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Arab Spring

2012 Election

Trial of Hosni Murbarak

Libyan Civil War

Syrian Civil War

Egyptian Revolution (Arab Spring)

  1. "A New Egypt." Massachusetts Review 52.2 (2011): 358. Academic Search Premier. Web. 16 Feb. 2012.

  2. "Egypt Boils Over." Newsweek 158.5/6 (2011): 21-22. Academic Search Premier. Web. 16 Feb. 2012.

  3. "Egypt protests live". The Guardian (UK). 1 February 2011.

  4. "Egyptian elections". UK: Thomson Reuters Foundation.
  5. "Egyptian Revolution – One Year On". Thomson Reuters Foundation. UK. 25 January 2012.

  6. "Egypt's new era". BBC News (UK). 26 March 2011.

  7. "Egypt's Revolution". Qatar: Al Jazeera English.

  8. "Rage and Revolution. (Cover Story)." Current Events 110.17 (2011): 4-5. Academic Search Premier. Web. 16 Feb. 2012.

  9. "The Uprising In Cairo." Network News 31.1 (2011): 23-26. Academic Search Premier. Web. 16 Feb. 2012.

  10. "Unrest in Egypt". Reuters. UK.

  11. Al Jazeera English - Egypt's Revolution  - Ongoing coverage of the political situation in Egypt with live news blogs, commentary, video from journalists and amateurs, photos, timeline and background material. (BOTW)

  12. BBC News - Egypt's Revolution  - Regularly updated news, articles, analysis, features, photo galleries, and other resources about the protests and their aftermath in Egypt. (BOTW)

  13. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace - Egypt Protests  - Collection of commentary and analysis from the think tank, along with transcripts of related Carnegie events. (BOTW)
  14. Christian Science Monitor - Special Report: How the Egyptian Revolt Will Recast the Middle East  - Discussion of three possible scenarios for the way the uprising might end, and what it all means for the US, Israel and Iran.

  15. Citizen Media coverage on Egypt Protests by Global Voices Online

  16. CNN - Egypt  - Complete coverage of Egypt with news stories, blogs and videos. (BOTW)

  17. Cropsey, Seth, and Arthur Milikh. "Democracy In Egypt." World Affairs 174.1 (2011): 51-58. Academic Search Premier. Web. 16 Feb. 2012.

  18. CrowdVoice - Emergency Law and Police Brutality in Egypt  - A user-powered service tracking voices of protest in Egypt, with photos, videos and links. (BOTW)

  19. Dawn - Egypt's Revolt  - In-depth special report on the Egyptian revolution from the Pakistan newspaper provides ongoing news, features and analysis along with photos, multimedia and reader discussion. (BOTW)

  20. Democracy Now! - Egypt Protests: Uprising in Egypt  - Collected coverage of the demonstrations in Egypt along with an archive of past coverage of relevant issues and topics. (BOTW)

  21. Egypt activist Wael Ghonim tells TV station: 'I am no hero'  - An interview on Egypt's Dream TV with Wael Ghonim, the Google executive who played a key role in using the internet to spark the protests against Mubarak. (BOTW)

  22. Egypt Remembers  - A memorial page to record and remember people killed during the protests. (BOTW)

  23. Egypt: A Nation in Waiting (Al Jazeera documentary focusing on past trends in Egypt's political history and the events which lead to the revolution.)

  24. Egyptian Revolution  - Features a forum, blog, and useful links. (BOTW)

  25. Emergency Law and Police Brutality in Egypt at CrowdVoice
  26. Google Crisis Response - Egypt Resources  - Provides links to tools and information about Google's response to the protests, with resources and links. (BOTW)

  27. Goytisolo, Juan. "Liberation Square." Massachusetts Review 52.3/4 (2011): 380-390. Academic Search Premier. Web. 16 Feb. 2012.

  28. Guardian - The Fall of Hosni Mubarak  - Full coverage of the protests in Egypt with news reports, analysis and commentary, photos, video and links to related subjects. (BOTW)

  29. Hanley, Delinda C. "Road To Democracy. Reflections On The Egyptian Revolutions." Washington Report On Middle East Affairs 30.5 (2011): 63-64. Academic Search Premier. Web. 16 Feb. 2012.

  30. - Events in Egypt Trigger Record Coverage  - The turmoil in the Middle East, from January 31 through February 6, 2011, registered as the biggest international story in the past four years, according to the Pew Research Center’s Project for Excellence in Journalism. (BOTW)

  31. Los Angeles Times - Unrest in Egypt  - Full coverage of the protests with news, photos and interactives. (BOTW)

  32. Martini, Jeff, and Julie Taylor. "Commanding Democracy In Egypt." Foreign Affairs 90.5 (2011): 127-137. Academic Search Premier. Web. 16 Feb. 2012.
  33. Massimo Calabresi, et al. "Rage, Rap And Revolution. (Cover Story)." Time 177.8 (2011): 32-37. Academic Search Premier. Web. 16 Feb. 2012.

  34. Massimo Calabresi, et al. "Revolution, Delayed." Time 177.7 (2011): 30-36. Academic Search Premier. Web. 16 Feb. 2012.

  35. MSNBC - Egypt  - Ongoing news coverage of the current political situation in Egypt, including factfiles, interviews, slideshows and blogs. (BOTW)

  36. NEGAR, AZIMI. "Arab Springs: Literary Rebels." New York Times Book Review (2011): 35. Academic Search Premier. Web. 16 Feb. 2012.

  37. Oweiss, Ibrahim M. "We, The People": In Tahrir Square With My Fellow Egyptians." Washington Report On Middle East Affairs 30.4 (2011): 46-47. Academic Search Premier. Web. 16 Feb. 2012.

  38. PRYCE-JONES, DAVID. "Rebels Without A Cause." National Review 62.1 (2010): 26-30. Academic Search Premier. Web. 16 Feb. 2012.

  39. Reuters - Egypt  - Live coverage from the UK-based press agency about unrest in Egypt. (BOTW)

  40. Revolution in Cairo (PBS Frontline documentary about the role of the 6 April youth movement, cyberactivism and the Muslim Brotherhood in the revolution)

  41. Revolution in Egypt - RFI  - Radio France International's reporting, analysis, and commentary on the 2011 protests, with a time line, country profile, and links to archived news of previous protests and the 2010 elections. (BOTW)

  42. Steavenson, Wendell. "Who Owns The Revolution?." New Yorker 87.22 (2011): 38-57. Academic Search Premier. Web. 16 Feb. 2012.

  43. Testimonials From Egyptians at The Real News

  44. The Economist - Hosni Mubarak  - Collected news stories, blogs and slideshows about the political changes in Egypt. (BOTW)

  45. The New York Times - Egypt News, Revolution and Aftermath  - A collection of articles, features and analysis of the unrest in Egypt. (BOTW)

  46. Wambu, Onyekachi. "The Egyptian Awakening. (Cover Story)." New African 504 (2011): 14-17. Academic Search Premier. Web. 16 Feb. 2012.

  47. We are all Khaled Said  - English language website established after the death of a young Egyptian man in Alexandria at the hands of the police, and whose his picture has become a symbol of Egyptian struggle for rights and freedom; includes background, how to get involved, and a link to their Facebook page. (BOTW)
  48. Zakaria, Fareed. "THE REVOLUTION. (Cover Story)." Time 177.6 (2011): 26-34. Academic Search Premier. Web. 16 Feb. 2012.

Egyptian 2012 Election

  1. "BREAKING: Mursi, Shafiq officially in Egypt's presidential elections runoffs".,-Shafiq-officially-in-Egypts-presid.aspx

  2. "Mursi-Shafiq presidential showdown puts Egypt revolutionaries in pickle".

  3. "Muslim Brotherhood Candidate Trails in Race for Egypt's Presidency: UMD Poll".,c9262466

  4. "Muslim Brotherhood's Mursi declared Egypt president" (in English).

  5. "What Do Egyptians Want? Key Findings from the Egyptian Public Opinion Poll".

  6. "الانتخابات الرئاسية 2012 - الموقع الرسمي للجنة الانتخابات الرئاسية". Arabic).

  7. "النتيجة النهائية لانتخابات مصر( الجولة الأولى )" (in Arabic).

  8. Candidates in the 2012 Egyptian Presidential Election - The Cairo Review of Global Affairs

  9. Egypt Elections Watch - Jadaliyya

  10. Egypt Elects

  11. Egyptian Presidential Candidate Hamdeen Sabahi: From Outlier to Serious Contender

  12. Egyptian presidential election, 2012 coverage at the Guardian

  13. Egypt's presidential favourites: Where they stand, issue by issue

  14. El-Khawas, Mohamed (2012). "Egypt’s Unfinished Revolution". Mediterranean Quarterly 23 (1): 52–66. doi:10.1215/10474552-1540693

  15. Future Leaders of Egypt Bios on the Center for American Progress

  16. Guide to Egypt’s presidential elections 2012




  20. Martini, Jeff (April 19, 2012). "Cairo's Candidate Shuffle: Fewer Contenders, Same Policies". Foreign Affairs.

  21. Presidential finalists Mursi vs Shafiq: Where they stand, issue by issue
  22. Samaan, Magdy (May 9, 2012). "Vox Pop: Egyptians Prepare to Choose a President". Foreign Policy.

  23. The official website of Supreme Committee for Presidential Elections

Trial of Former President Hosni Mubarak

    1. "5th witness in Mubarak's trial changes testimony" (update 2), The Egyptian Gazette Online, September 7, 2011 03:42 pm. Retrieved 2012-01-05.

    2. "685 martyrs and more than 5 thousands injured in the events of the revolution ... Involvement of key figures, businessmen and police officers". 2010-09-07. Retrieved 2011-03-23. 

    3. "Abdul Nasser Al Jabri transfered under heavy guard for interrogation". Retrieved 2011-03-23. 

    4. "Al-Adli's Trial postponed to 2nd April and Al-Adli deny charges of profiteering and money laundering from inside the cage". Retrieved 2011-03-23. 

    5. "Al-Ahram Weekly | Egypt | How the mighty have fallen". 2011-02-02. Retrieved 2011-03-23. 
    6. "CPI 2010 table". Transparency International. Retrieved 26 October 2010. 

    7. "Death penalty sought for Egypt's Hosni Mubarak", Associated Press via CBS, January 5, 2012 11:21 am update. Retrieved 2012-01-05.

    8. "Egypt 25 January Revolution: What's next?". 2011-02-09. Retrieved 2011-03-23. 

    9. "Egyptian Government Wants Mubarak Family's Foreign Assets Frozen".'s%20Foreign%20Assets%20Frozen.htm. Retrieved 2011-03-23. 

    10. "Egypt's Mubarak Likely to Retain Vast Wealth". ABC News. Retrieved 5 February 2011. 

    11. "Fires within the state security headquarters (burning of documents and papers)! Simultaneous attacks on the headquarters are terrifying". Retrieved 2011-03-23. 

    12. "Imprisonment of four major heads of the Interior". 2010-09-07. Retrieved 2011-03-23. 
    13. "Lawyers did not attend it ... Cairo Criminal Endorses the decision of the Attorney General to hold the funds Mubarak and his family". Retrieved 2011-03-23. 

    14. "Mubarak banned from leaving Egypt, assets frozen". 2011-02-28. Retrieved 2011-03-23. 

    15. "Mubarak's lawyer: the judiciary will pass judgment condemning the former president to appease the people". Retrieved 2011-03-23. 

    16. "Obama optimistic about Egypt as negotiators make concessions". AHN. Retrieved 9 February 2011. 

    17. "Officers: Police fired on demonstrators because of the political leadership and Al-Adli's decision". Retrieved 2011-03-23. 

    18. "Revealing the hidden in State Security". Retrieved 2011-03-23. 

    19. "Riots Erupt in Cairo After Church is Burned". 2011-03-10. Retrieved 2011-03-23. 
    20. "The fall of the security of the state: The army receive the headquarters and discovered a secret grave rooms and a torture chamber electric". Retrieved 2011-03-23. 

    21. "إسماعيل الشاعر يمثل للتحقيق أمام أمن الدولة العليا في اتهامات قتل المتظاهرين | الدستور". 2011-03-10. Retrieved 2011-03-23. (in Arabic).

    22. "الأخبار - عربي - العادلي يمثل أمام القضاء المصري". 2011-03-05. Retrieved 2011-03-23. (in Arabic).

    23. "الجنايات تؤيد قرار النائب العام بالتحفظ على أموال مبارك وأسرته". 2011-03-08. Retrieved 2011-03-23. (in Arabic).

    24. "الشريف ينفي امتلاكه حسابات خاصة خارج مصر". 2011-03-06. Retrieved 2011-03-23. (in Arabic).
    25. "العادلي:قرار التعدي على المتظاهرين جاء من مبارك الذى طلب فض الاحتجاجات بأي طريقة | الدستور". 2011-03-18. Retrieved 2011-03-23.  (in Arabic).

    26. "تجديد حبس الفقي والشيخ 15 يوما". 2011-03-09. Retrieved 2011-03-23. (in Arabic).

    27. "تجديد حبس زهير جرانة 15 يوماً في قضايا التربيح والاستيلاء علي المال العام | الدستور". Retrieved 2011-03-23. (in Arabic).

    28. "جريدة البشاير | حبس 47 ضابط امن دولة حرقوا وثائق خطيرة |". Retrieved 2011-03-23. (in Arabic).

    29. "جريدة البشاير | حمودة يعتذر عن قضية مبارك ومرتضي يقبل |". Retrieved 2011-03-23. (in Arabic).
    30. "جون كيري: ثروة مبارك 31.5 مليار دولار بأمريكا وحدها". 2011-03-17. Retrieved 2011-03-23. (in Arabic).

    31. a b "بالفيديو والصور..أمن الدولة بمدينة نصر بعد اقتحامه والتحفظ على ما تبقى من مستندات داخله | الدستور". 2011-03-05. Retrieved 2011-03-23. (in Arabic).

    32. BBC Arabic: Interview with Sakina Fouad, General F Allam, and Mr Wael, a representative of the demonstrators, March 7, 2011

    33. David Batty (2011-02-12). "Egypt the day after Mubarak quits — live | World news |". London: Guardian. Retrieved 2011-03-23. 

    34. Egypt's ex-police chief appears before prosecutors

    35. Elaasar, Aladdin (28 January 2011). "Egyptians Rise Against Their Pharoah". Huffington Post. Retrieved 6 February 2011. 
    36. Hamad Al-Chalabi and Fatima Abu Shanab. ""The police" supports the prevention of Mubarak and his family from their money and "Court of appeal" postpone the disclosure of confidential accounts for today's meeting". Retrieved 2011-03-23. 

    37.إحالة-جرانة-والحاذق-وسجواني-للجنايات&catid=150:ثورة%20الغضب&Itemid=409 (in Arabic).

    38.الوزراء-عرضوا-رد-مانهبوه-والنيابة-رفضت&catid=98:محلية&Itemid=92 (in Arabic).

    39.ملف-مؤامرة-أمن-الدولة&catid=144:ملفات%20محلية&Itemid=337 (in Arabic).

    40. Inside Story. "How did Egypt become so corrupt? - Inside Story". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 9 February 2011. 

    41. Kirkpatrick, David D.; Stack, Liam (13 March 2011). "Prosecutors Order Mubarak and Sons Held". The New York Times. Retrieved 13 April 2011. 
    42. Mahmoud Muslim. "Mostafa Al Fiqi: a big personality in the presidency confirmed that "Mubarak" will not run and his son would be the alternative". Retrieved 2011-03-23. 

    43. Mark Gregory (2011-04-13). "BBC News — Egypt: Mubarak and sons detained amid corruption probe". Retrieved 2011-04-14. 

    44. Mohammed El-Sayyid Saleh. ""Almasry Alyoum" get important information from the report of the "fact-finding" Committee about the lawlessness". Retrieved 2011-03-23. 

    45. Phillip Inman (2011-02-04). "Mubarak family fortune could reach $70bn, say experts | World news |". London: Guardian. Retrieved 2011-03-23. 

Libya Revolution

  1. TED Talks regarding current situation in Libya: (Video)

  2. ABC News: How Many Different Ways Can You Spell 'Gaddafi'? - A list of 112 different spellings due to the difficulty of translating Arabic to English. (September 22, 2009)

  3. Amnesty International - Libya - Ongoing collection of news and reports on the status of human rights.

  4. Amnesty International USA - Libya - News, reports and success stories for the country including AI Annual Report entries for the past ten years.

  5. BBC News - Colonel Gaddafi's Libya - Middle East analyst Gerald Butt looks at the life of Colonel Gaddafi and his impact on Libya. (May 15, 2006)

  6. BBC News - Profile: The Libyan Maverick - Profile of Libyan leader Colonel Muammar Gaddafi. (December 04, 1998)

  7. British Council - Libya - Registered UK charity for education, culture and development services provides news and information about its facilities and programs in the country.

  8. Christian Science Monitor - Col. Qaddafi Seeks to Lead New Club: Africa - Scott Peterson's analysis of Qaddafi moving Libya's political sphere from the Middle East to Africa. (September 10, 1999)

  9. Directory of Development Organizations - Libya - Comprehensive directory of international organizations, governments, private sector development agencies, civil society, universities, grantmakers, banks, microfinance institutions and development consulting firms. Includes contact information. [PDF]

  10. Eldis - Country and Region Profiles: Libya - Database of online development policy, practice and research documents, searchable by sector or keywords. Includes index to British Library of Development Studies printed material.

  11. Encyclopaedia of the Orient - Mu'ammar Gadhafi - Biography includes a timeline.

  12. Human Rights Watch - Libya - Reports, background briefings, testimony, press releases and commentary on the human rights situation in the country.

  13. Libyan Television Network - Qadhafi Interview on Arab TV - Translated transcript of Hamdi Qandil's interview with Libyan Leader al-Qadhafi in the Sirte Conference Center, followed by a telephone question and answer session. (August 27, 1997)
  14. Muammar Al Qadhafi - Information about his inspiration, vision and revolutionary life, prepared by the Revolutionary Committee Movement in Australia.

  15. Muammar Gaddafi collected news and commentary at Al Jazeera English (web database with hundreds of articles)

  16. Muammar Gaddafi collected news and commentary at The Guardian (web database with hundreds of articles)

  17. Muammar Gaddafi collected news and commentary at The New York Times (web database with hundreds of articles)

  18. OneWorld US - Libya - Provides news, opinion, events and campaigns on human rights and sustainable development issues.

  19. Paperless Archives - Qaddafi Rise to Power in Libya - The Libyan Revolution as seen through downloadable documents from the CIA, State Department, National Security Council and presidential papers, compiled by BACM Research. Includes samples.

  20. The Muammar Gaddafi story at BBC Online (web database with hundreds of articles)

  21. U.S. Policy Towards Qaddafi from the Dean Peter Krogh Foreign Affairs Digital Archives (web database with hundreds of articles)

  22. UN OCHA ReliefWeb - Libya - Provides latest updates on emergencies, sector reports, appeals and financial tracking along with background information and employment vacancies.

  23. UNDP in Libya - Official United Nations Development Programme site for Libya provides news, speeches, statements and publications along with information about its activities, progress, Millennium Development Goals, partnerships and staff. Focused on poverty, health, governance, environment, natural resources, and information and communications technology.
  24. US State Department - Human Rights Report: Libya - 2008 report on the current status of human rights practices including human freedoms, civil liberties, political rights, international investigations, discrimination, worker rights, child labor and working conditions.

  25. USCRI - Country Report: Libya - Archives of annual reports about refugees, asylum seekers and displaced persons in Mauritania, provided by the US Committee for Refugees and Immigrants (USCRI).

  26. World Friendship Tour NOI - Col. Muammar Qadhafi Speaks to the American People - Transcript of The Honorable Minister Louis Farrakhan's interview with Col. Qadhafi during a stop on his World Friendship Tour. (October 01, 1997)

  27. - Interview: Libyan Leader Muammar al-Qaddafi - Charles Lambroschini, a journalist with the conservative Parisian daily Le Figaro, interviews Libyan leader Muammar al-Qaddafi about the Iraq crisis and its possible aftermath. (March 11, 2003)

  28. Libya Out of the Shadows (PBS Frontline documentary):

  29. Libya BBC Panorama Documentary:

  30. Arab Awakening: Libya Through the Fire:

Syrian Civil War

  1. "Probe reveals Syria’s Assad behind Lebanon terrorism plot". Al Arabiya. Ya Libnan. August 28, 2012. Retrieved August 29, 2012. 

  2. "Syrian car bomb attack kills 17". BBC News. 2008-09-27. Retrieved 2008-09-27. 

  3. "Terrorism: The Syrian Connection", by Daniel Pipes

  4. "UNICEF says 400 children killed in Syria unrest". Google News. Agence France-Presse (Geneva). 7 February 2012. Retrieved 22 February 2012. 

  5. "UNICEF says 400 children killed in Syria". The Courier-Mail. 8 February 2012. Retrieved 16 February 2012. 

  6. Assad pledges to work with Iraq in anti-terrorism fight Gulf Times

  7. Damascus Bus Bomb: 'Up To 12' Killed In Syria Explosion, Albert Aji, 3 December 2009.

  8. Director-General condemns assassination of Lebanese newspaper editor Gebran Tueni: UNESCO-CI

  9. Foreign Correspondent - 08/08/2006: Beirut - May Chidiac

  10. Hussein Dakroub (13 August 2012). "Military launches Samaha probe". The Daily Star. Retrieved 14 August 2012. 

  11. Militant video claims deadly Syria bombings By BEN HUBBARD | Associated Press |12 May 2012
  12. Peralta, Eyder (3 February 2012). "Rights Group Says Syrian Security Forces Detained, Tortured Children: The Two-Way". NPR. Retrieved 16 February 2012. 

  13. Syria and International Terrorism blog site called cedarland. Seems to have a lot about Lebanon on the site

  14. Syria and Terrorism United States Department of State

  15. Syria claims it has retaken key rebel village|| 13 June 2012

  16. Syrian Forces Are Said to Expand Deadly ‘Hit and Run’ Efforts in Damascus| By DAMIEN CAVE| 22 August 2012

  17. Syrian terrorist incidents

  18. Syria's Links to Terrorism Compiled for the Online NewsHour by David Butterworth for PBS Posted: March 9, 2005.

  19. The Daily Star - Politics - Journalists and politicians pay tribute to legacy of Riad Taha

  20. Turkey accuses Syria of 'state terrorism' By ELIZABETH A. KENNEDY, Associated Press| 5 September 2012

  21. U.S. State Sponsors of Terrorism List (5B)

  22. UNICEF: 500 children died in Syrian war -

  23. Who Killed Samir Kassir? By Robert Fisk

  24. World Report 2012: Syria

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