat-farming.aspx

Consolidation

Time

Content

5 minutes

Briefly discuss their research findings and ask pupils to consider the importance of soil.

Pupils should try to identify why soil is an important factor for a farmer to consider when growing crops. A series of pictures demonstrating different soil types could be used to stimulate discussion (this could include sandy soils and clay soils).




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