The Decline of the Independent Inventor: a schumpeterian Story? by



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1820 to 1839
patents (%) 69.5 9.6 7.1 1.5 12.3 908

1840 to 1859


patents (%) 56.5 5.6 11.3 11.8 14.8 1351

1860 to 1885


patents (%) 35.3 3.5 14.3 27.0 19.9 921
___________________

All Cohorts


patents (%) 54.1 6.1 11.0 13.3 15.6 3180


Notes and Sources: See Table 5.

Table 11


Changes in the Distribution of Patents in the “B” Sample by Type of
Assignment at Issue and Stage of Patentee’s Career





Stage of Career



5 Years Since First Patent



> 5 Years and ≤ 15 Years Since First Patent

> 15 Years Since First Patent



Type of Assignment at Issue

(Col. %)

(Col. %)

(Col. %)

Not Assigned








1870-71 subsample

81.9

75.3

68.9

1890-91 subsample

62.0

52.7

36.6

1910-11 subsample

45.6

50.3

29.7

Assigned Share to Individual










1870-71 subsample

6.2

6.7

3.6

1890-91 subsample

4.0

5.4

3.0

1910-11 subsample


6.9

4.0

0.8

Assigned in Full to Individual










1870-71 subsample

4.1

11.4

10.8

1890-91 subsample

12.1

11.1

8.0

1910-11 subsample

7.2

3.1

1.8

Assigned to Company with Same Name










1870-71 subsample

0.4

0.0

4.8


1890-91 subsample

2.2

4.2

8.4

1910-11 subsample

1.3

17.1

32.6

Assigned to Large Integrated Company










1870-71 subsample

0.0

0.0

0.0

1890-91 subsample

7.1

6.3

12.9

1910-11 subsample

12.1

7.3

17.8

Assigned to Other Local Company








1870-71 subsample

6.6

3.1

7.6

1890-91 subsample

8.4

15.1

18.6

1910-11 subsample

17.1

11.7

3.8

Assigned to Other Company










1870-71 subsample

0.8

3.5

4.4

1890-91 subsample

4.3

5.4

12.6

1910-11 subsample

9.8

6.5


5.9













Number of Patents (n)










1870-71 subsample

243

255

251

1890-91 subsample

323

651

1086

1910-11 subsample

305

479

1076


Notes and Sources: See Tables 2 and 3. Only patents awarded to patentees with ten or more career patents are included in this table.

Table 12


Changes in the Distribution of Great-Inventor Patents by Type of
Assignment at Issue and Educational Background




Educational Background




Primary or Secondary Education


College in Non-Scientific Subject



College in Engineering, Natural Science, or Medicine

Type of Assignment at Issue

(Col. %)

(Col. %)

(Col. %)

Not Assigned










1820-1839 Birth Cohort

64.9

82.0

82.9

1840-1859 Birth Cohort

49.9

63.1

64.9

1860-1885 Birth Cohort

49.1

44.0

24.5

Assigned to Individual









1820-1839 Birth Cohort

11.2

3.1

7.2

1840-1859 Birth Cohort

5.8

8.6

2.9

1860-1885 Birth Cohort

4.7

7.9

0.9

Assigned to Company with Same Name










1820-1839 Birth Cohort

8.4

3.9

2.7

1840-1859 Birth Cohort

11.5

1.4

19.0

1860-1885 Birth Cohort


3.5

25.0

14.8

Assigned to Large Integrated Company










1820-1839 Birth Cohort

1.8

0.8

0.9

1840-1859 Birth Cohort

15.3

11.1

4.9

1860-1885 Birth Cohort

11.2

12.5

41.4

Assigned to Other Company










1820-1839 Birth Cohort

13.8

10.2

6.3

1840-1859 Birth Cohort


17.5

15.8

8.3

1860-1885 Birth Cohort

31.5

10.7

18.4













Number of Patents (n)










1820-1839 Birth Cohort

669

128

111

1840-1859 Birth Cohort

724

279

348

1860-1885 Birth Cohort

232

216

473

Notes and Sources: See Figure 2 and Table 5.

Table 13
Changes in the Distribution of Great-Inventor Patents by
Type of Assignment at Issue and Region






Region




New England

Middle Atlantic

East North Central

Type of Assignment at Issue

(Col. %)

(Col. %)

(Col. %)

Not Assigned










1820-1839 Birth Cohort

58.8

76.8

81.2

1840-1859 Birth Cohort

47.7

60.9

52.4

1860-1885 Birth Cohort

35.1

33.6

32.2


Assigned to Individual










1820-1839 Birth Cohort

9.0

12.9

2.0

1840-1859 Birth Cohort

2.4

7.6

6.1

1860-1885 Birth Cohort

5.2

2.8

2.5

Assigned to Company with Same Name










1820-1839 Birth Cohort

11.6

4.5

2.0

1840-1859 Birth Cohort

19.2

5.4

17.9


1860-1885 Birth Cohort

6.0

13.3

25.6

Assigned to Large Integrated Company










1820-1839 Birth Cohort

2.4

0.5

3.0

1840-1859 Birth Cohort

25.8

9.1

7.0

1860-1885 Birth Cohort

22.4

30.5

26.5

Assigned to Other Company










1820-1839 Birth Cohort

18.2

5.3


11.9

1840-1859 Birth Cohort

4.9

17.0

16.6

1860-1885 Birth Cohort

31.3

19.9

13.2













Number of Patents (n)










1820-1839 Birth Cohort

379

379

101

1840-1859 Birth Cohort

287

647

313

1860-1885 Birth Cohort

134

604

121


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